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TRANSACTIONS 



OP THE 



JasM|Mfe PortWtaral Sbtieij, 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



PART I. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1898. 



fe^-SEE LAST PAGE OF COVER. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assatjw&etts PflrfMiral Jlattetg, 



FOE THE YEAR 1897. 



PART I. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED TOE THE SOCIETY 

1898. 



The following papers have been circulated to some extent in 
~the form of slips reprinted from the reports made by the 
Secretary of the Society in the " Boston Transcript." As here 
presented, the papers are printed in full, and the discussions, 
where it appeared necessary, have been carefully revised by 
the speakers. 

The Committee on Lectures and Publication take this oppor- 
tunity to repeat what they have before stated, that the Society 
is not to be held responsible for the certainty of the statements, 
the correctness of the opinions, or the accuracy of the nomen- 
clature, in the papers and discussions now or heretofore pub- 
lished, all of which must rest on the credit or judgment of the 
respective writers or speakers, the Society undertaking only to 
present these papers and discussions, or the substance of them, 
correctly. 

J. D. W. French, ^ Committee on 
B. M. Watson, > Lectures and 
N". T. Kidder, J Publication. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



assatfyus^tts linrtimlteal jJntietj). 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 2, 1897. 
A stated meeting of the Society was holden today at eleven 
o'clock, the President in the chair. 

This being the commencement of the term of office of the new 
board of officers and Standing Committees, the President, Eran- 
ois H. Appleton, delivered the usual annual address, as follows : 

Address of President Appleton. 

Fellow-members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society : 

We find ourselves in the same location and within the same 
building at the commencement of a new year, during which I 
shall continue, through your votes, to have the honor and respon- 
sibility of presiding for a second term, and of endeavoring to do 
my part, under our constitution, to perform the duties of the 
office. 

One year ago today I said to you, in part, that its founders 
•did not suppose " that this Society would exist to see the day 
when it had outgrown the arrangements which were made for it 
by their successors, upon this site, only thirty (now thirty-one) 
years ago." I now repeat that statement, as applicable today as 
then. * 

Your chosen officials have had this subject under consideration 
during the past year, and are still unable to present any recom- 
mendation, with a view to improving our home, for your favor- 
able consideration. In this I believe your Committee to be 
unanimous. 



(3 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In the city of Philadelphia there has been dedicated and opened,, 
during the past year, a new fire-proof building for the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society, designed to promote the work in 
which we, of this Massachusetts Society, are all interested. 

The land upon which the Pennsylvania Society has built was 
owned by William L. Shaffer, thirty-four years a member and 
seventeen years president, who, at his death in August, 1884, 
left his entire estate to his sister, who, in May, 1887, by deed of 
trust, placed the land and a building which had previously been 
used by the Horticultural Society in the hands of trustees and 
their successors, to hold forever for the benefit of the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society. In May, 1893, the hall was a 
second time destroyed by fire. 

In the autumn of 1894, on approval of the Society, it was 
leased for thirty years by the said trustees to five gentlemen, 
who, as trustees for the bondholders, secured an issue of income 
bonds, bearing interest at three per cent, $200,000, with which, 
together with $25,000 insurance money, the new building has 
been built. 

The uses to which that new building can be put seem to me to 
be uses for which a horticultural building can well be erected in 
this growing city of Boston, and meet a long-felt want ; which, 
at the same time, would be of a plan best calculated to advance 
and promote the direct objects for which this Society was incor- 
porated, i.e., " for encouraging and improving the science and 
practice of horticulture." 

In considering the future of our Society, it seems to me advis- 
able to give prominence to our own needs by stating how similar 
needs have been met by our allies in Pennsylvania. 

The Horticultural Building at Philadelphia is located centrally 
upon a lot of land two hundred by ninety feet, so situated that it is 
easy of access by carriage or street car. Some of its entrances are 
under cover, and all are well planned. Its offices, reception and 
ante-rooms are commodious, and will accommodate at least one 
thousand people. These, with a lecture hall and grand staircase 
hall, are on the first story. From the grand staircase one enters 
the large hall, seventy by one hundred feet, which has a vaulted 
ceiling at a height of thirty-five feet. This latter room will seat 
eleven hundred persons for concerts and lectures, and five hun~ 
dred for banquets, and is admirably suited for large assemblies. 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT APPLETON. 7 

All these uses promote a market for horticultural products, 
and encourage advanced taste of both, palate and mind, which 
helps to promote the Society's chartered object. 

The halls are well lighted from outside by day and by electricity 
at night, and are well ventilated. I have said that the building 
is rated as fire-proof. 

At the west end of the large hall is a platform, below which, 
and upon a level higher than that of the first floor, are six small 
rooms. In the front part, and on the same level with the large 
hall, is a suite of rooms consisting of a small hall and two supper 
rooms, where suppers can be served when entertainments are in 
progress in the large hall, or all can be used in connection with 
the large hall. Serving-rooms are in the front part of this floor 
under a convenient balcony, which, by elevators, connect all of 
this floor with the kitchens, pantries, and china closets on the 
third floor. 

While all that is thus described can add to the income and 
promote horticultural aims, the opening into one extensive prom- 
enade of all the, space on the second floor, by a system of sliding 
partitions or folding doors, makes a superb opportunity to display 
plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, etc., in a most complete way. 

An elevator, the floor of which can form a section of the floor 
of the large hall, delivers plants of any reasonable height, and 
all other exhibits, conveniently. Rubber-tired cars can be used to 
bear them to any part of the first or second stories. 

A basement that i,s largely above ground affords ample accom- 
modation for floral and other horticultural business, and also 
for the Society's storage, dynamos, boilers, etc. 

The Pennsylvania Society's Library appeared to be smaller than 
ours, but a new building, whether on this site or some other, or 
our present building remodelled, can always be planned to meet 
the needs in this direction. 

Whatever may be done in the future to improve our home 
facilities, may we be able to secure as useful a home for our 
chartered purpose as has the society to which I have been calling 
your attention secured to promote Pennsylvania horticultural 
interests. 

Are we now, by the liberal expenditure for prizes, advancing 
the science and business of horticulture as much as in our power? 
is a subject that we should all take into serious consideration. 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

To carry on our work we must have income, and the larger 
our income the greater must be our success on the lines for 
which we are incorporated; and, provided we apply it most 
wisely and conservatively, it will continue to us in increasing 

quantity. 

It would not, in my opinion, be lessening our benevolent work, 
but rather increasing it, to charge a reasonable fee to non-mem- 
bers visiting our exhibitions, subject to a judicious issue of the 
usual complimentary passes. 

Our Society should be benevolent to the public by allowing the 
non-members to contribute toward the good that the Society aims 
to do for the public and horticulture in general. 

If our exhibitions are to increase in horticultural profit to those 
who view them, and the prizes are to continue in their present 
or increased liberality to those who win them, the non-member 
beneficiaries can, and in reason will, be ready to contribute 
toward the success and perpetuation of our work. 

Our Library is valuable, and appeals to lovers of horticulture 
to make greater use of the books upon its shelves. Consider- 
able work is done and money spent, annually, to keep it in an 
advanced condition, and we hope that all possible good to the 
State shall come from its being well used. To make its value 
known is one way to increase its usefulness. 

The lectures given during the past season by the Society were 
generally of much value, and their usefulness was promoted as 
much as was possible by the help from lantern-slide pictures. 

AVe were fortunate in having with us, as lecturers during the 
season of 1897, officers of the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, and professors from universities and colleges, as 
well as men of practical experience, and we can congratulate the 
Committee and ourselves upon the result. 

The small attendance at our adjourned meetings would seem 
to indicate either a decreasing interest in our work, or that our 
members believed that our business meetings were too frequent. 
J have been led to examine our constitution to see by what 
authority our monthly business meetings are held. I find only 
four stated meetings required by our constitution, i.e., the first 
Saturdays in January, April, July, and October, with provision 
for calling other meetings when deemed necessary. 

The Executive Committee are to meet monthly, and to report 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT APPLETON. 9 

-on the first Saturday of each month, with the names of such per- 
sons as they recommend for election. Judging by the present 
custom in clubs and associations, it is a fair interpretation of this 
last provision that such names are to be either kept on file, or 
posted in the building by the Secretary until the next stated 
meeting, when they shall be voted upon by the Society. 

I believe that it may increase the interest in the Society to 
follow the plan which is thus suggested by our constitution, 
rather than to adjourn our stated meetings with very little occa- 
sion, as has been simply a custom. I believe this will be return- 
ing to a former custom. 

During the past year the Society has lost by death 33 life 
members, and gained 24 ; and has lost by death 13 annual mem- 
bers, and by commutation to life membership 1 ; while 5 annual 
members have resigned, making a loss of 19 annual members, 
with a gain of 18. 

The use of the library appears to have decreased, and I sug- 
gest that if the Committee on the Library shall make a rule lim- 
iting the time during which books can be kept from the library 
room, such a rule might help develop the usefulness of the 
library. The value of the library should become better known to 
the students of horticulture, and it is hoped that such may result. 

I commend to your careful consideration the several reports of 
your Standing Committees, from which you will gain information 
as to those departments, and learn of the suggestions therein made 
for the good of the Society. 

Those reports will be printed in the Transactions, which I hope 
will be issued soon, in order that their usefulness to you may 
thus be the greater. With the intelligence that can be found 
in our printing offices today, those can be found who will assume 
the responsibility of technical work, and thus expedite to our 
benefit in this case, for example, what might otherwise cause 
much delay under old-fashioned methods. 

The interest in the mushroom, a most nourishing food when 
the edible species are known to the gardener, has grown largely 
within the past few years, and a more general knowledge among 
our people of what are the edible species, and what are their 
characteristics, is desirable. 

I have asked Mr. Hollis Webster, an expert, to give me a few 
points to incorporate into my address, but as he has so well 



10 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



expressed the views of the mushroom lover in a letter to me, I 
shall present it as being what I would call to your attention. 

Hoping that this new year may bring profit and happiness in- 
all due quantity to our members, and expressing my appreciation 
of the honor of again serving you in this chair, we will now 
continue the usual order of business. 

The. appropriations previously recommended by the Executive 
Committee for the year 1897 came up for final action, and were 
unanimously voted, as follows : 

For Prizes and Gratuities : 

For Plants $2,000 



For Flowers 
For Fruits 
For Vegetables . 
For Gardens 



2,600 

1,800 

1,200 

500 



Total for Prizes and Gratuities for the year 1897, $ 8,100 
These amounts are the same as last year, except that for Vege- 
tables, to which $50 is added. 

The following appropriations were also recommended, all being 

the same as last year : 

For the Committee on Lectures and Publication, this 
sum to include the income of $50 from the John 
Lewis Eussell Fund ....... $300 

For the Committee of Arrangements, this sum to cover 

all extraordinary expenses of said Committee . . 400 

For the Library Committee for the purchase of maga- 
zines and newspapers, binding of books, and inci- 
dental expenses of said Committee .... 400 

For the Committee on School Gardens and Children's 
Herbariums, this sum to cover all incidental expenses 
of said Committee, and to be paid through the usual 
channels 250 

The Executive Committee further recommended that the sum 
of $38 be transferred to the Flower Committee from the unex- 
pended balance of the appropriation for the Fruit Committee, to 
cover the deficit in the awards made by the Flower Committee in 
L896 3 the same not to establish a precedent. 

The Executive Committee also reported that they had procured 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE REPORTS. 11 

an act in addition to the act incorporating the Society, empow- 
ering it to hold real and personal estate to an amount not exceed- 
ing one million dollars. 

The Executive Committee reported the appointment of Charles 
E. Richardson as Treasurer and Superintendent of the Building, 
and recommended to the Society to appropriate $1,500 for his 
salary. The Committee also reported the appointment of Robert 
Manning as Secretary and Librarian, and recommended the 
appropriation of $ 1,500 for his salary. 

These reports were unanimously accepted, and the recommen- 
dations therein adopted, and the appropriations recommended 
were voted. 

John G. Barker, Chairman of a Committee to prepare a memo- 
rial of the late Samuel G. Damon, reported as follows : 

The Committee appointed to prepare a memorial of our late 
associate, Mr. Samuel G. Damon, respectfully report that they 
have attended to their duty, and present the following preamble 
and resolutions : 

Whereas, It has pleased our Heavenly Father in his wise prov- 
idence to remove from our number Mr. Samuel G. Damon, we de- 
sire to place on record our appreciation of his worth and labors. 

Mr. Damon had been a member of this Society for thirty years, 
and during that time was a constant contributor to the exhibi- 
tions. Fruit was his specialty, and he excelled as a cultivator of 
hardy grapes and pears, and carried oft' many first prizes as 
evidence of his skill in this department of horticulture. 

In all the walks of life he was an upright and honorable man, 
and a perfect gentleman, and while we miss his presence among : 
us his memory and influence still live. Therefore be it 

Resolved, That we deeply mourn the loss of this most worthy 
member, and sympathize with his family in the still greater loss 
they have sustained. 

Resolved, That this preamble and resolutions be spread upon 
the records, and that a copy be sent to the family of the deceased. 

John G. Barker, " 
E. W. Wood, [ Committee, 

C. F. Curtis, 

The memorial was unanimously adopted. 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

E. W. Wood was granted further time to prepare his report as 
Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. 

On motion of Ex-President William C. Strong, a vote of thanks 
to the President for his annual address was unanimously passed, 
the question being put by the Secretary. The President ex- 
pressed his pleasure at the appreciation by the Society of his 
efforts to serve it. 

E. W. Wood, Chairman of the Committee on Emits, read docu- 
ments looking to legislation for the prevention of the disease of 
the peach known as " yellows." A motion that the Society take 
part in the effort to secure such legislation was -negatived, after 
discussion by several members. 

The President read a letter from the Executive Comm ittee of 
the Boston Mycological Club, thanking the Society for the hospi- 
tality extended to the Club, and expressing their high apprecia- 
tion of its value ; without it they would hardly have been so 
successful as they were in extending so widely the knowledge of 
this branch of the Society's work. 

John Mutch, of Brookline, and 
Henry S. Adams, of Dorchester, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee for 
membership in the Society, were on ballot duly elected. 

The President announced that the first of the series of weekly 
lectures for the present season would be given on the next Satur- 
day, by Professor George L. Goodale, of Harvard University ; 
subject, " Tropical Horticulture," with stereopticon illustrations 
of the principal Economic Plants of Hot Climates, and that the 
lectures would be free to all. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



MEETING FOR LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, January 9, 1897. 
A m.rt in- foT Lecture and Discussion was holden at eleven 
o'clock today, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. The lecture was on 



TROPICAL HORTICULTURE. 13* 



Tropical Horticulture, with Illustrations of the Prin- 
cipal Economic Plants of Hot Climates. 

By George Lincoln Goodale, Professor of Botany in Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Tropical horticulture is likely to attract more and more atten- 
tion at the hands of our younger and more enterprising students 
of the subject of botany as increased facilities are afforded for 
gaining an acquaintance with the capabilities of the tropics. 
And with this increase of opportunity there will probably come 
increased interest on the part of investors and business men in 
different lines of commerce depending on the products of trop- 
ical agriculture and horticulture. As some now present are 
aware, considerable increase of interest in this matter has 
already been manifested in this vicinity, and already a good 
amount of capital has gone forward in lucrative undertakings of 
this nature. 

Therefore it will not be out of place in a meeting in this hall, 
devoted to the advancement of horticulture in general, to pre- 
sent some of the phases of this subject and call attention to 
some of the requisite -cautions which possibly may be forgotten. 
It must be remembered that the subject should be most care- 
fully examined by all those who intend to engage in tropical pur- 
suits, and the numerous works of a practical character on the 
subject leave little excuse for such persons to be ignorant in 
regard to conditions which will confront them in the tropics. 
Referring, then, all inquirers who have in mind undertaking trop- 
ical horticulture to the treatises of a practical character, many 
of which can be seen in the excellent library of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, I shall pass at once to a brief consid- 
eration of a few salient points of some general interest, and 
illustrate the subject by numerous photographs of tropical vege- 
tation. 

Our cursory survey will be confined to the moist tropics, and 
will not touch the interesting matter of the deserts, reclaimable 
and irreclaimable. The tropical climate which we are to look at 
is best exemplified in the equatorial belt. The climatic condi- 
tions of this zone have been most graphically described by Belt, 
Bates, Charles Kingsley, and Alfred Russell Wallace, whose works 
are absorbingly interesting from every point of view. 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

From the works of one of these authors I shall cite a descrip- 
tion of a tropical day. And as you examine the peculiarities of 
an equatorial day, you will remember that near the Tropic of 
Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn the climate is by no means as 
equable as that near the Equator. Wide ranges in temperature 
and rain may come in with the changing seasons, and annual 
vegetation may go down even to the verge of extinction, as is 
now the deplorable case in parts of the south and middle of 
India, Bearing this in mind, we may consider the equatorial 
day. I quote from Mr. Bates, the naturalist in Nicaragua. He 
begins with the morning, in which there is no twilight. Day is 
not ushered in by dawn as with us. 

" At that early period of the day [the first two hours after sun- 
rise] the sky was invariably cloudless, the thermometer marking 
seventy-two degrees or seventy-three degrees Fahrenheit; the 
heavy dew of the previous night's rain, which lay on the moist 
foliage, becoming quickly dissipated by the glowing sun, which, 
rising straight out of the east, mounted rapidly toward the zenith. 
All nature was fresh, new leaf and flower-buds expanding rapidly. 
. . . The heat increased hourly, and towards two o'clock 
reached ninety-two degrees to ninety-three degrees Fahrenheit, 
by which time every voice of bird and mammal was hushed. 
The leaves, which were so moist and fresh in early morning, now 
became lax and drooping, and flowers shed their petals. On 
most days in June and July a heavy shower would fall some- 
time in the afternoon, producing a most welcome coolness. The 
approach of the rain-clouds was after a uniform fashion very 
interesting to observe. First, the cool sea-breeze which had 
commenced to blow about ten o'clock, and which had increased 
in force with the increasing power of the sun, would flag and 
finally die away. The heat and electric tension of the atmos- 
phere would then become almost insupportable. Languor and 
uneasiness would seize on everyone, even the denizens of the 
forest betraying it by their motions. White clouds would 
appear in the east and gather into cumuli, with an increasing 
1'lackness along their lower portions. The whole eastern hori- 
zon would become almost suddenly black, and this would spread 
upwards, Mm; sun at length becoming obscured. Then the rush 
oi a mighty wind is heard through the forest, swaying the tree- 
tops; a vivid flash of lightning bursts forth, then a crash of 



TROPICAL HORTICULTURE. 15 

thunder, and down streams the deluging rain. Such storms 
soon cease, leaving bluish-black, motionless clouds in the sky 
until night, Meantime all nature is refreshed ; but heaps of 
flower-petals and fallen leaves are seen under the trees. Tow- 
ards evening life revives again, and the ringing uproar is 
resumed from bush and tree. The following morning the sun 
again rises in a cloudless sky ; and so the cycle is completed ; 
"spring, summer, and autumn, as it were, in one tropical day. 
The days are more or less like this throughout the year. A little 
difference exists between the dry and wet seasons ; but generally 
the dry season, which lasts from July to December, is varied 
with showers, and the wet, from January to June, with sunny 
days. It results from this, that the periodical phenomena of 
plants and animals do not take place at about the same time in 
all species, or in the individuals of any given species, as they do 
in temperate countries." 

It is under conditions like these that the tropical cultivator has 
to live and carry on his work. The enervating influence of the 
climate upon a resident of the cooler zones is very marked, but 
with proper precautions as to living according to the stern rules 
of hygiene, life can be made very safe. 

[At this point Professor Goodale introduced on the screen many 
stereopticon views of the dominant vegetation of the tropical 
climates, both north and south of the equator. The description 
of these views obviously cannot be given in this report. 

The lecturer then proceeded to the consideration of some of 
the more important food plants of the tropics and sub-tropics, and 
their cultivation.] 

Tropical cultivation of food plants is interesting from the eth- 
nological standpoint. In warm climates where men can easily 
procure enough food to sustain life there is little incentive to 
exertion. If a small group of cocoanut palms and a few banana 
plants yield all the food one wants, why should any pains betaken, 
for instance, to raise rice ? However, the natives of hot, moist 
climates do attend to the cultivation of a few food plants, one of 
the reasons being that they wish to vary the monotony of diet. 

Many tropical products reach the markets of the world di- 
rectly from the wild plants, but many of these plants are com- 
ing more and more under cultivation. The cultivation is, as can 
easily be understood, largely under the stimulating influence of 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

foreigners in these hot climates. Their enterprise, such as it 
is, lies at the basis of nearly all such cultivation of tropical 
crops. 

Among the more commonly cultivated tropical products are 
spices, a few palms, textile plants, sugar-cane, certain varieties 
of tobacco, a few coloring matters, and many food plants. A few 
of these plants are now to be reviewed, and we may begin with 
the food plants. 

Rice. — As raised in Ceylon, the land in which rice is to 
be planted is laid out so as to be saturated with water as re- 
quired. The soil, being covered with a few inches of water, is 
stirred up by implements, or by driving bullocks hither and 
thither over it. In this loosened soil the seeds are placed and the 
quickly grown plants, with their tender green shoots, soon give 
the field a beautiful appearance. By and by the nodding heads 
show that the grain is growing heavy, but the vigilance of the 
cultivator does not relax. The ground is frequently saturated 
and search is made for the enemies of the plant. When the 
harvest comes the laborers secure the crop mostly by hand, as 
the grains are so easily detached that great care must be taken to 
grasp each cluster firmly before it is cut off. The rice is then 
husked and the dark brown grains become the beautiful white 
ones we know so well. In the Botanical Museum at Cambridge 
these processes are illustrated by photographs and the products 
are shown in all stages. Near by is another collection which at 
this time possesses great pathos — that of the famine-grains of 
India. Only the well-to-do can use rice, and cheaper grains are 
the food of the poor. But this year these have failed and a ter- 
rible famine is approaching parts of middle India, and before 
many months have gone, thousands will have died of starvation. 
The reason for this is that these people live just north of the 
equable equatorial belt, where the climatic conditions are unfa- 
vorable. 

Coffae. — The coffee of commerce is raised within the tropics. 
Given by Arabia to the Malayan Archipelago and to parts of 
Cndia and Ceylon, it has generally flourished. In Ceylon, how- 
ever, it has had an almost fatal check from a destructive fungus 
; nid an equally destructive insect. The coffee plant at a distance 
Bometimes resembles one of our Viburnums, but often takes the 
shape of a tree. Approaching, one sees the glossy dark-green 



TROPICAL HORTICULTURE. 17 

leaves, white flowers, and forming fruit. The trees, which are 
placed far enough apart to give room for gathering the ripe ber- 
ries, require little care beyond keeping the ground clear at their 
base and removing any scale or other insects. When ripe the 
berries are gathered and " pulped." The seeds are generally 
two, with flat faces which come together. Sometimes only one 
seed ripens, and becomes round. It is then called " pea-berry " 
or "male-berry." These seeds are next separated from a parch- 
ment-like membrane which clings to the interior cleft, and after 
drying are ready for shipment. 

Tea. — The different varieties of the tea plant are probably 
all referable to two species of Camellia. In hot climates like 
•Ceylon it is possible to get an excellent product at less risk of 
injury, and cheaper, as to mere raising, than in China or Japan. 
But it is subsequent treatment which largely controls the price. 
The plants must be good, to start with, and must have good soil. 
When ready for the first picking the laborers snip off with 
thumb and finger the tips of the branches. When the bush is 
thus stripped it is ready to have the axillary buds start out and 
give new growths of fresh tips, and so on, a new picking being 
possible as often as the shoot is ready. The picked tips are 
brought to the factory and dried, and prepared to constitute green 
tea. Nowadays it is more common to let the leaves wilt a little, 
and undergo a process of change which is improperly but very 
generally called "fermentation," by which they become much 
blackened. They are then rolled by ingenious machinery and 
carefully dried. This is a very brief account of the usual process 
now adopted in Ceylon and parts of India for the preparation of 
certain forms of black tea. In Ceylon and India it is possible to 
have a good many " flushes " of fresh shoots and tender leaves 
during the year, whereas in more northern regions the number of 
pickings is much less. Obviously the most costly \factor in the 
production of tea is the labor in picking it. This renders it 
practically impossible to cultivate tea profitably under existing 
labor conditions in our own South. 

At the present time tea is seldom adulterated. The very cheap 
teas in the market are chiefly those which have been injured by 
keeping, or have suffered in some way during manufacture or 
transportation. Besides them, there are good cheap teas which 
.are simply from coarser leaves. 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

Cacao. — Chocolate plants, as we shall now for convenience- 
denominate the Cacao trees from which chocolate is prepared,, 
were originally carried from America to the Old World. They 
are now cultivated in many parts of the eastern tropical belt,, 
as well as in Central and South America and the West Indian 
Islands. The plant demands rich soil and a good deal of shelter. 
One of the most interesting features of this plant is the coming 
out of the blossoms and fruit on the older parts of the stems. 
After the fruits are gathered they are opened and their almond- 
like seeds are spread out for the removal of a part of the pulp. 
They then undergo a kind of heating process, popularly and not 
very improperly called " fermentation." The seeds freed from 
the still clinging, but now rather dry pulp are ready for shipment. 

[The cultivation of the banana and its allies and the treatment 
of palms for the best yield of fruits were next considered at much 
length, after which the subject of spices came up. The lecturer 
then spoke of the life of the tropical horticulturist, noting his 
fondness for plants strange to his own surroundings. He enu- 
merated the principal annoying weeds of the tropics, especially 
Mimosa and the tuberous species of Oxalis.] 

Ginger, Annotto, Curcuma, and a few other species were studied 
by me in a plantation where Cacao was being successfully culti- 
vated. The work requires a large margin of capital, energy, 
patience, and health. The tropical cultivator, especially he who 
has large interests, is subjected to a heavy strain in such a climate. 
There are perils from invasions of insects and fungi to be guarded 
against. There are constant improvements in varieties, eagerly 
seized by competitors, and these must be met. The delights, 
however, are many, and are attractive to certain temperaments. 
Nature is at its best in the tropics ; life is full to the brim. 
Though there is not the keen zest in sports and study which is 
gained from the crisp air of a colder climate, still one can retreat 
to the hills to gather fresh strength for a new lease of life in the 
plains. For the children of the English-speaking planter such 
retreat is absolutely necessary, at short intervals. 

1 1' now, in brief resume, we reduce this complicated question to 

its lowest terms, we see that tropical horticulture has this remark- 

able peculiarity: it is conducted under conditions wholly favor- 

able to the life of plants. But just here lies the peril. What is 

'I for one plant is, generally speaking, good for another, and 



TROPICAL HORTICULTURE. 19 

hence the cultivated plants thrive luxuriantly, but so do weeds 
and foes. This is illustrated in a striking manner by the 
growth of Coffee in Ceylon. Everything favored the Coffee plant. 
Nature was in every way most propitious, but the conditions 
were favorable also to destructive fungi, and these began their 
disheartening work. . The most destructive of these, here and 
there assisted, as I have already said, by a destructive insect, 
ravaged the plantations so completely that the excellent Ceylon 
Coffee became almost lost to commerce. 

It is therefore warfare of a most unrelenting kind which man 
must wage against the foes of cultivated plants in the tropics. 
He must at every point aid his proteges which have been ren- 
dered almost completely helpless by long-continued assistance 
from man. "When the hand or aid of man is withdrawn, the cul- 
tivated plant either falls an easy prey to its foes or it relapses 
into a sort of quasi-defence, which often suggests the wild con- 
dition from which it sprang. 

While, therefore, there is very much to encourage the novice in 
tropical horticulture there is very much that is preeminently dis- 
couraging. Tropical horticulture is far from being a sinecure. 
It demands earnest study of the conditions of plant life in all its 
relations, and it requires, also, a knowledge of the difficulty of 
getting good work done under tropical skies. Under exceptional 
conditions good work is done by natives, but as a rule they are 
apathetic and it is hard to secure faithful service. The young 
man who leaves a northern home for tropical venture must make 
up his mind to hard work under unfamiliar conditions. With 
this steadily in mind such ventures, under the precautions 
referred to, can be reasonably successful. 

[The lecture was illustrated throughout by stereopticon views, 
chiefly of Ceylon, the Straits settlements, Java and the Malayan 
Archipelago, together with some of the newer plantations in 
Northern Queensland and Polynesia. Professor Goodale also re- 
ferred to a Chinese book on the cultivation of Eice, in the Library 
of the Horticultural Society, with plates giving a vivid idea of 
the cultivation of that grain in China.] 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

MEETING FOE LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, January 16, 1897. 
A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was hold en today at 
eleven o'clock, Vice-President Charles H. B. Breck in the 
chair. The following lecture, which was fully illustrated with 
.stereopticon pictures, was delivered: 

The Structure and Classification of Mushrooms. 

By Hollis Webster, Secretary of the Boston Mycological Club, Cambridge. 

Whatever may be the cause of the present popular interest in 
mushrooms, it is evident not only to botanists, but to casual 
readers of the monthly periodicals and of the daily press, that 
within a few years this interest has grown largely, and that it is 
spreading widely. Its manifestations are various and unmistak- 
able 5 but most of them have taken the form of demands for in- 
formation and of the responses of those who have been willing to 
give it. Three years ago, for instance, there appeared three 
responses to this demand, one from an artist, 1 whose nature 
studies have made him popularly known ; one from the State 
Botanist of New York, 2 who has for thirty years given special 
-attention to the subject ; and one from the Professor of Crypto- 
gamie Botany at Harvard. 3 

Most of the numerous articles that have recently appeared 
have been concerned with showing the difference between edible 
and poisonous kinds of mushrooms (or toadstools, which are the 
same thing), and have been addressed to the general public. 
There are, however, many persons who Avish to know something 
about mushrooms as plants, and perhaps to engage in limited 
studies concerning them. These people generally lack a knowl- 
edge of the elementary facts concerning structure and classifica- 
tion that would make easy an attack upon the literature of the 
subject. To such would-be students of a small part of the field 
of mycology this lecture is addressed in the hope that it may be 
of some assistance. 

At the outset it will be well to come to an understanding as 
in ill.. i.Min mushroom itself. In every-day language it usually 

: W. II. Oibson, in " Harper's Monthly Magazine" for August, 1894. 

II. Peck, in the "Cultivator and Country Gentleman," May 31-Sept. 20, 1894. 
W. O. Parlow, in " Garden and Forest," Jan. 24-Feb. 28, 1804. 



MUSHROOMS. 21 

means the sort of fleshy fungus that is good to eat, and particu- 
larly — to some people only — the common pasture kind. A 
toadstool, on the other hand, means something poisonous, or at 
least to be avoided. As a matter of fact, no distinction can be 
made between the two terms, though the term toadstool is more 
comprehensive, for it may be used to include the common pasture 
mushroom and all other fungi whose form is in general the 
same. Both terms are also loosely applied to other kinds, even 
to such forms as Puff-balls and Stink-horns. 

If we look at a common mushroom of the pasture or the 
market, we see that it may be easily divided into two parts, an 
upright stalk, called the stipe, and a flat, expanded portion, the 
cap or pileus. Attached to the under side of the cap are mem- 
branous plates, the gills, or lamina?, radiating from the top of 
the stipe to the edge of the pileus. The upper part of the gills 
is attached to the lower surface of the cap, and their lower edges, 
which are usually very thin and rather sharp, hang free. In the 
mushroom that we are examining there is a space between the 
crowded inner ends of the gills and the top of the stem. In 
other kinds of mushrooms we may find the same condition of 
things, or it may be that the gills reach the stem and are attached 
to it, or even run down upon it as, ridges, which in some cases end 
abruptly and in others are gradually reduced to mere lines. 
Upon the gills are borne in countless numbers the spores — exceed- 
ingly minute bodies, which, as it is their office to germinate and 
grow into new mushroom plants, may be roughly compared to 
seeds. The mushroom, in fact, as we see it, is nothing but a con- 
trivance for the production and dissemination of the spores. 
The arrangement of the gills gives an enormous spore-bearing 
surface, whence the spores are carried by the wind or by insects, 
or drop to the ground below. If the cap of a fully grown mush- 
room be cut from the stem and laid, gills downward, on paper 
under a tumbler or other cover to keep draughts away, there will 
be found on the paper after a few hours — sometimes in a very 
short time — a layer of spores, making a negative print of the gills. 
In the common mushroom this print will be of a dark brown — 
almost a purple brown — the color, it will be noticed, of the gills at 
maturity, for the gills usually take the color of the spores. 

Stem, cap, and gills are characteristic parts of most of the 
fungi commonly called mushrooms or toadstools. There are 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

other structures, however, peculiar to certain groups. These are 
a oolva, a ring, and a veil. Of the volva, or sheath, characteristic 
of the poisonous Amanita, a description will be given presently. 
The common mushroom does not possess it, but does show us a 
ring arid veil. . 

If we look at a young specimen that has not been long above 
ground and is still in its compact, rounded form, called by mush- 
room-growers a button, we shall see no gills on the under side of 
the cap. Indeed, the mushroom may sometimes grow to nearly 
its full height before they are visible. The reason is easy to see, 
for stretching unbroken from the edge of the unexpanded pileus 
to the stem is a delicate membrane called the veil. As the pileus 
expands, the veil is torn. Shreds of it, perhaps, cling to the 
edge of the cap, but most of it remains, encircling the stem and 
thus forming a ring, ■ — a structure the appearance and size of 
which vary in the different sorts of mushrooms which possess 
one. 

In the genus Amanita, for instance, there is a conspicuous 
veil. Moreover if you will look at the base of the stem, you will 
see something else — something like a membranous bag or sheath, 
from which the stem emerges. Now, when a young Amanita 
pushes up from the ground, this sheath or bag, technically the 
volva, encloses the entire plant. As the cap and stem press 
upward, the volva is ruptured at the top. In the mature plant 
its remnants are to be found at the base of the stem and some- 
times in scattered scaly fragments on the top of the cap. The 
volva is not in every case so conspicuous as in the example first 
shown. In others it is reduced to a ridge running round the 
swollen base, or even to scales. Since the base of the plant is often 
below the surface of the ground, and the stem breaks easily, care 
must be used in gathering specimens if the volva is to be secured 
intact. 

The structures so far spoken of are easily seen, but there is 
much more to a mushroom than this. 

\o\\ have been told that a mushroom is simply a contrivance 
for bearing spores. It is thus comparable to the fruit of a flow- 
ering plant, which develops and contains the seeds. Where, 
then, you will ask, is the vegetative part of the plant, the part 
fchat absorbs the nourishment and does all the preparatory work of 
which the growth of the mushroom itself is the result ? In other 



MUSHROOMS. 23 

words, what sort of a plant develops from a spore and where 
does it live? If you could follow, as you may under a micro- 
scope, the germination of a spore, and the stages of growth 
which follow, your eyes would give you the answer to the first 
part of this question. You would see the minute spherical or 
•ellipsoid bodies, when supplied with the requisite moisture, burst 
and put forth slender colorless threads called hyphce. These in 
time branch again and again, extending constantly in length to 
form what is called the mycelium, or vegetative part of the 
plant. When such threads are massed together in strands, form- 
ing white lace-work or cottony bunches, they are easily found in 
the substratum on which the fungus grows — in rotten wood, 
for instance, or in a heap of leaves, or other decaying vegetable 
matter. In such places the mycelium spreads over or permeates 
the substance from which it draws its food supply. For fungi do 
not elaborate their food from raw materials as do the plants that 
have green coloring matter, but are dependent upon other vege- 
table or animal organisms, either living or dead; that is, they are 
parasites, or saprophytes. 

What is known by mushroom-growers as the spawn consists of 
a dried compressed portion of a mushroom bed, generally mixed 
straw and horse droppings, which is permeated by the mycelium. 
In this condition, in the form of flakes or bricks, it may be trans- 
ported, and will keep its vitality for months, active growth being 
for the time arrested. As a rule, then, when mushroom beds are 
started, it is the mycelium or spawn which is planted — not 
the spores. v When the proper conditions of warmth and, moisture 
are supplied, growth is resumed, and the threads, lengthening, 
branching, and anastomosing, very soon spread throughout the bed. 

It is plain, then, that the mushroom plant for most of its life 
is out of sight, and consequently not familiarly known. To this 
fact are due many erroneous notions about the origin of mush- 
rooms themselves. When the time has come for the plant to pro- 
duce its fruit, there form at various points in the mycelium small 
masses of densely branching interwoven threads, which in time 
enlarge to an appreciable size. Each of these masses is the be- 
ginning of a button, or nascent mushroom. An examination of 
buttons in various stages of growth, by means of thin sections 
brought into the field of a compound microscope, shows pretty 
clearly the part played by the hypha^ in the mushroom proper, the 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

substance of which is made up of the compacted and closely inter- 
woven threads and their branches. Along certain radiating lines is 
formed the framework of the gills, which in the developed mush- 
room is called the trama. Just below the gills an air space ap- 
pears, the outer wall of which becomes the so-called veil. Lastly, 
upon the surface of the gills develops a layer of cells standing 
side by side like the single threads in the pile of velvet or in the 
surface of an Oriental rug. 

With these cells we have a special concern. Taken together 
they form the hymenium, the spore-producing tissue, which, 
folded like a fan, is applied to both sides of the gill-plates. A 
section through a gill shows us this layer. Each one of the club- 
shaped spore-bearing cells composing it is called a basidium. 
Each basidium bears four spores on minute stalks. 

So far we have dealt exclusively with gill-bearing mushrooms, 
a group to which as a whole is given the name Agaricusti. There 
are other common kinds in which also basidia and spores are 
developed on an exposed hymenial surface. The hymenium is dis- 
posed in different ways. In one group, a large one, it lines the 
inside of small tubes which are fastened vertically, with the open 
mouths downward, in a closely packed mass on the under side 
of the pileus ; this is the group of Polyporei. In a third group, 
the Hydnei, it covers the surface of spines, teeth, or other 
protuberances. In a fourth it is smooth, without distinctive 
feature, evenly spread over one or both sides of the tough, or 
coriaceous, thin body of the plant ; this is the character of the 
Thelephorei. In a fifth group, the Clavariei, the plant is 
tender, fleshy, erect, and often densely branching, bearing the hy- 
menium on all sides of the tips of the branches. Last are placed 
the rather shapeless, gelatinous Tremellinei, which shrivel when 
dry, and swell again with moisture; in these the hymenium 
covers the outer surface. From the similar nature of the hyme- 
nium and its exposure in these six groups they are classed together 
as the Hymenomycetes. To this natural class, " vasta Fungorum 
classis," as it was called by Fries, whose treatment of it still 
remains the basis of later classifications, belong most of the fungi 
commonly termed mushrooms or toadstools. 1 

-ood systematic account of the class as it appears in Great Britain, a work which in 
< Of one specially adapted to this country is exceedingly helpful to a student, is- 
' !l\menomycetcB Britannici." 



MUSHROOMS. 25 

This class, however, does not include all the fleshy fungi, or 
even all those in which there is a hymenium with spore-bearing 
basidia. In a second class, much smaller, there is a similar 
method of fruiting ; but the hymenium is not exposed, at least at 
first. A common puff-ball is the best example. A microscopic 
examination of the interior of a puff-ball shows that it is com- 
posed of a mass of chambers the walls of which are covered with 
basidia, the similarity of which to those in the class first treated is 
very plain. The chambers, however, are partly filled with branch- 
ing threads, together called the capillitium. When the puff-ball 
is ripe and breaks open at the top, it is found that the chamber 
walls have become disintegrated and that the disconnected 
threads of the capillitium are left, together with an immense 
collection of spores, all in a dry state and ready to be caught by 
the first breath of wind. From the shape of the fruiting mass in 
the puff-ball and allied forms this class is called the Gasteromy— 
cetes. Since the class is small, our botanists have been able to 
describe most of our species, at least those of the Eastern part 
of the United States ; and fairly exhaustive systematic accounts 
of them are to be found in the papers of Burt, Morgan, and others 
on the Phalloids or Stink-horns, and of Peck, McBride, Morgan, 
and others on the Puff-balls. 

Fructification by means of spore-bearing basidia unites these 
two classes, together with others composed of less conspicuous 
fungi, under a still more comprehensive name, that of Basidiomy- 

CETES. 

There still remain a few mushrooms not included in the groups 
spoken of, namely, the Morels, Helvellas, and Pezizas. The first 
two are stalked, and roughly resemble the familiar Agarics ; the 
last are shallow cups or fleshy expansions. A word as to the 
form of their fructification must suffice. Examination under a 
microscope of a bit of the outer or upper surface of one of 
these plants will reveal structures at first sight much like those 
in the Basidiomycetes. A mat of crowded slender cylindrical 
cells is seen covering the surface ; none of these cells, however, 
bear spores on their tips. Instead, some of tfyem — not all — con- 
tain spores in their interior. Each is, in fact, a little enclosure, 
called an ascus, and if one that is mature be separated from the 
rest, it will readily be seen to contain eight — almost invariably 
eight — spores. At the proper time these escape from the asci,. 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICTJLTUKAL SOCIETY. 

sometimes suddenly and myriads at once. Prom the surface of 
a Peziza, for example, as you look at it, there conies a little puff 
of smoke as the ejected spores are shot into the air to be blown 
away in a tiny cloud. Pezizas, Helvellas, and Morels are some 
of the Discomycetes, a class excellently treated for Great Britain 
by Phillips. Multitudes of fungi besides the Discomycetes have 
a fructification which consists of asci, and the comprehensive 
name for all of them is Ascomycetes. 

Most of the mushrooms gathered by the increasing number of 
fungus hunters, at least by beginners in the study, belong to that 
class of Basidiomycetes called Hymenomycetes. Among these 
an Agaric is at once recognized by its gills ; a Boletus or Poly- 
porus by its pores; a Hydnum by its tooth-like projections; a 
Clavaria by its coral-like appearance ; and a Tremella by its 
gelatinous nature. So far identification is a simple matter ; but 
to go farther and decide upon the species requires close study, 
accurate observation of details of structure, ability to interpret 
published descriptions, and most of all experience. Many of you 
know well enough the difficulties you meet in " running down " 
a flowering plant in Gray's Manual — difficulties which arise often 
from incomplete knowledge of the structure of the plant, but 
sometimes from the lack of sharply defined and conspicuous 
characters in the species itself. The same difficulties meet you 
in the determination of mushrooms, aggravated by the lack of a 
Gray's Manual and not infrequently by incomplete or misleading 
descriptions in the books available. 

The most frequent puzzles in identification are among the 
Agaricini, or gill-bearing mushrooms, whose numbers enormously 
exceed those of any others you are likely to collect. Since for 
the most part they are built on the same general plan, and re- 
semble one another at first sight much more strongly than they 
differ, the task of separation demands close scrutiny and a prac- 
tised eye. Every detail of structure must be noted : the shape, 
surface, color, and markings of the cap ; the thickness and char- 
acter of the flesh ; the color, shape, and method of attachment of 
the gills ; the nature of the stem inside and out ; the presence or 
;t!)sence of ring, veil, and volva, and the nature of each ; and also 
the color and sometimes the shape and size of the spores. No 
permanent character, whether gross or minute, must escape the 



MUSHROOMS. 27 

A brief outline of Fries's classification of the Agarics will indi- 
cate how the most prominent of these characters are seized upon 
for a division into groups and genera. The Agarics proper, in 
which the hymenium is closely connected with the tissue which 
supports it, fall readily into five groups according to the color of 
their spores, which are white, pinkish or salmon-color, rusty- 
brown or ochraceous, dark or purplish brown, and black. Each 
of these groups is divided into genera (called subgenera by Pries, 
who placed all five groups under one genus, Agaricus) by differ- 
ences in gross and minute structure. For example, among the 
white-spored genera (Leucospori) Amanita is known by its volva ; 
Lepiota by its ring and free 1 gills, Armillaria by its ring and 
adnate 1 gills, Tricholoma by practical absence of veil and by sin- 
uate 1 gills, Clitocybe by decurrent 1 gills, Collybia by the involute 
margin of the young pileus and by a cartilaginous stem, and so on 
through the list. With the pink spored Agarics (Hyporhodii) 
we run through the same category of structural differences, Vol- 
varia corresponding to Amanita, Entoloma to Tricholoma, and so 
on ; and the same thing may be said of the rusty brown spored 
(Dermini), the dark brown spored (Pratelli), and the black spored 
(Coprinarii) , although in the last three groups by no means all 
types of structural difference are represented. To avoid possible 
confusion in nomenclature, it should be said that since the sub- 
genera of Fries's original genus Agaricus have been raised to gen- 
eric value, the old name Agaricus formerly given to each species 
has been retained only for the species of Fries's subgenus Psalli- 
ota. Hence what old-fashioned writers call Agaricus muscarius, 
A. procerus, A. equestris, A. sinuatus, etc., are now known, respec- 
tively, as Amanita muscaria, Lepiota procera, Tricholoma equestre, 
and JSntoloma sinuatum. 

Still other genera not included by Fries in the old genus Agari- 
cus are included by Saccardo, and after him by Massee and others, 
with the genera already mentioned under four groups, divided 
according to spore color. Among these genera are Cortinarius, 
distinguished by its arachnoid veil ; Coprinus, which deliquesces 
to an inky liquid ; Cantharellus, with gills like swollen veins ; 
Lactarius, with milky juice ; Lentinus, with tough substance' and 
serrate gills ; and others. 

1 The significance of these and other terms was made clear by lantern slides. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In concluding I present to you the portrait of the revered 
Swedish mycologist, Elias Fries, who first introduced logical order 
into the systematic arrangement of mushrooms. After a life 
devoted to botany, and principally to mycology, he died in 1878 
leaving all subsequent students of his chosen field everlastingly 
indebted to him. The portrait is taken from the second volume 
of his classical " Icones," or illustrations of mushrooms, which, 
together with his earlier work on the edible and poisonous species 
of Sweden, may be seen in the library of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society. 

Hoping that this brief exposition in connection with the figures 
that you have seen may have cleared the ground a little, I refer 
you for more detailed information to the many good books upon 
tlie subject, and particularly to the mushrooms themselves. 



MEETING FOR LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, January 23, 1897. 
A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the chair. 
The following paper was read by the author : 

The Chrysanthemum: Its Past, Present, and Future. 

By Edmund K. Wood, Natick, Mass. 

I have the honor, and most assuredly the pleasure, of address- 
ing you upon a subject dear to us all, if for no other reason than 
that it is a part and parcel of " the means by which we live. 7 -' The 
Chrysanthemum has, not inaptly, been termed "the Queen of the 
Autumn," and it is certainly, as it well deserves to be, one of (if 
not altogether) the most popular of autumn flowers, a special 
reservation being made at all seasons for the incomparable and 
unexcelled Rose. 

A famous Irish poet, William Allingham, thus sings: 

" The rustic family of ox-eyes claim 

A royal cousin clad in purple and gold, 

Pearl, ruby, fleecy colors, such as fold 
The couching sun, and with a lofty name 

Chrysanthemum, — appearing bright and bold 
To startle poor November with a flame 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 29 

Of sumptuous flowerage, making Summer tame, 
And flush with Eastern pomp the dark and cold. 

Voyager from Japan and broad Catbay, 

The slant-eyed yellow people love thee much : 

(All humans love a flower) and know the way 
To fix their garden favorite with fine touch 
In shapes of art. How joyful we to clutch 

Their gifts ! — but shall we clasp their hands one day? " 

Mr. B. C. Ravenseroft, in his treatise on the Chrysanthemum, 
published in London in 1894, speaks of the popularity of the 
flower in England. He says that "from the date of the first 
Chrysanthemum show held in England in 1830, it has steadily 
advanced, not only in popularity, but in the size and beauty of 
the flowers as well, and above all in the number of new varieties 
constantly being introduced. As a matter of fact, more 
' novelties ? are now being raised and sent out annually than the 
entire list would number but a very few years ago. Several 
years have now elapsed since it was the opinion of many horti- 
culturists (myself among the number) that the Chrysanthemum 
' craze 7 was already on the wane ; but the event proved the idea 
to be altogether erroneous. On the contrary, the flower has since 
become vastly more popular, and is now cultivated in much 
larger numbers and to greater perfection than ever." Our own 
experience here in the United States is but a counterpart of that 
in the mother country. 

Mr. Ravenscroft says further, and very justly, that "the secret 
of the extraordinary popularity of the Chrysanthemum is prob- 
ably to be found in its unprecedentedly accommodating charac- 
ter, combined with its great utility, not only for exhibition and 
ordinary decorative purposes, but for supplying flowers for cut- 
ting, etc. ; while the fact of its natural season of flowering 
being the autumn and early winter, when flowers generally are 
much scarcer than at any other season, is doubtless a strong 
point in its favor. The culture of the plant, at least to a moder- 
ate degree of excellence, is also extremely simple, though this 
can scarcely be said of the production of blossoms for exhibition 
of the degree o£ perfection that is required at the present day ; 
while the season for flowering is a long one, and may be extended 
to more than half of the year. 

" The Chrysanthemum is indeed vigorous, free-rooting, and 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

floriferous to a quite unusual degree, and is, moreover, easily and 
rapidly propagated with the simplest appliances. 

" Again, it is an almost, if not quite, hardy subject : and though 
a slight amount of artificial heat is at times necessary or desir- 
able, yet it is quite possible to cultivate even the fine show 
varieties successfully up to a certain point without the aid of any 
heating apparatus whatever. 

" In form, size, and color the flowers are also extremely varied, 
and for the most part artistic, lacking entirely the stiffness and 
formality of the Camellia and several other flowers ; in size they 
vary from the tiny pompone, one inch across, to the huge Japan- 
ese blossom, one foot or more in diameter ; while the range of 
coloring is also exceedingly large, and the hues for the most part 
are very rich and soft, if not exactly brilliant. Without doubt, 
the introduction, or rather development, of the large-flowered 
Japanese varieties, with their fantastic and endlessly varied forms, 
and rich, aesthetic coloring, has done much to popularize the 
plant. One has only to compare the general appearance of a 
stand of twelve or twenty-four of even the finest incurved varie- 
ties with an equal number of Japanese flowers, to appreciate the 
great superiority, from a decorative point of view, of the latter ;. 
while the plants themselves are, on the whole, of a decidedly 
more robust and vigorous constitution, and consequently more 
readily cultivated than the formerly more favored incurves." 

One more advantage possessed by the Chrysanthemum is that, 
unlike the Eose, it evinces very little objection to a smoky atmos- 
phere, and may be cultivated almost as successfully in the heart 
of a city or large town as in the purer air and under the clearer 
skies of a country spot. As a proof of this, I deem it only neces- 
sary to refer to the remarkable showing of Chrysanthemums 
found in the Temple Gardens, in the very midst of the smoke and 
the black fog of London. But to produce this result, intelligence 
and a thorough knowledge of the gardener's art are a prime 
necessity. 

" As cut flowers Chrysanthemums are unsurpassed, if equalled. 
The colors are admirably suited for all decorative purposes, while 
the blossoms not only pack and travel better than those of most 
other subjects, but they also retain their freshness for a long time 
when placed in water, often, in a cool and dry atmosphere, for 
-nine weeks." 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 31 

The Chrysanthemum, by which is meant our present race of 
autumn-flowering hybrids, is descended from two original species 
only, namely : C. Indicum and C. Sinense. It is in reality a half- 
hardy undershrub, for the stems, which towards the end of a 
single season's growth assume a woody nature, if not exposed to 
more than a few degrees of frost, retain their vitality, to some 
extent at least, and, under such conditions, frequently break into 
fresh growth some distance above the base. But in an inhospi- 
table climate like ours, the stems would be invariably killed back 
to the ground each winter, and thus become annual merely, while 
the plant itself assumes the character of a herbaceous perennial. 
The roots, especially those of the finer, large flowering or " show " 
kinds, if left in the open ground, would be killed outright during 
a severe winter, and the more effectually should the soil be damp, 
heavy, or cold. 

Here let me say that a Chrysanthemum with small yellow 
flowers grew in the Apothecaries' Botanic Garden at Chelsea, in 
England, in 1764 ; but the first of the large-flowered varieties was 
received at the Royal Gardens at Kew, and blossomed in 1764, 
and it is from this latter that the centennial introduction of the 
flower into England dates. 

The first English seedlings of the Chrysanthemum were raised 
in 1835; and the first Chrysanthemum exhibition in England was 
held in 1843 at Norwich, and this was soon followed by the 
Society at Stoke Newington, now known as the National Chrysan- 
themum Society. 

A new era in the history of this plant opened in England in 
1847, by the introduction of the Pompon. In 1843, at the close 
of the war with China, Mr. Robert Fortune was sent out to that 
country by the London Horticultural Society to collect rare 
plants, and one of the curiosities he fell in with was the Chusan 
Daisy ; and this and another small flower from the same source 
were the parents of the tribe known, from their resemblance to 
a rosette, as Pompons. 

Still later, in 1860-62, Mr. Eortune made more discoveries at 
the town of Ak-sax-saw in Japan. He describes this town of 
Ak-sax-saw as the most famous place near Yeddo for the variety 
and beauty of the Chrysanthemums, some of which were in form 
and coloring quite distinct from any then known in Europe. 
" If," he said, " I can succeed in introducing these varieties into 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Europe, they may create as great a change among Chrysanthe- 
mums as my Chusan Daisy did when she became the parent of 
the present race of Pompons." They were taken up in Eng- 
land, proved successful, and from them sprang those marvellous 
flowers which it is the pride of all you gentlemen to present 
yearly at the notable exhibition of our Massachusetts Horticult- 
ural Society. 

And speaking of our own exhibition, I am reminded of the fact 
that in Japan every year a special imperial garden party is given 
in the palace grounds at Yeddo, in honor of this national flower 
of Japan; and at this, which may be termed the leading show of 
the world, some of the plants display not less than from three 
hundred and seventy-five to four hundred and fifty fully developed 
blossoms, growing upon a single specimen at a time. 

The Chrysanthemum has been known in the United States for 
quite a number of years, but as to its early history here not much 
is to be gleaned, while as to its career in other countries we are left 
completely in the dark, with the exception of France. Mr. Dale, 
for some time the gardener to the honorable Society of the Middle 
Temple, in London, says of the Chrysanthemum, that " in the 
early part of the present century it was one of the most popular 
flowers of England, and, further, that after a period of compara- 
tive neglect it has again been admitted to a place in the list of the 
florists' flowers" — a circumstance in which I am quite sure that 
all of us rejoice. Indeed, Mr. Dale was so much impressed with 
the beauty of these extraordinary flowers that he tells us that from 
the necessity of his having to produce a display of flowers dur- 
ing the greater part of the month of November, his attention 
was especially directed to the Chrysanthemum as the only one 
suitable to his purpose. 

The Chrysanthemum derives its name from two Greek words, 
chrysos (gold) and anthos (flower), and belongs to the natural order 
Compositae, and in the Linnsean classification of plants we find it in 
the class Syngenesia and order Polygamia Superflua. Its flowers 
consist of four varieties, namely, Incurved, Eeflexed, Japanese, 
a iid Anemone flowered. Incurved flowers approach the nearest 
to what florists consider as the true standard of perfection, 
lieflexed flowers, though not so good, are by no means to be held 
in (lis. lain. The Japanese vary very much both in color and the 
conformation of the flowers, and are most invaluable for conser- 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 33 

vatory decoration, remaining longer in bloom, and extending oft- 
times to " January's front severe." 

Among Chrysanthemums the Japanese class stands foremost 
because of its great size, richness of coloring, and the general 
effectiveness of its flowers ; and it is beyond all question the 
most popular and useful of all classes. The flowers vary greatly 
in form, and, with perhaps some few exceptions, the plants are of 
vigorous growth, with broad foliage, stout stems, and large 
flowers ; and it may be that they are more easily grown than any 
of the other classes. 

The Incurved class produces flowers whose petals are bent 
inward toward the points, presenting the appearance of a more 
or less perfect ball or> sphere. It was the first distinct class 
obtained, and although it is very beautiful, the blossoms in the 
mass are not so thoroughly effective as the Japanese, lacking, 
as they do, the richness and great variety of the coloring. They 
are, also, more delicate, and certainly more troublesome to 
manage, than are the Japanese. 

In the Reflexed class the flowers are not as large and showy as 
in some others, yet they are beautifully formed. The petals are 
reflexed or curved downwards, and overlap each other with the 
greatest regularity, and the coloring is very soft, delicate, and 
rich. The whole class are excellent growers, the plants bushy 
and branching, and they are most prolific in blossoms. They are 
splendidly adapted to open-air culture. 

Of most of the Pompon class, as you all well know, the flowers 
in general are insignificant in size, although some, which are 
known as " Hybrid Pompons, 7 ' are comparatively large. 

The early, or what may be known as the summer-flowering, 
Chrysanthemums form a somewhat varied, but none the less a 
most useful class. The blossoms of several of the earliest flower- 
ing group are no larger than those of the smallest Pompons, 
while their growth is but very little more than a foot in height. 
Prom these the flowers range in size up to those of Madame Des- 
grange, William Holmes, etc., which are only slightly smaller 
than some of the Japanese flowers, and the plants increase up to 
three feet or four feet in height. As a result of hybridization 
between the two classes the early-flowering kinds run quite imper- 
ceptibly into the Japanese, the connecting links being found in 
such varieties as Madame Desgrange and its sports; Mile. 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Lacroix, Lady Selborne, P. van Geert, etc. The first named, with 
its sports, G. Werniiz (primrose) and Mrs. Hawkins (deep gold), 
form a beautiful and most useful group, admirably adapted alike 
for indoor decoration and for culture in the open air ; and a great 
future is in store for this most excellent and attractive group. 

Having thus briefly, and much to my regret imperfectly, 
sketched the history and peculiarities of this most charming 
flower, let us take a glance at the methods of its cultivation. 

Mr. Edwin Molyneux, gardener to W. H. Myers, Esq., of 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, England, may be looked 
upon as an expert in all that appertains to the Chrysanthemum, 
and he " regards a favorable start as being necessary to a success- 
ful finish. The foundation must be thoroughly laid to insure 
that success which all should strive to attain who engage in the 
cultivation of this flower." Mr. Molyneux speaks ex cathedra, 
for during a period of six years he won eighty-six prizes, and 
of these no less than seventy-four were firsts. Moreover, these 
prizes were won in competition with the best growers of the day 
at the leading shows in the south of England ; and the Swanmore 
blooms were placed first during four consecutive years in the 
great cup class at Kingston-on-Thames — a feat unparalleled in 
the annals of Chrysanthemum showing, and never approached 
since. Mr. Molyneux deserved to be crowned King of Chrysan- 
themum growers and exhibitors. 

And here allow me to suggest a fact with which no doubt you 
are all quite familiar, that within a radius of ninety miles of 
Boston the Chrysanthemum is grown to a perfection nowhere 
excelled in this or any other country. 

The cultivation of the Chrysanthemum for blooms for the 
market and single specimens for exhibition is attended with 
much more care and labor than any other branch of the Chrys- 
anthemum raising industry ; and the fact remains that the culture 
of the flower, for exhibition alone, has now been elevated to the 
dignity of a fine art, or rather to that of an almost exact science, 
and those who desire to win in the future must do not only all 
that men who have made the subject a special study of a large 

Pi of a lifetime have done in the past, and can do at the pres- 
ent time, but a little more than that, and, if among the possibil- 
. much better, also. 

Growing for exhibitions is a most arduous task — the most 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 35 

arduous, perhaps, that falls to the lot of the Chrysanthemum 
raiser, with the single exception of raising new varieties from 
seed. Exhibiting at the present day is by no means what it has 
been in the past, and the gaining of prizes has become a really 
difficult feat. Judging is more minute and more intelligent than 
it was in bygone days. It is now performed almost exclusively 
by points, and in order that a sufficient number of these points 
may be secured, untold minutiae must be most closely observed, 
otherwise the cultivator, to use a homely, but yet most applicable 
phrase, " will not be in it." The only way to succeed in these 
days is to acquaint one's self thoroughly with the details of culti- 
vation as practised by the best growers, and then by some 
fortuitous combination of circumstances to discover a way by 
which a better method, no matter how slight, may be attained. 
In all cases, however, constant and unremitting attention must 
be bestowed upon the plants from the time the cuttings have 
b>een first inserted, until the flowers have been placed upon 
exhibition and the prize won. 

There is one fact that it is well to bear constantly in mind, and 
that is, that it is absolutely useless to attempt to grow plants or 
blooms for exhibition, unless they have your constant attention. 
To give them an occasional attendance, or even but once a day, 
is in itself a suicidal act. As eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty, so unremitting attention is the price of success, so far as 
the Chrysanthemum is concerned. It is a plant that possesses a 
most voracious appetite, and it requires to be fed with as much 
regularity, and as much care, as a suckling infant. It is dainty 
in its food, and it is a gourmand as well as a gourmet. It 
requires plenty to eat and drink, and of the very best the market 
affords. It must be fed upon the very best soils, manures, etc., 
and its drink must not be alone " the* crystal well," but rich 
liquids and plenty of them, and withal, like the human system, 
it must breathe a sufficient supply of fresh, wholesome, and life- 
giving air. Proper drainage is an essential requisite, in order to 
insure that the plants, as is sometimes said of an unfortunate 
ship, shall not become " water-logged." Cleanliness is next to 
godliness in the plant, as well as in the man, and therefore the 
intelligent grower will see to it that his plants have a clean habi- 
tation. Never use a dirty pot. The pots, or the long boxes in 
which the plants may be raised, should be perfectly clean. Now 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

this, on the surface, appears to be a trivial matter, but in reality- 
much depends upon it. Test it, and you will find that in turn- 
ing plants out of pots that were dirty when used, the roots cling- 
so tenaciously to the sides that many are broken in the act of 
removing them. This does not occur if the pots are clean, but 
the plants may be shifted with their roots intact, and will not 
undergo the slightest check from the operation. 

In the cultivation of the Chrysanthemum do not attempt too 
many varieties : 

" The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 

Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel ; 

But do not dull thy palm with entertainment 

Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade." 

An eminent English authority said on this matter of novel- 
ties, " I venture to say that quite three parts of the new sorts 
sent out in such glowing terms are not equal in merit to many 
of the older varieties. No little disappointment has been caused 
by purchasing all the new varieties, which were expected to 
produce wonderful flowers. Instead of this it has often been 
found that time and space have not been well occupied in grow- 
ing them. Far better is it to grow an extra number of plants of 
those varieties which experience has proved can be depended 
upon as certain producers of first-class flowers under first-class 
culture, than for a grower with limited experience, money, and 
space to overburden himself with so-called ' novelties/ " 

Every grower of the Chrysanthemum is well aware that it has 
a tendency to " sport ; " that is, a plant that has always yielded 
flowers of a certain color produces others of a different hue — 
yellow, for instance, giving out bronze or orange. There are 
instances when the whole of a plant will thus throw different 
colored blossoms, but as a rule they are only to be found on one 
branch. Many of these " sports " when "fixed" are improve- 
ments upon older kinds. Cuttings taken from the branch or part 
of the plant which " sports " will usually produce flowers of the 
same color again. If they and the plants raised in turn from 
them continue to do so, and the departure becomes a permanency, 
t lie sport is said to be "fixed;" and if this fresh break is of a 
new or desirable hue and character, or in any manner an improve- 
ment, upon existing forms, it receives a name, is propagated, and 
introduced into the market. There are occasions, however, when 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 37 

•a sport will sooner or later revert to the original color, and, as 
a matter of course, it becomes worthless. 

There is no earthly reason why a new variety obtained from 
a sport is not, to the full, as good as one obtained from seed. 
Many forms of the incurved class have been procured in this 
manner. It may be said that the general system of growing 
Chrysanthemums for the sole production of large blooms is not 
favorable for increasing the number of new varieties by sports, 
on the ground that the plants are denuded of the side shoots as 
they grow, and it is from these very side shoots, when they are 
permitted to develop themselves into flowers, that the largest 
number of sports are obtained. In the Japanese class the fewest 
sports are found. With scarcely an exception all sports are the 
counterparts, in foliage and habit, of their parents ; and there 
cannot be the least doubt that some of them possess better con- 
stitutions and produce finer flowers than their originals, or that 
they are, in some respects, improvements upon their parents. 

The Seedling Chrysanthemum is not " like angels 7 visits, few 
and far between," but on the contrary, it is the rule and not the 
•exception. Save a comparatively small number of sports, all the 
varieties of the Chrysanthemum that are in cultivation have 
been raised from seed at one period or another ; and it is of course 
only in this manner that really new and distinct kinds are to be 
obtained. It is regarded as a curious fact that in England, where 
the growing of the flower is second only to that of China and 
Japan, for many years past, and until quite recently, few, 
if indeed any, attempts have been made to raise new seedling 
plants, although in the early days of its cultivation a number 
of what were then considered remarkably fine varieties were 
obtained from seed. Owing to the damp and unfavorable 
conditions of the English autumns, so much difficulty was experi- 
enced in ripening the seeds that the attempt was relinquished, 
and nearly all the novelties displayed in that country were 
obtained from raisers in Japan and France, with a few from the 
islands of Jersey and Guernsey ; and the confession is made that 
!n recent years, we Americans have taken up the industry with 
such great zeal and energy that we have supplied to the mother- 
country several hundred of more or less fine and valuable intro- 
ductions with stronger constitutions, thus enabling seed of the 
'Chrysanthemum to be again grown in England. 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

Within the last three or four years fresh attempts have been 
made in this direction in England, and they have not only resulted 
in some really surprising successes, but they have demonstrated 
the fact that in the damp, smoky, and humid climate of England, 
well ripened seed can be produced with considerable certainty 
from American varieties, and that such seed, if saved with care, 
will afford a large proportion of varieties fully the equals, and in 
many respects the superiors, to the bulk of those imported from 
other countries. 

In the raising of plants beware of their enemies. That they 
have enemies is beyond all question. Chief of these are damp- 
ness and pestiferous insects. The first is easily overcome by the 
simple application of moderate heat constantly passing over and, 
around the plants ; but the second is not so readily vanquished, 
especially if permitted to become numerous upon the plants.. 
Then it is that 

" Diseases desperate grown, 
By desperate appliance are relieved, or not at all." 

The one great disease to which the Chrysanthemum is liable 
is mildew. It appears in the form of a white, woolly-looking 
growth, mostly on the under sides of the leaves. In its nature it 
is a fungus, and in a close atmosphere it spreads rapidly, and 
sadly impairs the functions of the foliage. The simplest and it 
may be the best remedy is sulphur, and if this is applied in time 
it will generally check, if not immediately cure, an attack. 

One of the best qualities which this flower possesses is the 
long time the blooms remain fresh, either growing on the plants 
or in a cut state ; still, greatly to the disappointment of many 
growers for exhibition, they ofttimes fail to keep long enough ; 
and thus a large number of fine blooms are rendered useless 
through the too early development of some of the varieties. As 
to the cut blooms intended for exhibition, there is in reality no 
royal road to success with regard to their perfect preservation 
for a greater or less period. Much of this success will depend on 

>od luck and the state in which the blooms were when cut from 
tin- plants ; and if they should remain in such complete condition 
bo gain you the prize at the exhibition, thank the blind god- 
dess Fortune therefor. 

8 an undisputed fact that there is much misunderstanding 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 39' 

among growers of the Chrysanthemum, as to what qualities do in 
reality constitute a good bloom. Size is the first object a culti- 
vator has in view, but this in itself is not enough, and must be 
accompanied by other good points before the flower can take- 
rank as a first-class specimen. These several points or qualities 
may be set down as size, depth, solidity, breadth of petals, form, 
finish of flower and foliage, freshness, and most certainly color.. 
I do not know as there is any absolute size to which the various 
classes of the Chrysanthemum may be grown at the present day, 
or to what perfection it may attain in the future ; but this I feel 
well assured of — given the qualifications of depth, solidity, 
breadth of petal, form, finish, freshness, and color, then the 
larger the size to which you can bring it, the greater the pros- 
pect of carrying off the much coveted prize. 

Here permit me to say that the rage for this unquestioned and 
unquestionably charming flower being still on the increase and 
its capabilities to all appearances being inexhaustible, a most 
inviting and remunerative field is opened up for the energies of 
all those who have the means, time, and patience to embark in 
its culture. 

The folklore of the Chrysanthemum is very limited, and is 
confined to China and Japan. In the former country there is a 
proverbial rhyme connected with it, which may be translated as 
follows : 

" In the second month the Peach tree blooms, 
But not until the ninth the Chrysanthemums ; 
So each must wait till his own time comes," 

which, as I take it, is a somewhat refined way of saying " every 
dog has his day," and so the charming English poet, Henry Kirk 
White, sings : 

" Say, what retards, amid the summer's blaze, 
The autumnal flower, till pale declining days ? 
The God of Seasons, whose pervading power 
Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower ; 
He bids each flower His quickening word obey, 
Or to each lingering" bloom enjoins delay." 

The Japanese have a fancy that the dewy juices in the heart of 
the Chrysanthemum are the "Elixir of Life." 

The poets, in a great measure, have paid little if any attention 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to the Chrysanthemum, but appear to have expended nearly all 
their genius on the well-deserving rose, and other flowers. 

Here is a translation of a poem, by Satoni Sensei, a native 

Japanese : 

" bloom of Chrysanthemum, 

Fabled of old, 
A fountain of rapture 

And sweetness untold — 
The dewy wine sparkled 

With life in its flame, 
And mortals partaking 

Immortal became. 
But lo ! There hath opened 

A wonderful flower, 
For God's love hath blossomed — 

$oul life in its dower, 
And its petals shall shine 

More endearing than thine, 
With their fabulous treasures of life-giving wine, — 

Far fairyland's store, — 
And its dewdrops shall glow, 
And its fragrance shall grow 

From more unto more 
While the years come and go." 

We are indebted to Dr. Walcott, of Cambridge, and Mr. W. K. 
Harris, of Philadelphia, who were pioneers in fertilization of the 
flowers in this country, for varieties which they have produced. 
They were instrumental in creating a wide interest in the flow- 
ers. Later Mr. Thomas H. Spaulding, of New Jersey, and Mr. E. 
G. Hill, of Richmond, Indiana, took up the cultivation. 

There is one thing to which I wish to call the special attention 
of your Society, that it may, I trust, be abandoned : it is the un- 
sightly staking of Chrysanthemum plants with willow and other 
stakes, reminding one of a cripple supported on crutches. They 
have neither grace, finish, nor even presentable foliage, or flowers 
with either form or coloring. If judged by a correct standard of 
coloring and finish or foliage, all would be condemned, and rele- 
gated to the rear. While the late exhibit showed wonderful 
specimens of single flowers, the plant exhibit was anything but 

<lit able as compared with the cut blooms. I trust that the 
coming season plants will be judged by a standard of blooms, by 

isli and luxuriance of foliage, by the form and color of bloom, 



THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 41 

and that the plant shall exhibit only its flowers and foliage, and 
not a forest of unsightly sticks supporting a weak stem with 
little or no foliage, and colorless flowers. 

I agree with the writer who said the nomenclature of the 
Chrysanthemum has not been much improved. Nearly all the 
names are of private persons, which, of course, to the great mass of 
people are as arbitrary and meaningless as " S.T.1860X," or any 
other cabalistic combination, and yet there is always the possibility 
in the case of every variety of Chrysanthemum of a perfectly 
happy and descriptive name. Here is a certain Chrysanthemum, 
for instance, with a great many riotous, rollicking red flowers 
growing upon it, scattering themselves about in a perfectly 
drunken way. There is one name that suggests itself instantly 
in connection with this flower : it ought to be called the Tarn o' 
Shanter. Every bloom suggests the intoxicated Scotchman look- 
ing back in terror at the pursuing fiends. But what is the flower 
named ? J. Collins. Tom Collins would have been better. 

The first Chrysanthemum exhibit for prizes in this country 
was made at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society's Exhi- 
bition in 1861, and the prizes amounted to $17. In 1868 the 
exhibition was first styled the. Chrysanthemum Show, and the 
prizes were increased to $55 ; this exhibition was an entire fail- 
ure. Up to 1868 these shows were on Saturdays, from 12 to 3 
P.M., but in 1879 it was held on Wednesday, from 12 M. to 10 
P.M. In 1882 the prizes amounted to $121. Though planned 
for one day, it was kept, open two days on account of the excel- 
lence of the exhibit and the interest taken therein. It con- 
tinued in this manner each year until 1886. The prizes were 
increased, and in 1887 amounted to $741, and. in 1896 to $1,200, 
the exhibit lasting nearly the entire week. 

It will be observed that interest in the Chrysanthemum has 
steadily increased year after year until the last season, when the 
Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society exceeded 
all previous ones in beauty, size, finish, and coloring of the flowers 
— and even surpassed the expectation of the most ardent admirer 
of the beautiful Queen of Autumn, excelling all exhibits in the 
United States, and, it is believed, not outdone in any part of the 
world. In the attainment of this grand result, the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society can justly take a large share of credit, with 
its encouraging, generous spirit toward exhibitors, entries being 



42 .MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

free to all. Boston may well feel a just pride in the efforts of" 
the growers who have made it possible to give to us such a regal- 
show as they did the past season. 

To the public a debt of gratitude is also due. Nowhere in the 
world do the people pay, and willingly, so high a price for a fine 
Chrysanthemum as the residents of the great and good old city 
of Boston. It is these elements that contribute to bring about 
such grand results, which would be impossible but for them. . 

In drawing to a close, permit me to say that I regard the future 
of the Chrysanthemum as assured. The advances made in its 
improvement have added greatly to the grace and beauty of the 
flower, and popularized it until it has won a permanent abiding 
place in all hearts. It will, indeed, be a bold flower which will 
be able to displace it, or even disturb its queenly hold upon us. 
The public, in time to come, will undoubtedly require, for the 
embellishment of the home, flowers of a smaller type, but of 
equal finish and color with the larger and more regal varieties, 
yet both will hold their proper place, and will equally delight 
and gratify our taste for this most attractive flower. 

At the present time we stand simply on the threshold of its 
future, great as its advance has been in the past decade only. 
We have a right to anticipate those improvements which techni- 
cal schools of chemistry, electricity, and kindred science are sure 
to bring. There should be no hesitancy in pressing on. The 
goal of ultimate success is already in view, and when that is 
reached there can be no further doubt of the established value of 
the Chrysanthemum in a mercantile sense, while aesthetically in 
bringing it to its highest pitch of perfection and beauty you will 
have succeeded in making it a joy forever. 

Discussion. 

Kenneth Finlayson asked, How can we bring specimens here 
\\ it limit staking? 

Mr. Wood answered, By almost any method but that used here- 
tofore ; they can be trained to wire supports. 

Mr. Finlayson still thought that they could not be brought 
here without staking. 

Mr. Wood thought that wire frames would be effectual, but he 
bad not looked into the subject. 



PLANT BEAUTY. 4& 

Thomas Harrison spoke of training the plants in a pyramidal 
form. 

In regard to the application of sulphur, Mr. Wood spoke ojT 
using it, sometimes directly and sometimes on steam-pipes. 

Mr. Einlayson inquired of Mr. Wood whether he used any 
particular fertilizer. The answer was that he had not tested all, 
but uses sheep compost, compost from horned cattle, sulphate of 
ammonia, and nitrate of soda. 



MEETING EOB, LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, January 30, 1897. 

A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. 

The following is an abstract of the lecture given : 

Plant Beauty. 

By Henry T. Bailey, Massachusetts State Supervisor of Drawing, Scituate. 

There are different kinds of love for flowers. There is the 
scientific love ; those who have only this seldom get the true 
message of the flowers. At the other extreme are people having 
a sentimental love for flowers ; they pronounce their colors mar- 
vellous, and gush indiscriminately over their beauty. The third 
kind of love for flowers has a basis of intelligent appreciation* 
The greatest enjoyment is when scientific love is combined with 
a sympathetic appreciation of beauty. 

Plant beauty is of two sorts, beauty of color and beauty of 
form. In some plants, like the calla, beauty of form predomi- 
nates ; in others, like the pseony, beauty of color ; in still others,' 
like the gladiolus, the lines of stalk, flower, and bud are as 
noticeably lovely as their colors. In the rose we have beauty 
both of form and color. Plants conspicuously beautiful for 
their form should not be gathered together in tight bouquets j, 
each should be enjoyed by itself or with two or three companions 
so grouped in a vase or other receptacle that the beauty of the 
lines of each is enhanced by that of the others. Plants of lovely 
color, on the other hand, are more effective when massed. One 
snowball is insignificant ; a bushel basket full of branches crowded 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

with the balls of creamy white glowing against the rich green of 
their foliage is highly effective. In the arrangement of flowers 
of beautiful form, we have much to learn from the Japanese. 

The " Studio " for October and December, 1896, has suggestive 
articles, with more suggestive illustrations, of the fine art of 
flower arrangement as practised by the floral artists of the Sun- 
rise Kingdom. Mr. Conder's book, " The Mowers of Japan and 
the Art of Floral Arrangement," to be found in the Library of 
this Society, will repay thoughtful study. Even the suggestions 
from Japanese prints, now so easily obtainable, are not to be 
despised by the wide-awake florist. 

The chief element in beauty of form is curvature. Euskin 
says there are two kinds of curves, the mortal and the immortal. 
We love immortal curves — the simple curve of force, the reversed 
curve of grace, and the spiral. The curve of force is shown in 
the sky-rocket. Water shot out of a fountain takes the same 
curve ; so also does the stem of the golden-rod. Reversed curves 
and spirals are seen in the unfolding of a fern frond. [These 
were further illustrated by charts and blackboard sketches.] 

Another element of beauty is radiation ; either from a centre, 
as in a snowflake, or from some point outside the centre, as in a 
palm-leaf fan. The effect may be bi-symmetrical, as in a scallop 
shell, or balanced, as in a begonia leaf. 

Our fathers preferred the bi-symmetrical arrangement. It 
appeared in the little tight headed bouquets brought to church, 
and in all manner of decoration. It was even supposed that 
houses must be bi-symmetrical — that is, that the two, sides must 
not only balance each other, but must be uniform in shape ; and 
inside the same bi-symmetrical arrangement was thought neces- 
sary, even to the placing of photographs and vases on the mantel. 

The arrangement evidently preferred by nature is that of bal- 
ance. This is illustrated by a leaf where the portion on one side 
of the mid-rib is smaller than the other, and perfect balance is 
secured by the curvature of the mid-rib and stem to the needy 
side. The Arethusa poised on its stem is another fine illustra- 
tion. Balance may be seen illustrated in the lines of the hand. It 
controls the position of the leaflets of the rose and sumach. The 
Maine woodsmen know that trees are so balanced that if but an 
inch of wood is left under the centre the tree will stand. A 
stem of grass shows the balance of parts which make it self-sup- 



PLANT BEAUTY. 45 

porting. The grouping of plants or sprays is to be governed by 
the law of balance. 

Beautiful color has such qualities as purity, gradation, and 
depth, and when colored flowers are massed, harmonious relations 
of the different hues should be secured. 

All color comes from the sun. The standard colors are red, 
orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. The first quality in 
color is purity. Color must not be muddy, as is often seen in 
novel varieties of pansies. 

There are five typical color groups or harmonies. The first 
may be called a contrasted harmony. All green-leaved plants 
with white flowers are in this group. The second is dominant 
harmony, produced by combining tints and shades of one color, as,, 
for example, a head of hyacinths or a bunch of double violet asters 
with no green foliage in sight. This combination of tints and 
shades, so common in the decorative arts and in dress goods, is 
rarely found in nature, and is least satisfactory as a harmony. 
The third is analogous harmony, composed of related hues of 
color. All green-leaved plants with yellow flowers are in this 
group. A bunch of gladioli tinted with violet-red, crimson, rose, 
scarlet, and salmon forms an analogous harmony of exquisite 
beauty. The fourth is complementary harmony — a harmony 
brought about by the juxtaposition of complementary colors. A 
violet red camellia seen against its glossy green leaves is a com- 
plementary harmony; so, also, is a bunch of violets with their 
yellow-green leaves. Another beautiful example is the marsh St. 
John's-wort, the leaves of which are green-blue, with a thick 
bloom, while the flowers are an orange tint, thus giving two 
complementary colors. The rocks at the seashore are in the 
orange scale, and the water being in effect a green-blue we have 
complementary harmony. Inland the rocks are covered with 
lichens of gray color, to contrast with the grass. The crags of 
the Alps are orange, from the orange-colored lichens growing 
there, making a tone complementary to the color of the sky. 
Such facts seem to prove that the Almighty who made these 
colors loves harmony. "He hath made everything beautiful in 
its time." 

The fifth is perfected harmony : a color group composed of 
analogous hues combined with a color complementary to the 
general effect of all the group. For example, the gladioli form- 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ing an analogous harmony if placed against a background of old 
ampelopsis leaves, of rich, bluish-green color, would be greatly- 
enhanced in color effect, and the whole would form a perfected 
harmony. A bowl full of pansies is in perfected harmony. The 
analogous group runs through varying hues, from pure yellow in 
the flower centres to the yellowish-green of the foliage. The 
complementary to the effect of this group is to be seen in the rich 
purple of the petals. [Charts, diagrams, and bouquets of flowers 
were used to make this clear. The complementary and analogous 
colors were illustrated by means of the Bradley color wheel.] 

The American people are becoming more sensitive to beauty 
every year. The florists who furnish flowers to decorate their 
homes and halls can do much to elevate public taste. A really 
beautiful thing is always attractive. What was true for Emer- 
son is true for us all. Speaking of beauty he said : 

"When first my eyes saw thee 
I found me thy thrall." 

It costs no more to make a beautiful bouquet than to make an 
ugly one, and ultimately he who produces beauty gives the greater 
pleasure and receives the larger reward. 



MEETING FOE, LECTUEE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, February 13, 1897. 
A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. 

The following paper was read by the author : 

The Sweet Pea, the Flower for Everybody. 

By Rev. W. T. Hutchins, Indian Orchard, Mass. 

It is simply impossible that either the commercial or the popu- 
lar interest in floriculture should decrease. In such a country as 
ours it must not only increase, but for some time to come the 
very ratio of this cumulative growth of interest must increase 
Che demand for florists' stock, the seed patronage, the organiza- 

D ol floral societies, and the popularizing of exhibitions, — we 
see all these increasing with phenomenal rapidity. Indeed, more 



THE SAVEET PEA. 47 

remarkable than all these is the wonderful progress made in the 
past ten years in evolving improved forms and multiplied varieties 
in many of our garden favorites. Our country is still in but the 
infancy of its floral development. 

It is easy of course to glut the market and make it appear that 
the florist's and the seedman's business is overdone. But a 
whole continent of educational work is before us, in which men, 
women, and children are to awake to the floral needs and joys of 
their nature. We have not begun to put the art of floriculture 
where it belongs — in the very van of the finest arts. The arts of 
painting, drawing, and sculpture long ago attained the dignity 
of having schools, and masters, and pupils without number, and a 
splendid patronage. The musical arts are on a basis of careful 
training, and our admission to civilized society almost depends 
on our either being musicians of some sort or having an edu- 
cated appreciation of music. These things have asserted their 
right to the name of " art," and to universal recognition. But 
floriculture is in its undeveloped stage. It is still little more 
than a voice in our nature crying for attention. It has won as 
yet from people generally only enough response to prove that it 
is destined to become an art of arts for our universal pleasure 
and profit. The " fine arts " are indoor arts, and since one-half 
our life is spent indoors the refinement of society has been 
shaped accordingly into the arts of the parlor and the drawing- 
room. But our Creator turns us outdoors for the other half of 
the year, and here in this country we are only learning how to 
use our summer leisure, and in what direction to look for out- 
door pleasure. Our American life is being redeemed from a state 
of grinding toil. We have largely passed the pioneer stage of 
hard grubbing for a living. As fast as we get above the level of 
a precarious livelihood we have time coming back on our hands, 
or at least can afford to take time for healthful and enjoyable 
diversion. Home may mean a bed, a table, and a roof, at first, 
but as surely as we prosper home comes to mean things beautiful 
within and without. A well-kept lawn and blooming garden are 
inevitably in the line of our mental and social development, and 
we get them at about the same time that we have means, leisure, 
and appetite to devote to these things. 

Some very interesting conclusions in this direction might be 
drawn from the multitude of letters I receive from men of all 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

professions. The time has gone by when floriculture was an 
effeminate diversion. Of course when virile men are busy 
opening a continent to commerce, and wrestling with the stern 
pioneer facts that dispute every inch of a man's progress towards 
success in any business, they are not thinking about posy beds ; 
but as surely as a refined and intelligent man gets beyond the 
critical stage of his business or professional development, the 
tastes of his mind will come to the surface and he will yield to 
the sweet seduction of such diversions as have restful pleasure 
in them ; and, speaking for this mundane world, the very man 
who is running under the highest pressure of business is the man 
Avho must yield to the enticement of some pleasant hobby or 
speedily terminate his suicidal career. I do a good deal of floral 
preaching outside the pupit, for I consider that there is no higher 
humanitarian mission than to persuade men to wed some hobby 
that shall make them absolutely forget their daily vocation 
for an hour or for a half-day. I will challenge any man to find 
an avocation that will more restfully exercise and at the same 
time divert body, mind, and spirit than some special line of flori- 
culture. 

A short time ago floriculture was what it was to your dear old 
grandmother, a medley of confused flowers. But a new era in 
floriculture has dawned. Life is now too short to master even 
one flower as Ave have come to understand it. A man deserves 
to be knighted who takes some sweet floral nymph of the woods, 
or some old-fashioned favorite of our childhood garden, and 
makes a royal family of it, unlocking the mysterious colors that 
are hidden in its pale bosom, and .turning one modest little Cin- 
derella into a hundred queens of beauty and proud grace. What 
Mr. Eckford has done for the Sweet Pea, a score of other conse- 
crated noblemen have done for other flowers. The time has not 
come to canonize these men. They have come through the humble 
walk of being some rich man's gardener, or they are down on 
their knees in communion with the soil, wearing the poor man's 
clothes, earning the pittance of a struggling florist, happy if 
some Lady will pay the cheap price of a nosegay. But if you 
will believe it they are ushering in the day when floriculture will 
be the queen of arts, and when men of the proudest ambition and 
intelligence will aspire to have their names associated in monu- 
mental remembrance with the development of some flower. We 



THE SWEET PEA. 49 

have carried nothing to perfection yet. One by one the flowers 
that have great possibilities in them make their advent into this 
new era. They have only made their graceful bow to us. You 
have only begun to know a flower when you see it as it is. You 
must have the prophetic anointing and see it as it is to be. 

I felt deeply touched as I went into the dwarf canna house at 
the Royal Horticultural trial gardens with Mr. Eckford and 
heard him, as he stood before the flaming cannas, say he would 
like to begin life over again and devote himself to them. It was 
the soul of this old florist, who is through his work, that looked into 
the future of the dwarf canna and saw the vision of its coming 
glory. To see a flower with the heavenly eye, and love it with 
the heavenly heart, is to drink in its full prophecy, and it is that 
which consecrates the florist and lifts his business above the slime 
of commerce to the ethereal purity and pleasure that God has 
hidden in his beautiful handiwork. 

I know we are living in the football era, and men gravitate 
towards half-civilized and even brutal athletics, and call it pleas- 
ure ; but floriculture is at the other end of man's development, 
and is both beautiful and manly. 

I have tried to study one flower, but not a day passes when I 
do not blush because people write to me as if I knew something 
about that flower. I know enough now to know that I know 
almost nothing about it. I am in love with it — wedded to it — 
learning about it. I have put ten years of hard work on it, but 
it is too deep for me. I wonder if your roses and your carnations 
impress you that way. I am sure you have a man's work before 
you, to master the rose and the carnation. How wonderfully 
their increasing beauty rewards you, and yet keeps you humble. 
It is a grand thing to be occupied with something that rewards 
you with pure pleasure and at the same time gives you a humble 
estimate of yourself. That is the divine mission of floriculture. 
Take any flower you please — there is room enough for mental 
and spiritual expansion in any one, and your pride will have as 
many falls as there are days in- the year. Pardon this minis- 
terial digression. 

Now let us take a little history of the Sweet Pea. So far as 
I can learn, Francois Cupani, an Italian botanist in Sicily, about 
1700, was the first cultivator of this flower. There appear to 
have been four original varieties, two of them natives of Ceylon 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and two of Sicily. Linnaeus makes these four native sorts pretty 
plain. It is possible that there were but the two of which De Can- 
clolle speaks, the purpureus and the roseus, and that the other two 
are variations of these. 

The purpureus must have been very nearly like our common 
light blue and purple of the trade, for this is perhaps the com- 
monest "rogue " to which the new sorts revert. It comes into the 
growers' fields everywhere. Then the original of the old Painted 
Lady, the pretty pink and white that everybody loves, must have 
been the native Ceylon variety called roseus. But there was an 
original red sort, and it appears to have come from Sicily with 
the purple. The roseus from Ceylon seems to have varied from 
pink and white to white. Going back thirty years from today to 
the beginning of the work on the modern Sweet Pea, we find these 
four originals, which probably show but little change from 1700 
to 1860. I suspect that these original sorts broke into red and 
purple striped a good while ago. Call them varieties, and as 
late, say, as 1860 there could only have been the original purple, 
red, pink and white, white and red striped, and purple striped. 
Indeed when you study the seed business you very quickly get 
from modern history into ancient, and even the length of one 
generation will take us into that dim past. But the last thirty 
years have been a revelation and an opening era. 

The first note of improved work on the Sweet Pea that I have 
states that Brown of Sudbury, England, received a certificate on 
Invincible Scarlet in 1865. It was put out by Carter of London. 
Then in 1867 we find the first improvement on the original purple, 
being given the name Imperial Purple, and leading the way to 
the Black. 

\ i »out this time it appears that Cattell, of Westerhain, had 
worked on the red striped and put it out under the name of the 
Queen. The next step was the introduction of the Crown Prin- 
cess of Prussia, the mother of light, flesh-pink Sweet Peas, by 
Haage & Schmidt,, of Erfurt, about 1868. Later the Violet 
Queen, put out by Carter, and then the Butterfly, by Sutton, in 
1*78. Carter put out the names Invincible Black and Invincible 

trlel Striped about 1880. Soon followed Lilacina Splendens, 

mow a doubtful variety, although we still have the name Splendid 

Lilac, i suspect this latter is what more commonly became the 

m Clarke The next decided acquisition of color was 



THE SWEET PEA. 51 

Adonis, put out by Carter about 1884. The name Dark Red 
is from Benary, of Erfurt, and was a development doubtless 
from the original red. 

We come now to the history of the Sweet Pea of today. Henry 
Eckford, of Wem, Shropshire, England, started into the specializ- 
ing of this flower about 1876, the earliest notice of his offering 
anything being 1882. Mr. Laxton, of Bedford, also started in 
this race. Exact dates are not easy to determine. Novelties are 
exhibited at the flower shows sometimes two or three years 
before their introduction to the trade. Bronze Prince was cer- 
tificated to Mr. Eckford in 1882. Carmine Pose, put out by 
Hurst, was certificated in 1883. But Mr. Eckford has dropped 
out everything offered before 1885. His really creditable intro- 
ductions began with this date to be offered in rapid succession. 
Names of his that he has ceased to list are Bronze Prince, Queen 
of the Isles (this is still listed by the trade, but not by Mr. 
Eckford), Miss Ethel (long since dropped), Mauve Queen (the 
name under which Countess of Padnor was first certificated). 

A word here about Mr. Laxton's work, before speaking more 
particularly of Mr. Eckford's. Mr. Laxton's son told me that his 
father had made a large number of crosses in Sweet Pea work, 
but with little satisfaction. He introduced Invincible Carmine 
and Invincible Blue, but the Laxton varieties now of most decided 
merit, having some originality of color, are Etna and Madame 
•Oarnot, 1891, Carmen Sylva and Pising Sun, 1892, and Princess 
May, 1893. 

And now for Mr. Eckford : " The Garden," of London, has just 
paid him the compliment of dedicating its fiftieth volume to him. 
Mr. Eckford is now seventy-four years old. I found him at his 
pleasant Wem home in apparent patriarchal vigor in the summer 
of 1895, but since then his health has been broken and his work 
is probably done. His son John Stainer Eckford will succeed to 
the business. " The Garden " recites the record of Mr. Eckford's 
service from 1839 to 1897 in the employ of various gentlemen of 
title and wealth. I will insert here this valuable record verba- 
tim : 

" Mr. Henry Eckford was born at Stonehouse, in the parish of 
Liberton, near Edinburgh, on May 17, 1823. In December, 1839, 
he was sent as an apprentice to the gardens of Lord Lovat, Beau- 
fort Castle, Inverness, where he remained for three years. He 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

returned to Edinburgh and then went to New Liston, the seat of 
Mr. James Hogg. He subsequently was employed as foreman in 
the following gardens: Fingask Castle, Perthshire; Penicuick 
House, Midlothian; and Oxenford Castle. In the beginning of 
1847 he arrived in London with a letter of introduction from Mr. 
McNab, of the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens, to Mr. Hugh Low, 
by whom he was sent as foreman in the gardens of Colonel 
Baker, of Salisbury, then under the management of Mr. Dodds, 
who will be remembered in connection with the improvement of 
the Dahlia and other florists' flowers. He remained here for two 
years, afterwards serving under Mr. Fleming in the gardens at 
Trentham, and going thence to Cane Wood, Highgate. In 1854 
he was appointed head gardener to the Earl of Radnor at Coles- 
hill, Berks, where during his stay of twenty years he raised 
many Dahlias, Pelargoniums, and Verbenas, which were for the 
most part sent out by the late Mr. Keynes, of Salisbury. In the 
year 1878, Dr. Sankey, who was an enthusiastic florist, invited 
Mr. Eckford to take charge of his gardens at Sandy well, Glouces- 
ter, with the view to raising seedlings of florists' flowers. At 
this time the improvement in Sweet Peas had not been thought 
of, and in 1879 he obtained the best varieties of edible Peas and 
various Sweet Peas. He soon set to work and raised many fine 
varieties of edible Peas which are a gain in our kitchen gardens 
at the present day. 

" To him is due the great improvement that has been made iir 
the Sweet Peas, these more particularly having had his special 
attention of late years, and visitors to the Eoyal Horticultural 
Society's meetings will remember the fine collections he has 
nn many occasions exhibited there. The Sweet Pea is the most 
valuable of all annual flowers of the present day ; its delicious 
perfume, its diversity of lovely colors, its lengthened succession 
of bloom, and its value for cutting entitle it to a place in every 
garden. It may be had in bloom for seven months in the year 
from one sowing if care be taken to pick off every flower as soon 
;is it shows sign of fading, not letting any seed-pods form. In 
order to obtain the best results from Sweet Peas, Mr. Eckford 
sowa very thinly, with the result that each plant branches out 
and forma quite a bush. If gardeners would only sow their 
Peas, and edible Peas as well, thinly in good soil, they 



THE SWEET PEA. 53 

•would be astonished at the results. By thin sowing we get fine 
flowers and in abundance. 

" The work of Mr. Eckford with the Sweet Pea shows how much 
may be done with simple and often neglected things in our gar- 
dens. The Sweet Pea certainly was always one of the most 
valued of flowers, but now, with so many delicate and lovely 
hues, Sweet Peas are a garden of beauty. Who knows how many 
other things in our gardens may not have in them the germs of 
like improvement ? Even some of the shrubs that now have only 
one aspect for us may some day show us a like variety. In any 
case we owe many charming things for our open-air gardens 
to Mr. Eckford, and wish him many happy years more of his 
charming and useful work." 

You would easily take Mr. Eckford for a retired professional 
gentleman, his face and figure hardly betraying the years he has 
spent as a gardener, and in hand to hand contest with the soil. 
He has been a priest of nature, and has grown old gracefully by 
reason of the masterly profession of extorting from Nature her 
deeper secrets. Some of his best life's work has been on Primu- 
las, Cinerarias, and Pansies, he having received as high as sixteen 
guineas an ounce for some seed. His trials of culinary Peas 
were a revelation to me. I shall never forget how one day he 
allowed two ladies to wander at will through the grounds, and 

one of them came exclaiming, " Oh, Mr. Eckford, Mrs. 

found a pod with thirteen peas ! " Mr. Eckford knew too well 
just where every specially fine pod was, and even to touch one 
in such a sacred place was more than his years of gracious cour- 
tesy could allow. It is a rare privilege to enter such a floral 
workshop, and the hedge about it is high, and the tall gates are 
well padlocked, and there is a sentinel near by. I was shown 
into Vilmorin's floral workshop just out of Paris, and the walls 
about it are like State's prison barriers. There are no jewels 
that can compare in value with tiny seeds, especially after twenty 
years of special work are locked up in such a seed. In 1893 one 
seed, by some inexplicable law, produced a dwarf Sweet Pea. In 
1896 the world was supplied with the product of that one seed, 
and whatever the merit of " Cupid " was, it certainly illustrated 
the enterprise of a modern seed-house in multiplying and distrib- 
uting the product of so small a thing as a single seed. 

Coming back to Mr. Eckford's work, we owe Boston a debt for 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

leading the way to the popular interest in the Sweet Pea. Your 
annual Sweet Pea exhibit was already a regular thing and credit- 
able before the rest of us saw anything very remarkable in them. 
I remember with what kindness Mr. Robert Parquhar first gave 
me Mr. Eckford's address, and I never forgot his wise injunction 
to use the confidence with due caution. I did so as long as I 
could, but the wave of Sweet Pea interest swept over the country, 
and I felt that the truly American thing was to help it on in 
every way. I suppose Boston has reaped its share of the profit 
coming from the sale of probably one hundred and fifty tons 
annually of Sweet Pea seed in this country.- Seven years ago 
your catalogues were cautious about recommending the Eckford'. 
novelties, and well they might be, for to this day very few of the' 
imported Eckford packets show up well the first year in our rigid 
New England climate and uncertain soil. You must have them if.' 
you keep up with the procession. Almost every seed of these im- 
ported packets does well on the Pacific coast, and American grown 
seed one year from Mr. Eckford's introduction is strong and shows 
us these novelties very nearly at their best. No one who is well 
up on the subject of this flower questions the remarkable merit of 
the finest Eckford novelties. And I believe we are to put such 
competitive interest into this flower that we shall hold Mr. Eck- 
ford's novelties up to their highest standard in size and quality. 
Canada seems to suit them well. Prom letters received it is evi- 
dent that enthusiasm there is running high on Sweet Peas. And 
places along our northern border, sections also where they have a. 
rich alluvial soil, up in the Northwest and the whole length of 
the Pacific coast, — in all these localities they can smile at the 
difficulty of growing the finest sorts, and giant blossoms are no 
fiction with them. I receive through the mail the pressed 
standards of blossoms measuring an inch and nine-sixteenths in 
width. When you have a blossom that exceeds an inch and a 
half, it looks like a hollyhock to an enthusiast. One grower is at 
work on a giant-flowered strain. Another writes me that he is 
ili'veloping a strain with five blossoms to a stem. By these signs 
I have ceased to be anxious about the retrograde of these fine 
things. We are.going to have seed soon that is not spoiled by 
the jobbers' calculation to the quarter of a cent per pound on the 
quantity harvested per acre. Giant-flowered Sweet Peas are not 
made in that way. nor held up to the Eckford type. 



THE SWEET PEA. 55 

Now we have just come into Mr. Eckford's finest work. He 
has gone very cautiously. He has the soul of a careful, pains- 
taking, conservative florist. And he has been among aristocrats 
enough to become a dear old aristocrat himself. He has not had 
to beg any favors from the trade, and now he says, If you 
want this new set of advance novelties the price will be fifteen 
shillings whether you take one set or a thousand sets. Here- 
tofore we have been one year behind on his novelties, but by 
paying the retail price they are open to us without any condi- 
tions. We are already at the point of Mr. Eckford's finest work 
on each color, and the time has come to sift the list of varieties 
thoroughly, and discard a large number of inferior sorts. We 
can now select a royal group, and hold them up to the finest 
grandiflora type. We can bring the number down to thirty. 
Mr. Eckford still has a rich treasure in his advance seedlings. 
He has a white that will surpass all previous white sorts. He 
has finer blue than we have yet seen. Doubtless a great quantity 
of cheap seed will be grown for our common trade, and at current 
prices little effort will be made to grow such stock for quality, 
and, since the great bulk of Sweet Peas are sold in mixed form, 
the cheap pound and packet trade will be satisfied with this field- 
grown stock. 

A word about Mr. Eckford's gardens at Wem. It is a short r 
pleasant ride down from Liverpool past Chester and Whitchurch 
to the old-fashioned, huddled town of Wem. After a few minutes' 
walk outside the town along the English lanes you come to a high- 
hedged floral bower with high padlocked gates, through which 
you see the bright evidences of high-class gardening. Here is 
Mr. Eckford's floral workshop, five acres in extent, soon to be 
enlarged to take in four acres more. 

Mr. Eckford does not grow his trade stock here. Indeed, his 
great perplexity is to get his novelties properly grown for the 
trade. Of late his trade stock has been grown down in Essex, a 
great seed section. 

The most noticeable part of his Wem garden is two acres of what 
he calls his seedlings. In this he plants all his selections of seed, 
from the latest work, of every color. Erom this field of seedlings 
he selects such as he wishes to prepare for trade introduction.. 
It was a rich treat to wander back and forth through those two 
acres of rows. They are all bushed enough to keep them off the 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ground. At every step I could see improvement on all those 
varieties that have been offered to the trade. And the new and 
richer colorings extorted exclamations of pleasure. Mr. Eckford' s 
keen eye detected at a distance the flashes of improved color, and 
his enthusiasm seemed unbounded. Now he says, " I don't get a 
shilling from all this two acres." Of course not ! This field of 
seedlings is his treasure house, and must be carried along patiently 
year after year to make selections from. The new shadings run 
in all directions. At Wem, on the soil there found, and under 
the favorable conditions for color and size peculiar to the English 
climate, the blossoms attain a wonderful perfection. The vines 
were not remarkably thrifty, and there did not seem to be the 
abundant florescence that we have at times on this side the water, 
but every flower had the aristocratic look, as if some master hand 
had grown it. Delicate shadings, that will be lost under our 
-extremes of sun and cold, are there developed to the finest degree. 
It "is beautiful to read the language of color under those English 
conditions. 

Mr. Eckford kept to himself all the secrets of his method of 
making these beautiful varieties, but the results of his work were 
abundant all about. In making up a new set of novelties, Mr. 
Eckford puts in about three or four of the highest grade sorts, 
and fills out with others not so highly developed. I would not 
complain if he doubled his price on the best sorts, and kept the 
others back. 

As fast as he makes a selection for a new set, he plants a row 
of each for his own stock seed, and tones them up to the best 
type and then sends that seed to his grower to grow trade stock. 
We have been disappointed quite frequently in the results we get 
from the Eckford sealed packets, but the source of the difficulty 
has doubtless been in the poor growing of the Eckford seed stock 
after it leaves his hands. Certainly, as I saw the rows at Wem 
in preparation for seed, the blossoms were in every case of the 
hi -host quality, and true to description. The English conditions 
for growing seed of this flower do not compare with our Cali- 
fornia!] conditions. It requires two years of California growing 
bo get back the Eckford quality of the novelties. 

\s Mr. Eckford has been the chief factor in giving us the im- 
proved Sweet Pea, so California is the second great factor in the 
ing of this flower. On the invitation of C. C. Morse & Co., 



THE SWEET PEA. 57 

of Santa Clara, California, I spent the month of May, 1894, with 
them. The chief point at that time was to set them right on the 
names and types of the already long list, so that all stocks might 
be thoroughly rogued. It seems but yesterday since we doubted 
whether Sweet Pea seed could be successfully grown in this coun- 
try. But California is today supplying the best trade stock we 
have, and we are exporting this seed to the countries that but a 
few years ago were our sole dependence. Even two years ago 
none of the foreign growers were keeping up with Mr. Eckford's 
novelties, and were taking pains only to preserve the purity of 
color of the reliable sorts. As compared to a California grower, 
who, to fill any possible contract for every known variety, does not 
hesitate to plant two hundred and fifty acres of this one flower, 
the foreign growers can hardly be said to be in the' market. Cali- 
fornia has a wonderful strength of soil, cool nights and warm 
days, and, the rainy season coming just after planting time, the 
root growth is excellent, and at harvest time they are sure to have 
continuous sunshine. Their chief danger is over-production. 
Messrs. Morse & Co. plant Sweet Peas about as we plant corn, 
two seeds in a place. Up to the first of June they can get in with 
a hoe, and to rogue out the " off " kinds, and after that the vines 
lock in together, and, with never a wind to beat them down, the 
whole field rises from three to five feet high, forming a mass of 
bloom, and going evenly to seed. Other growers plant them in 
rows about seven feet apart, and work among them all through 
the growing season. They are careful about saving seed stock. 
While rogueing them they are on the lookout for the finest plants 
producing the best blooms. These are marked with a stake, and 
saved for their own seed stock. Rogueing out off colors is only 
one-half what is needed. Deteriorated stock should be pulled 
up also, and nothing should be allowed to grow but plants fully 
up to the improved type. But our jobbers do not take this into 
consideration in fixing contract prices, and drive the grower into 
harvesting everything that will make weight. . The California 
grower needs to bear in mind that if his stock is in the least dete- 
riorated it will show in New England far more than in the rich 
soil of the Pacific coast. We must say this about our best Cal- 
ifornia growers, that they are very enthusiastic about their Sweet 
Peas, and now they have reached the most interesting stage of 
their work — the making of novelties. With such a large acreage 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to go over, they have a grand chance to find advance marks hi 
size and quality and variations of color. The American novel- 
ties of next year will show real merit, for they are the first that 
they have obtained from hybridizing. Mr. Eckford's stock is 
now in a highly hybridized condition, and as they plant a large 
number of his packets they frequently break into new things, and . 
by crossing his finest sorts they break up and show many of 
the grand advance novelties that Mr. Eckford has been holding- 
back. 

I shall be expected to refer to rules for the culture of this 
flower. Those who failed last year had plenty of good company. 
Only one of our Springfield enthusiasts succeeded well. Nothing 
comforted me more than to hear from Mr. J. F. C. Hyde that he 
too had joined the ranks of the unfortunate ones. The causes of 
failure prevailed from one end of the country to the other. 
Every exhibit was made at a great disadvantage. I bent all my 
energy to escaping the blight, and succeeded beautifully in that, 
only to see my vines go up, up, up, ten feet, blossoming in a 
scattering way after they were five feet high. There were two 
main causes; the first was that we had no freeze or frost to 
check a rapid start, and this was followed by excess of rain 
through the growing season. One of the worst vices of the 
Sweet Pea is an occasional tendency to rank vine and no 
bloom, and last year we had exactly the conditions to produce 
that. The high culture we give them nowadays necessitates 
a slow germination and a holding-back by frost, to steady 
them down to moderation in making vine. I have been 
preaching to our people some about the principle of making 
a plant work, in order to increase bloom. The root is the part 
of the plant that works, and the stiffer or firmer the soil the 
more wholesome exercise the root gets. A vine like the Sweet 
Pea should not have a soft bed underneath it. It induces a less 
hardy growth of the plant. It indulges the root and weakens it 
for its after work. It favors a top growth beyond the power of 
the root to support it. It stimulates growth at the expense of 
bloom. We have been following the trench system, which means 
that people have dug down and filled in with loose soil and 
fertilizer, and the very looseness of this bed under our seed and 
Nrines bas been enough to make mischief. It should be trodden 
down. We have weakened the plants by this soft treatment, and 



THE SWEET PEA. 59 

then have imprisoned them at the tenderest age down four inches 
below the sunny surface of the ground, and suffocated them still 
more by filling in the earth before they were at all hardened. 
Hence the blight. I have in preparing directions for other people 
kept in mind those who have a more or less light loam in their 
gardens. For all others who have a clay loam I feel but little 
sympathy, because they ought to have fine Sweet Peas with only 
half trying. But we had better all of us be shy of the trench 
method. I have a soft spongy soil well enriched. I had it 
turned up with a plough last fall, running the plough twice 
through each furrow. I shall simply hollow out about two 
inches where my rows come, treading the soil down if I find it 
soft. I shall in these shallow hollows just scratch out lines an 
inch deep for my seed, and cover only an inch, and roll the soil 
above and along the sides. If you have clay loam it will settle 
enough ; only do not make any soft bed underneath your seed. I 
believe in thorough spading in the fall for the purpose of mix- 
ing, but I should let the frost be my plough for the spring. I 
believe this firming of the ground, avoiding the other things 
that have smothered our tender vines, will stop the blight. I 
am greatly annoyed with ground moles, and shall resort again to 
tar paper, setting pieces one by two feet in size into the ground 
every few feet to prevent their running lengthwise of the rows 
— and catch 'em if you can ! Of course you all plant your Sweet 
Peas as early as possible. If the Sweet Pea gave us no other 
pleasure, it bids us hail with delight that first premature spring 
day, after the frost is out of the warmest part of our garden, for 
that is the foreordained time to plant this seed, unless you con- 
tinue to set apart Past Day for this purpose. You know by 
experience that you must plant seed liberally enough to allow for 
various losses. I adhere to the plan of planting in double rows, 
sowing at the rate of an ounce to ten feet. You ought to use 
more than that if it is cheap mixed seed. But after all losses 
the plants should not stand nearer than three inches apart. 

Now for the cutworm. Some of the devils that did not go 
into the swine went into this grievous garden pest. If I open 
my mouth to boast that I don't have many of them I shall surely 
have my pride humbled soon. I say in good faith that in so 
beautiful a thing as a row of Sweet Peas it is a disgrace not to 
come out ahead of this foe. I believe first in going at him in the 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fall just as- soon as the frost has spoiled things. Yon can burn 
rubbish over the ground, put on a good dressing of salt, and freeze 
them out by spading up as late as possible. Mr. Eckford recom- 
mended gas lime, and some of you saw an account of the way 
Semple, the great Aster man, ploughs unslacked lime into his soil. 
The fall is a grand time for making a piece of ground very 
unpleasant for cutworms or their eggs. I find virtue in the 
bran and Paris green treatment. A pail of bran with a table- 
spoonful of the poison stirred in, and sweetened a little, and sown 
on. the surface, or lightly hoed in in the spring, is a simple remedy. 
Diverting the cutworms by planting something of no value along- 
side for them to feed on helps to save some choice things, but 
you will enjoy your breakfast better if, Samson-like, you go out 
and slay a hundred of them as an appetizer. The only thing this 
good advice lacks is some professional charge, for we follow 
advice only when we pay for it. 

The past two seasons have brought another pest : I call it a 
louse ; perhaps you would call it red spider. It begins at the 
base of the vine and colonizes on the under side of the foliage. 
Its presence will be seen by the whitish, translucent spots on the 
leaves. It must be gone at vigorously either with tobacco tea or 
a strong force on the hose sprinkler. I used the latter, but with 
the excess of rain last year it did make the vines grow most won- 
derfully at an expense of bloom. Last year was surely an " off " 
year and does not count. The other rules for culture are simple 
and threadbare. Bush or trellis strongly, and so as to give them 
room to ramble. Water freely after the blooming period comes, 
but not too much before. Run the rows north and south to give 
them both the morning and afternoon sun. You are favorably 
situated here for easy success in this flower — almost anywhere 

near the sea coast they thrive. 

« 

Discussion. 

President Appleton here retired and the chair was taken by 
Vice-President Benjamin P. Ware. 

In reply to an inquiry the lecturer advised for cutworms to 
quarts of salt to one square rod. He said he would never 
ach again, at least not deeper than the ordinary furrow. 

•President James F. C. Hyde said he had suffered from the 
lit. His vines have grown as high as ten feet. He said he 



THE SWEET PEA. 61 

should never again plant in a deep trench and should be extremely 
careful about earthing up ; early earthing is disastrous. The cut- 
worm is a great pest, but he would not recommend the use of 
salt ; he would plant lettuce to attract the worms from the Sweet 
Peas or other crop, and use the thumb and finger ; this is the best 
remedy. Eternal vigilance is necessary; go over the rows at 
least once, and better twice, a day. This is his method, and he 
has taken many prizes in his day. Black shallow soil is best, 
and he believes in firming it, as good flowers cannot be grown on 
light soil without a great amount of attention. Be careful about 
the seed, and don't expect to get good results from Eckford's seed 
at first. He still believes in Sweet Peas, and thought Mr. Hutch- 
ins had taken the highest position in regard to them. 

Joseph H. Woodford inquired what fertilizer to use and when 
to apply it. 

Mr. Hutchins answered that it was always best to aim to get 
the soil as fertile as possible. Use stable manure and trench, as 
it is important to get the food into the ground and to deepen the 
soil ; with eight inches of well-firmed soil above the manure or 
compost you are pretty safe. Never apply fertilizer in the 
spring, but hold it over until fall. Commercial fertilizers, such 
as phosphates, act rapidly ; these are not needed at first. He 
would not apply wood ashes in the spring. Bone flour can be 
used safely at almost any time. A New Haven florist puts four 
inches of tobacco stems in the bottom of the trench, with good 
results ; they contain a large amount of potash. 

Giving a list of the best sorts is very difficult, as it means 
something different to the florist, the lady amateur, and the pocket- 
book. 

In whites the best is Blanche Burpee, and this is what the 
amateur wants. The Bride is the same. Emily Henderson is 
better for cut flowers if you can get it to bloom freely. Mrs. 
Sankey is good, but has rather gone by. 

In pink-whites use Blanche Eerry. 

Eor rose pink, Prima Donna, Royal Robe, and Katherine Tracey. 

The best shaded pinks are Apple Blossom and Royal Rose. 

Of soft flesh pinks Gladstone has given place to Blushing 
Beauty. 

Eor a peachy pink use Lovely ; this might be called a shell pink, 
and possesses good qualities. 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In buff pink we have Venus, which is very fine. 

For bright rose Her Majesty is the best; others are Oddity 
and Splendor, but we do not need these. 

Deep rose is found in Mikado, which seldom comes striped ; 
drop Adonis, as it is not good. 

In light scarlet use Prince Edward of York. 

For scarlet, Firefly and Harvard ; drop Invincible Carmine and 
Invincible Scarlet. For deeper scarlet we have Mars. For a 
cherry red, Salopian, which, however, is very expensive. 

For orange salmon use Meteor and drop Orange Prince. 

For orange rose, Lady Penzance. 

For reddish primrose take Emily Lynch and drop Duke of 
York. 

For rich purple, Duke of Clarence. 

For black purple, Monarch. 

For indigo, Indigo King. 

For dark maroon, Stanley. 

For blue, Captain of the Blues. 

In lavenders we have lost one ; they are the hardest to make 
hold the color ; use Celestial or Burpee's New Countess. 

For reddish mauve, Emily Eckford and Dorothy Tennant. 

For magenta, Captivation. 

For claret, Waverly. 

For primrose, Mrs. Eckford ; still good. 

For primrose cream, Queen Victoria. 

For scarlet striped, America. 

For pink striped, Ramona. 

For purple striped, Senator. 

For blue striped, Princess of Wales and Gray Friar. 

For orange striped, Aurora. 

For deeper orange, Coronet. 

For description of these varieties the booklet of the Sunset 
•Seed Company will be found valuable. . 

Frank 0. Carpenter inquired about Cupid. 

Mr. Hutchins replied that it has a certain historic value ; we need 
a hybrid race which shall be half dwarf, and this variety seems 
to be what we have wanted to work with by crossing; this is its 
only value, as it has short flower stems as well as dwarf habit. 
It docs well on the Pacific coast, and will do better here than it 
has done. It originated in a field of Emily Henderson in the fall 



THE SWEET PEA. 63 

of 1893, one plant only being found. The speaker had no trouble 
in getting it to bloom. 

James Wheeler spoke of Red Riding Hood as looking deformed 
rather than pretty, as though it was going back a hundred years, 
and said it is a shame to put bad things on the market. 

Thomas Harrison said that the lecture took him back fifty 
years, when some Egyptian Peas sent him gave a race similar to 
the present Sweet Peas. It was supposed to have been found in 
ruins in Egypt, when Sir John Gardner Wilkinson was exploring 
there, and was sent to an English firm to propagate and introduce 
as a Vetch. 

E-obert Earquhar thought it was Vicia, not a Lathyrus ; no 
improvement to the Sweet Pea has come from Yicia. Cupid is 
undesirable ; we want size, color, fragrance, and length of flower 
stalk ; also strength to the stalk. Twelve years ago very few 
Sweet Pea seeds were sold in Boston ; twenty-five years ago the 
leading firm had only one and one-half bushels ; now Ave have 
quantities. Seeds from England are beautifully developed ; much 
better than those from Erance and Germany. The speaker said 
that in two years his firm trebled their sales. To Mr. Hutch- 
ins, more than any one else, we are indebted for the magnificent 
development on this side of the water, and more than one-third 
the specialists on Sweet Peas are in this country. Mr. Hutchins' 
short list of good varieties is very good; it is just what the 
seedsman wants. We have to contend with a bright sun, which 
they do not have in England. 

Benjamin P. Ware said that the best fertilizer for edible peas 
is ground bone or flour of bone. It supplies phosphoric acid 
and is adapted to produce flowers and fruit rather than vines. 
He would use it for Sweet Peas also, putting it on in the fall ; 
though its effects might not be seen at once they would be last- 
ing. Cutworms cause market gardeners a great deal of trouble ; 
acres of onions have sometimes been cut down by them. 
Wherever you find a Sweet Pea or other plant cut down by them 
during the night, which is when they do most of their work, 
you will, if you dig for him in the morning, find the worm 
near by. 

Mr. Harrison asked whether Sweet Peas are subject to the pea 
weevil. 

Mr. Hutchins replied that of late years there had been few in 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fresh seed — not so many as formerly. He had seen none this- 
year or last. 

Mr. Harrison remarked that we had no yellow Sweet Pea. 

Mr. Hutchins said that though a Sweet Pea called yellow had 
been sold, the color was only a suggestion of yellow. Putting a 
good many together and bringing them into the house in the 
shade might bring out the color. G-olden Gleam may be a deeper 
yellow, but he doubted whether a true yellow would ever be 
produced. Nature makes laws which limit our going beyond a 
certain point, but we are rapidly getting towards a blue. 

California seed comes true in England and in the continent ; 
the speaker had never known it to fail. Mr. Eckford's seed is 
grown under special circumstances. He always sows it in 
moderate heat for germinating only, to protect it from the 
rigidity of the climate. Then they can be put in the open 
ground. They can be transplanted easily. . 

In answer to an inquiry Mr. Hutchins said that the list given 
is suitable for amateurs. The kinds recommended are robust 
growers. 

The thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to Mr. 
Hutchins for his interesting paper. 



MEETING FOR LECTUKE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, February 20, 1897. 

A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was hoi den today at 
eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. 

In the absence of the author, the following paper was read by 
J. D. W. French, Chairman of the Committee on Lectures. 

Some Phases of Market Gardening. 

By T. Greiner, editor New York edition " Farm and Fireside," La Salle, N.Y. 

It seems to me too bold an undertaking for an outsider to 

come before your celebrated body of practical horticulturists — 

Leaders in their chosen field — with the idea of enlightening 

on any phase of the garden business. We are in the habit 

of Looking to you and to the printed reports of your proceedings 

for instruction, and for new ideas and suggestions. 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 65 

It is not improbable, however, that an account of the develop- 
ment of market gardening, and of the problems with which 
your brethren in these more western districts are brought face 
to face, may be of some interest to you. I had hoped to tell you 
of this personally, and perhaps receive in return some words of 
wise counsel and consolation — some suggestions how best to 
meet the difficulties which beset us here, and how to lift the 
business out of the mire and ruts into which it seems to have 
fallen during these " hard times." Circumstances and previous 
engagements, unfortunately, compel me to entrust my own side 
of the story to paper. 

Not Flourishing. — At the outset let me say that the business 
here has not been nourishing for some years. Every gardener is 
complaining. We used to have a good market in our near cities, 
and coin money freely. Now the free coinage of silver in the 
market garden has become a myth. The great problem before 
us is how to manage so as to be able to continue in the business, 
how to earn enough to cover the wages of labor, and to make a 
bare living from the garden. 

Causes. — The causes of this unfavorable change are not far to 
seek. It has been brought about by the general depression in the 
values of other soil products, and aided and abetted by the con- 
stant advice (not altogether judicious) of agricultural writers and 
the agricultural press. I know I am not free from blame myself. 
But look up some issues of leading eastern farm papers (the 
" Rural New Yorker,' 7 for instance) of half a dozen or a dozen 
years ago. See the glowing descriptions of the results of intensive 
culture, of the profits to be found in vegetables and fruits ; of the 
freely reiterated statement that the eastern States were destined 
to produce horticultural rather than agricultural products. See 
the sensational teachings found in earlier bulletins of the New 
York Experiment Station, and in speeches of the late director 
(Dr. Collier) about the great profits from forced crops. Note 
especially the glittering and tempting assertion coming from so 
high an authority, that a quarter acre under glass would give 
greater returns than a hundred acres of farm land, the amount 
of $11,000 (if I remember correctly) being figured out as the 
proceeds from one acre under glass. 

Ruinous Competition. — Then came the great slump in prices 
of cereals, potatoes, etc. A large number of farmers who pre- 



(56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

viously had contented themselves with growing wheat, oats, corn, 
potatoes, and stock, finding loss rather than profit in their accus- 
tomed crops, and being tempted by the often extravagant prom- 
ises held out to them of better returns in garden and fruit crops, 
forsook their legitimate products, and began to grow berries, 
onions, and a general line of garden vegetables. As a result, the 
markets became flooded with these products, and prices in many 
instances were forced down below the cost of production. So we 
older gardeners met loss instead of profit, and the new-comers in 
this field have found nothing but sore disappointment. 

Possibly you, near the seashore, and with the wealth of the 
'country concentrated around you, have been less affected by 
these changes than we Avere here. But I find from the market 
reports that the big eastern cities also were glutted with garden 
products, and prices have ruled lower than ever. Growers of 
forced vegetables of all kinds, too, have suffered from ruinous 
•competition. Of mushrooms — once a great source of profit — 
there were at times more than could be sold. Hothouse tomatoes 
and lettuce were plenty and cheap, and there seemed to be in the 
markets a plethora of all vegetables and at all times. 

Too much Instruction. — I believe that we have instructed too 
much. What used to be trade secrets are now the common prop- 
erty of the masses. Tuition has been practically free, and the 
masses have learned to grow articles the production of which 
used to be the business and privilege of the few. We have writ- 
ten too many articles, books, and pamphlets. Stations have aided 
with their bulletins, and societies with their free lectures and dis- 
cussions. The urgent appeals for the production of garden and 
fruit crops have been too persistent and over-emphatic. 

No Welcome for New-comers. — While the general effect in 
1 ninging the blessings of a fruit and vegetable diet within the 
reach of everybody who in any respect deserves to be called a 
consumer may be wholesome, thus justifying somewhat the 
-on isc of those who have helped towards this result, we shall 
have to modify, if not reverse, our teaching of a quarter of a 
century or more, and now try to discourage the tendency of the 
many unskilled outsiders to rush into market gardening as a 

pposedlj profitable business. There are too many producers of 

8 h ux ^ already. Market gardening has now entered a stage 
of development m which a thorough weeding-out seems imper- 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 67 

ative and inevitable. The less skilled portion of its devotees 
will have to drop out, and only the fittest can survive. It is 
time for us to warn those who, having made a failure of general 
farming, clerking, store-keeping, or office-holding, intend to take 
up gardening without previous training and experience. If our 
efforts to scare them off are successful, it will be a favor to 
themselves as well as to those already in the business. It will 
prevent undesirable competition for the latter, and save the 
former certain disappointment and loss of time and money. 

Trash not Profitable. — That the production of trash does not 
pay has been reiterated almost ad nauseam ; and yet the markets 
are filled with trashy stuff that weakens and depresses the prices 
•of even the better grades of goods. Really superior vegetables 
may suffer in this competition, but they seldom fail to find a fair 
demand and comparatively fair prices. In a few lines we secure 
even our old-fashioned good figures. Possibly the depressed 
condition of the market garden business may prove a blessing in 
disguise, by discouraging raw recruits from coming into our 
ranks, and by thus preventing a further increase of trashy pro- 
duction. Possibly with the return of old-time general pros- 
perity (another period of which seems now about due us) the 
consumption of garden products can be increased to such an 
extent as to give us again paying prices for the general line of 
garden stuff and good profits -to the skilled grower. 

To restrict Production. — Meanwhile it is in order to talk of 
restricting the production rather than extending it, especially in 
those lines which seem decidedly overdone, as, for instance, in 
that of onions and tomatoes for the late summer and fall trade. 
This is largely a local question. What special crops one can 
produce with best prospects of profitable sales is a matter which 
each individual gardener must settle for himself. It would not 
be safe to point out special crops as promising better pay than 
others, for that would only lead to a general rush and a breaking- 
down of the prices of the products thus recommended for more 
general culture. 

Cheapened Production. — The talk of reducing the cost of 
production may have a " chestnutty " flavor ; yet I believe the 
story has not been half told. It is true that the skilled gardener 
appreciates and utilizes every new implement put forth as saving 
hand labor in the garden, from the newer style seed drill to the 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Breed weeder and the Bemis transplanting machine. It is true* 
that he tries to get his soil in shape to bring the largest yields, 
and that he crowds his crops, following one with another in 
rapid succession, so as to make the most of his opportunities. 
There is one point, however, in which almost all of us have 
blundered, and made ourselves guilty of sinful extravagance. 
This is in the matter of purchasing manures. 

Buying Plant Foods. — Every gardener is a buyer of plant 
foods in some of their forms. In most cases we have paid 
excessive prices for them. When the finished product sells for so 
much less than formerly, the raw materials should be had at 
correspondingly smaller cost. Yet the general lowering of prices 
seems to have made an exception in the case of plant food 
materials. We still pay old time rates, and in many instances 
even increased ones, for stable manure. This form of plant food 
is a waste product of stock yards and livery stables. If garden- 
ers in the vicinity of the cities could agree to be less anxious to 
buy it at whatever the seller may see fit to ask, the latter would 
have to sell it for what you — the buyer — might see fit to offer. 

I myself am more fortunate in this respect than most of my 
brethren in the gardening and fruit-growing business. By sharp 
bargaining I obtain first-class mixed stockyard manure, from 
grain-fed hogs, sheep, horses, and cows, at $ 17 per large car well 
loaded (capacity of car 60,000 lbs.), delivered here at the station,, 
a quarter of a mile from my gardens. A ton of such manure 
thus costs me less than 75 cents ; and, at the same rates that 
we pay for plant food when buying of fertilizer men, is worth 
easily double that amount. But not everybody has such a chance. 
In some cases we may be able to draw on home resources, by- 
making composts of dried muck with ashes and bone, or with 
other forms of mineral plant foods, and using such composts in 
place of the stable manure when that cannot be had except at 
.hi exorbitant price. I offer this only as a suggestion. 

Concentrated Plant Foods. — The great majority of gardeners 

also use concentrated plant foods, and sometimes with telling 

effect. Yet in their purchase we have been careless and extrava- 

i nt. I do not like to antagonize that powerful body of men, the 

called fertilizer manufacturers. We need their cooperation. 

They have had a mission. Like the nurserymen they had to 

'1 their agents among the tillers of the soil to induce them to 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 69 

make use of a good thing. This agent system of selling, how- 
ever, is expensive. Then there are bad debts, and debts of long 
standing, and interest on the investment and outstanding claims, 
and a heavy expense in advertising, and other outlays and losses, 
so that, taken altogether, the fertilizer- men may have to charge 
us the going rates for these plant foods in order to make their 
old-time profits. But why should they not be satisfied with 
smaller profits when we and all the rest of the tillers of the soil 
are obliged to do this ? 

Pertinent Queries. — I will add a few more pertinent questions : 
Why shall we, who know what we are doing, and who try to do 
a fair and square business on an economical basis, help to carry 
the losses of poor sales when there is absolutely no necessity for 
it ? Do we really need ready mixtures ? Do manufacturers pre- 
tend to know more about the needs of our special crops in each 
special case, or on our special soil, than we do ? Is one and the 
same mixture just what is needed for any one crop under all cir- 
cumstances ? Is it not absurd to talk about special onion manures, 
special potato manures, special cabbage manures, etc., when the 
conditions of the soil on which each individual crop is planted 
vary so much ? Who will tell us whether a certain crop needs 
exactly six or eight or ten per cent of potash ? Why will manu- 
facturers sell their slightly differing mixtures of three simple 
food elements, in slightly differing forms, under twelve hundred 
different trade names? 

Home Mixtures. — I can see no necessity for using ready-made 
mixtures in the garden, but the strongest reasons for avoiding 
that course. Let us examine the fertilizer analyses as given, for 
instance, in one of the latest bulletins issued by the New Jersey 
Experiment Station (New Brunswick). The mixtures sent out 
by our various firms as especially adapted for garden crops vary 
in real value between $20 and $26 per ton, and sell at from $30 
to $40. In other words, the purchaser is asked to pay the full 
value of the article and an additional fifty per cent of its value 
to make good expenses and losses of the seller, and to swell his 
profits. Now if we buy the following ingredients : 

500 lbs. nitrate of soda, costing about . . . . $11 25 

1,200 " dissolved South Carolina rock, costing about . 6 00 

300 " muriate of potash 6 75 

2,000 lb,s $24 00 



70 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



we have a ton which contains about four per cent of available 
nitrogeu, nine per cent of available phosphoric acid, and seven 
and a half per cent of potash (K 2 0) ; cost us $24, is worth 
127.90, and the equal of a fertilizer sold by manufacturers at 
about $40 per ton. Professor E. B. Yoorhees, director of the 
New Jersey Station, suggests the following formula for garden 
crops, viz. : 
Nitrate of soda . - 200 lbs. 



Dried blood . 

Tankage 

Acid phosphate . 

Muriate of potash 

Total . 



200 

200 

1,000 

400 



2,000 lbs. 



This mixture will analyze about three and a half per cent of 
nitrogen, eight per cent of phosphoric acid, and ten per cent of 
potash. In cost and value it is not materially different from the 
other. 

Applying Plant Foods. — Some gardeners may fear the labor 
of mixing. But why mix these ingredients at all ? Nitrate of 
soda and muriate of potash are as easily sown over the ground,, 
broadcast, as wheat. Acid phosphate can be slightly moistened 
by sprinkling and working over on a tight barn floor, or in a 
wagon box, and then applied by hand. When we have a chance 
to effect a saving in cost of from $12 to $16 per ton, we can well 
afford to expend a little extra labor in application. My practice 
is to sow each ingredient alone, taking pains to distribute the 
proper amount. 

Direct Dealings. — A prolific source of loss to us has been our 
carelessness in selling to irresponsible buyers, and in consigning 
products to commission merchants. For us here, the only safe 
way seems to be to deal directly with consumers, and in rarer 
3es with retailing grocers, for cash only. If we have superior 
vegetables, we can usually find private buyers willing to give a 
fair price. Our grocery stores are not satisfied with reasonable 
profits. Just at this time they are unwilling to pay to the 
-rower more than from 25 cents to 30 cents a dozen for the very 
choicest of hothouse lettuce, while they are unwilling to sell the 
■same at less than 10 cents a head. The only thing we can do is 
bunt up consumers ourselves. Quu way to treat commission 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 71 

merchants is to give them no chance. If we ship anything to 
them we soon follow the goods, and keep watch of the dealer's 
doings until the money is in our pockets. 

Nitrate of Soda. — No single plant food has ever given me the 
striking results which I frequently obtained by the use of nitrate 
of soda, especially when applied to beets, spinach, cabbages, and 
cauliflowers, either alone, as in the case of the former two, or in 
combination with muriate of potash, as in the case of the latter 
two. Sometimes the effectiveness of the nitrate has been further 
increased by the simultaneous use of lime, and maximum results 
have thus been secured at a minimum cash outlay. We have 
usually applied nitrate of soda at the rate of from 200 to 300 
pounds per acre, and muriate of potash in slightly smaller 
quantity, both broadcast. These fertilizers are always worthy 
of trial in growing the garden products named, and perhaps in 
growing others. 

Some Remunerative Crops. — The following brief remarks may 
suffice in regard to what we consider our money crops : Early peas 
come first, and we find them profitable if we grow only what we can 
dispose of directly to consumers. Strawberries, when properly 
managed, have never yet failed to give us fair returns, even when 
disposed of at wholesale to groceries and commission houses. We 
have quick sale, at good prices, for first early tomatoes, and the 
only trouble is that even with all the pains we take we can get only 
a small portion of the crop on our earliest plants to ripen before 
the great rush knocks the props from under the tomato trade. 
The Early Ruby type of tomatoes (including the newer Leader), 
which bloom and set fruit freely even on the young plants under 
glass, give us some very early fruit, and we are in hopes of find- 
ing before long a variety having these characteristics, with uni- 
formly smooth fruit of fair size. The Prizetaker onion, grown 
on the plan of the so-called " new onion culture," has been one 
of our most profitable crops, and the Barletta pickling onion 
ranks very high with us as a money-maker. There is a good 
demand, seldom fully met, for these very small, white bulbs, and 
even when sold through the regular commission channels they 
have netted us over $3 per bushel. The crop is produced with 
little trouble inside of three months, brings cash returns early in 
September, and leaves the ground in good shape for a succeeding 
late crop, like celery, spinach, etc. 



72 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Among other crops that we can rely on for some profit are late 
cabbages, which bring from $12 upwards per ton; melons, 
especially of high-flavored varieties like Emerald Gem; and 
Hubbard squashes. 

Newer Devices and Methods. — Few of the newer implements 
have been such a help to us as the Meeker smoothing harrow, 
although it has imperfections and the great drawback of high 
price. We now hope to find in the Clark's cutaway smoothing har- 
row an implement costing less than half as much as the Meeker, 
and doing fully as good — in some respects perhaps better — work. 
The Breed weeder and Bemis transplanter have already been men- 




Bench, double width, arranged for sub-irrigation. Tiles laid in cement. This 
bench has been in use with me for two seasons. 

tioned, and they are found to be great labor-savers. Among newer 
methods there are two which have left a deep impression on our 
garden practices : The one is the so-called "new onion culture," 
which has enabled us to make the Prizetaker and New Gibraltar 
onions very profitable within the limits of people's appreciation 
of mild flavor, and of their willingness to buy onions of very large 
size The other is the new system of applying water to green- 
house crops, namely, by sub-irrigation. This seems by far the 
safesl plan for lettuce beds, and it has enabled me to grow finer, 
larger, and healthier plants, especially of the hard-heading newer 
forcing sorts like White Perfection, New Hothouse, etc., than the 
old way of surface watering ever gave us. The accompanying 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 73 

sketch shows the bench as I use it. The bench is made of a two- 
inch plank bottom with sides of four-inch board, resting on a frame 
of three by four scantling, and made water-tight by means of a 
cement lining. Lines of two-inch tile are laid upon the bottom 
across the bench, two or two and one-half feet apart, the end tile, 
which receives the water, turned up at an angle of forty-five 
degrees. 

I shall have to pass over for this time other subjects which 
might be worthy of fuller notice, such as the need of more 
thorough cultivation of the home market and the hopes with 
which some of our brethren in these border towns look upon 
coining tariff changes as means to free them from the formidable 
competition of Canadian gardeners, and thus to bring about at 
least a temporary rise of prices in garden products. 

In conclusion, let me express the hope and wish that the return 
of old-time prosperity may be close at hand, and that we may thus 
be relieved of all further anxious speculations and doubts as to the 
future of market gardening. We have full faith that all will turn 
out well in the end. 

Discussion. 

Benjamin P. Ware said that he had been pleased with the 
character of this paper, and happily disappointed. It had not told 
us of the theory and practice of market gardening and he was 
glad of it ; it had given us what we need. As the prices for prod- 
uce diminish we must adopt some method to reduce the cost of 
production, and the importance of reducing the cost of production 
has been brought out. In business today we find the waste prod- 
ucts are used to manufacture new articles, but we farmers and 
gardeners are the most extravagant of all. He wanted to 
emphasize that we can save one-third or one-half the cost of fer- 
tilizers by mixing them ourselves. We must buy the raw mate- 
rials and mix them ourselves, and use what our crops require. The 
mixed products on the market are not what we want. He did not 
know why such mixtures are made. We must learn from the 
experiment stations what we need, and mix as our plants 
require. Mixed fertilizers do not supply that. Professor Jordan, 
at a farmer's institute in New Hampshire, which the speaker 
attended, emphasized the idea that we should contract with agents 
for the materials, and that a saving of fifty per cent can be made by 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

so doing. Advantage must be taken of these things ; we have put 
before us in bulletins what we need for our plants and animals as 
well. Mr. Ware asked his fellow-farmers and market garden- 
ers whether they were willing to pay this extra profit to the 
manufacturers. If they were they might do it ; he would not. 
Mixtures are all humbug ; names are used to catch your eye ; if 
one does not, another will. He approved of the method presented ; 
we must see where we can save anything and save it if we wish to 
succeed. Mr. Ware concluded by calling on one of our fellow- 
workers, Mr. Sullivan, of Eevere, whom he saw in the audience. 

Mr. Sullivan, after thanking Mr. Ware for the call, said : 
Labor is the first great expense, but if we try to reduce the wages 
of our laborers, and thus reduce the cost of the produce, we com- 
mence by making our own townspeople poorer ; they must live, 
and their children must go to school. As it is now, they have a 
hard time. Italian laborers are now getting plenty, and work for 
very small wages, but is it desirable labor to hire ? We have 
given them a fair test, and find that to a certain extent they can 
be employed, as for weeding and the like, but if you do not have 
an interpreter you cannot explain to them what you want done, 
and a foreman is required to stand over them continually. They 
are willing and good workers, but as they cannot understand the 
English language we have come to the conclusion that we cannot 
afford to reduce the wages of present laborers. Another point is 
the cost of manure ; this has been well explained in the paper. 
We are paying too much already. In the city of Chicago, and 
some other large cities, manure is given to the gardeners by 
the stable-keepers; the gardeners thus get it for the hauling,. 
which often amounts to $3 or $4 per cord. This is a help. Mr. 
Sullivan said, in regard to fertilizers, that he had used them in 
all forms, and understood all about the manufacture of them and 
I be ingredients used. Taking the material in gross, there would, 
without doubt, be a saving of fifty per cent, but mixing this 
materia] is not general, and many have not the intelligence that 
Mi-. Ware lias to put into the mixing. If the fertilizer dealers 
would be satisfied with small profits, say $25 per ton for their fer- 
tilizers, the farmers would be satisfied. Some fertilizers must be 

ed, but we are at present dissatisfied with what are now on the 

Bt. The manufacturers will come down, and the sooner the 

We are protected by the experiment stations, so that, 



SOME PHASES OF MARKET GARDENING. 75 

the fertilizers put on the market are true to the percentages 
marked on the bag, but the price is so high now that we are 
driven to lessen the consumption. 

Hon. Aaron Low expressed his appreciation of the lecture. 
The great problem in market gardening, he said, is the production 
of crops at low cost. If we cannot get the price necessary to pay 
expenses, we must have, lower-priced labor. We want to get our 
money's worth in everything, and he did not see why a farmer 
could not mix his own fertilizers. All understand what is needed 
by the plants — nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid. Apply 
nitrate of soda first, then muriate of potash, and finally some 
form of phosphoric acid; apply separately and harrow. The 
progress now being made does not lessen the labor much. 
Products are continually bringing lower prices, while the labor 
required remains the same. Agricultural industry is depressed 
all over the country ; this is caused by over-production, and also, 
to a great extent, by the reduction in prices. Our foreign popu- 
lation hawk around produce of inferior quality on our streets; 
this has a bad effect, reducing the prices of good articles. If the 
farmer cannot use manufactured fertilizers and make them pay, he 
must use something else. The speaker uses fertilizers a good 
deal, being so situated that he cannot get anything else. Each 
must answer the questions as to what fertilizer he shall use, and 
whether he shall get them separately and apply them separately, 
or mix first, or whether he shall get them all mixed. 

Another gentleman said all soils are different; he tries to 
restore the original elements to the soil. He always asks himself 
how he can best restore the fertility of his soil and bring it back 
to the original condition. 

Joshua C. Stone said he did not believe fertilizers all humbug. 
He lives near the abattoir and knows that all done there is done 
openly. It costs them thirty-six dollars a ton to make their fer- 
tilizer and they will sell it for thirty-eight. Others might buy 
what they think best for themselves ; he would not give up 
manufactured fertilizers. You can put manure on one-half of an 
acre of land and fertilizer on the other, and if the fertilizer does 
not give better crops the manufacturer will return your money. 
He called that honest. They also admit that there is no fertilizer 
equal to barnyard manure. He did not like to see them handled 
in this way when they were not present. 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Kenneth Finlayson told of his experiment with mixing fertil- 
izers. He said farmers have the brains, bnt not the experience, 
to mix fertilizers. He uses extensively under glass a fertilizer 
consisting of Canadian unleached wood ashes, guano, and soot ; 
this gives fine results. In the absence of soot he once used the 
other two, which acted on one another in such manner as to liber- 
ate the ammonia, and as it was a cold night the conditions were 
such that the ammonia destroyed the leaves of all the roses to 
which the fertilizer was applied. His point was that the manu- 
facturers of fertilizers would not make such errors. 

Mr. Low said that ashes should not be mixed with any manure, 
as it liberates the ammonia. 

Mr. Ware did not like the statement made by one speaker, that 
market gardeners have no brains. There is no business in which 
the chance to use the sciences is so marked as in market garden- 
ing. He did not see any difficulty in mixing fertilizers ; all we 
need is a barn floor and a shovel. Empty the bags of separate 
materials, giving the proper percentage of each, and then mix. 
The expense of mixing is about fifty cents a ton. The ammonia 
is the most expensive part of fertilizers. Don't accuse us of 
ignorance, Brother Stone. 

Mr. Stone answered that if we saw Mr. Ware ; s crops we 
should understand his meaning. 

Mr. B. B. Butler said that he understands that it is the nitro- 
gen which starts the leaf growth on plants. Why, then, do we 
need to mix at all ? 

Mr. Ware replied that the mixing was merely a saving of the 
labor of putting it on. You can put on three handfuls at a time 
just as easily as one. 

Mr. Butler asked how much does going over three times amount 
to? 

Mr. Ware said we put nitrate of soda on for the leaf growth, 
;md the rest to get the crop, so that we should apply the nitrate 
of soda when the crop needs it. Phosphoric acid and potash are 
not needed then. Apply the nitrate in small quantities. 

J)r. Crozier said there is one loss in artificial fertilizers which 
has not ben mentioned. If we buy a ton of superphosphate of 
lime, what do we get? At least fifty per cent of sulphuric acid 
and water. The acid has united with the larger part of the lime 

an insoluble sulphate, and the phosphoric acid is in the form 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 77 

of a soluble Diphosphate of lime, which must be neutralized by 
the alkalies in the soil in order to be used by the plants. When 
South Carolina rock is used in making the superphosphate, much 
of it reverts and becomes permanently insoluble. Phosphoric 
acid is almost the only constituent of modern fertilizers which 
admits of a redaction in cost, as nitrate of soda and the various 
forms of potash are probably as cheap now as they will ever be. 
Minutely divided bone dust will be found to be the most satisfac- 
tory form in which to use phosphoric acid, as a large proportion 
is available for present use, and the residue is rapidly brought 
into condition for future crops. 

A mixture of half a ton of cotton-seed meal (a cheap and con- 
tinuous source of nitrogen), six hundred pounds of nitrate of 
soda, half a ton of high-grade sulphate of potash, and one ton of 
pure bone flour will meet the requirements in most cases. 



MEETING EOE LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, February 27, 1897, 
A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, Vice-President Benjamin P. Ware in the chair. 
The following paper was read by the author : 

Good Food from the Garden. 

By Miss Anna Barrows, Managing Editor " American Kitchen Magazine," Boston. 

Since the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has asked a 
woman to address this meeting, presumably it wishes to look at 
the interests which it represents through, the eyes of the house- 
keeper. This is a hopeful sign, and indicates that in the near 
future producer and consumer may cooperate to secure the best 
interests of both parties. Today they seem to be separated by a 
multitude of middlemen, who, perhaps from ignorance of the best 
methods of handling garden produce, often injure rather than 
help this branch of trade. 

The gardener, the marketman, and the housekeeper should have 
frequent conferences, to the end that all people should be better 
fed ; that the human body may repel disease and temptation to 
crime, and may be able to bear the heavy burdens of the twentieth 
century. Let us look at the possibilities of obtaining good food 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

from the garden in the past and at the present time, and then 
consider what may be done to improve the supply of such prod- 
ucts and increase their use in the future. 

The successive stages by which our present methods of feeding 
ourselves have been evolved from the customs of primitive man 
form an interesting study, which is of especial value to those 
whose business it is to provide food for mankind. The earliest 
foods of races in warm climates were fruits and nuts, of which 
nature furnished an abundance, and which were eatable with little 
or no preparation. In some cases the women and children ate the 
natural fruit, while the warriors fed on dried fruit prepared with 
oil. Others subsisted mainly on raw flesh, and, perhaps by acci- 
dent, discovered that new and agreeable flavors were developed 
by heat. Broiling or roasting over the open fire has been with all 
races one of the first steps in the art of cookery, and meats rather 
than vegetables were the objects of early experiments in this 

direction. 

" To cookery we owe well-ordered states 
Assembling men in dear society." 

Savages found it a simpler matter to pursue their food rather 
than to take the chances of producing it from a fixed place. The 
placing of a hearthstone and the planting of seeds were higher 
steps on the ladder of civilization. For a nomadic life a larger 
area of country was required than is sufficient to support a given 
population by other means. Even grazing, which succeeded the 
chase as a method of supplying food, will not support a large 
population on a given average. 

This is one of the strongest arguments that vegetarians can 
bring in support of their cause. As the world grows more popu- 
lous fruits and vegetables must supply the larger portion of the 
food of its inhabitants. Not until men became versed in the art 
of agriculture was it possible to make further advance in cookery, 
since the products of the vegetable kingdom required greater 
development before they offered much inducement for the experi- 
ments of the cook. Nor do the most skilful efforts of the farmer 
avail unless the cook handles his products with equal intelligence. 

Count Rumford once said, " The number of inhabitants that 
can be supported in a country depends as much upon the art of 
cookery as upon that of agriculture: both arts belong to civiliza- 
tion : savages understand neither of them." 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 79 

Progress in both these arts is shown by the very general inter • 
est in cookery displayed by various agricultural organizations. 
They are recognizing that the quality of food product is not 
assured when it leaves the hands of the farmer, and that quite as 
much depends upon its preparation for the table as upon its cul- 
tivation. 

Among the topics discussed recently by the grangers have been' 
such as " The Garden of the Farmer versus the Pork Barrel." 
Another worth considering would be u The Home Garden versus 
Patent Medicine." 

A census of New England today would fail to show a very 
general knowledge of the almost infinite variety of vegetables 
which might be cultivated within its borders. 

It has been said that vegetables, to the early settlers of New 
England, meant only potatoes and beans and corn, with a boiled 
dinner now and then. That was a slight advance upon the habits 
of the Indians, but to their instruction we are indebted for much 
of our knowledge of corn and beans. 

This ignorance of valuable foods is the result of habit and the 
inertia which makes it hard to enter new paths. The reason 
often given is that people generally do not like vegetables; per- 
haps it would be nearer the truth to say that we do not know 
how to cook them so that they will be palatable. 

Not only have we failed to learn how to use new vegetables, 
but have nearly lost the art of making some of the standard dishes 
of the past. The increased facilities for obtaining meat from the 
West, and the cheapness of canned foods packed in California and 
the South, have rendered it unnecessary for us to exercise our inge- 
nuity to prepare a variety of palatable dishes from the scanty 
store of products available to our ancestors. Erom the corn they 
prepared hasty pudding, hulled corn, brown bread, boiled and 
baked puddings, and succotash with the bean, which also furnished 
the bean porridge and filled the bean-pot, to be baked till tender 
and savory. Sauerkraut found a foothold in some sections of New 
England with early German settlers and remains until this day, 
and pickles of all sorts and kinds have always flourished. As a 
whole New Englanders have not taken kindly to soups and 
salads, and have yet to learn the possibilities of vegetables in 
these directions. 

The early New England housekeepers achieved wonders with 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

flour, the most refined food product at their command, but they did 
not try many experiments with vegetables ; possibly because the 
men were too busy in subduing the new land to provide very satis- 
fying gardens. Then as now the cook books gave comparatively 
little space to directions for the preparation of vegetable foods. 

The criticism usually made upon the present food of the 
American people by those familiar with dietary standards and 
the customs of other countries is that we eat far too much meat. 
By a comparison of the foods of different nations and classes of 
society we should see that meat eating is not essential to strength, 
and that the very poor depend upon vegetable food because it is 
cheap. On the other hand many of the wealthy find in the 
expensive varieties of fruit and vegetables, like the mushroom, 
the globe artichoke, and the products of the hothouse, an oppor- 
tunity to spend money lavishly and to gratify their aesthetic 
tastes. 

For the majority of our people today vegetarianism is hardly 
practicable, but its adherents increase rather than decrease. 
While in many instances vegetable substances furnish more 
nutriment in proportion to the cost, they are less quickly digested 
and less completely assimilated than animal tissues. ISTow we 
are obliged to employ the animals as middlemen to transform the 
tough grasses into substances which can be digested by us. As 
our scientific knowledge increases, doubtless we shall find ways to 
prepare as food many substances now worthless. 

Though the people of this age continue to be meat eaters, the 
quantity now consumed because of the abundance of meat in this 
country is far too large. The average diet would be improved by 
a greater use of vegetables. Animal food should not constitute 
more than one-fourth of the whole amount eaten. 

There are objections to an exclusively vegetable diet, and no 
radical change should be made ; but equal objections may be 
brought against the use of meat. Probably a larger bulk of 
vegetable food would be required to produce similar results, and 
the vital processes would move more slowly. On the other hand,. 
some of our most troublesome diseases, like intemperance, cancer, 
and gout, are thought to have a direct connection with excessive 

at eating. 

B. \V. Richardson has said : " Keep as near as ever you can ta 
the first sources of supply, fruits and vegetables." 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 81 

Allowing for occasional idiosyncrasies, people can eat anything, 
and habits in this direction are easily formed. We learn to like 
olives and mushrooms because the taste for them is a proper one ; 
in the same way we may enjoy a variety of vegetables. 

At the present day we are beginning to realize that a knowl- 
edge of the composition of each food is essential to its wise selec- 
tion and preparation. Vegetables and fruits afford all the five 
necessary food principles, but the proportions are hardly satisfac- 
tory for a perfect diet. Fats and proteids need r enforcement, 
and this is accomplished by the use of butter, oil, eggs, and 
meats. 

To generalize in describing the foods which come from our 
gardens, they contain water, starch, sugar, gum, pectin, fats, 
proteids, and mineral matters. The great amount of water — from 
seventy-five to ninety-five per cent — serves to supply in pleasant 
form our most essential food. The lack of water in the average 
diet has been called our " gravest dietetic error." 

The carbohydrates — starch, sugar, and the like — are the most 
important solids in vegetables. The potato contains more starch 
than any other moist vegetable, and according to late government 
•experiments this is more easily digested than many other starches. 
Sugar is too often lost by throwing away the water in which 
vegetables are cooked. Dextrin and dextrose are formed from 
starch in the maturing of fruits, and probably in some processes 
-of cooking vegetables. Pectin, pectose, and gum are substances 
as yet little understood. Fats in our ordinary garden vegetables 
are in too minute quantities to be reckoned. The proteids are 
complex substances and are most prominent in the pulse family. 
They are less digestible than animal proteids ; even a third may 
pass through the system undigested. 

The mineral matters are valuable forms of phosphates, iron, 
and potash, in keeping the blood pure. 

It is interesting to note the different parts of plants which are 
used for food — the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds. The latter 
are used mainly in the dry form, and absorb much water in prep- 
aration. This must be remembered when studying analyses of 
dried legumes and cereals. 

The cellular structure of vegetables, which constitutes nearly 
half their bulk, is the chief barrier to their use and the great 
obstacle to be overcome by cookery. This material is closely 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

allied to starch and is variously subdivided as cellulose, woody- 
fibre, and lignin. These cell-walls cannot be wholly separated 
from the nutritive substances which they contain. In moderate 
quantities cellulose may aid the process of digestion by giving 
the necessary bulk for the stomach to work upon, ,and thus afford 
a wholesome stimulus to intestinal contraction. The denser forms 
of woody fibre cannot be digested, and moreover hinder the pro- 
cess in other substances associated with it. 

Plants growing rapidly with plenty of water and sunshine 
usually have less of this woody fibre, and it is the aim of the 
gardener to eliminate it as far as possible. The cook tries by 
higher temperature to soften this substance, and if boiling water 
could be raised to a point above 212° Fahr. it would be desirable. 

By improved methods of cultivation the agriculturist has 
removed the acid flavors of the natural vegetables and has 
reduced the proportion of woody fibre, but he undoes much of 
his work by careless methods of delivery to the consumer. 

Between the farmer and the marketman certain trade customs 
have grown up which are calculated to foster ignorance on the 
part of the consumer and against which the protests of intelligent 
housewives avail little. A large part of the vegetables displayed 
in our markets are overgrown, wilted, or carelessly prepared. 
Those which suffer most from this treatment are radishes, 
cucumbers, green peas, beans, corn, and summer squashes. 

The public must be educated to appreciate quality rather than 
size ; to recognize the facts that wilted southern vegetables never 
equal " natives " in flavor, and that gain in size usually means a 
corresponding loss of flavor. 

Why should we have to lose the sweet nutty root of the celery 
because it is pierced with a nail ? Why need asparagus waste its 
strength in producing several inches of stalk which must be 
thrown away ? Why should not summer squashes and cucumbers 
be sold by weight as well as winter squashes ? 

The arithmetic of the market gardener is mysterious to the- 
housekeeper — sometimes onions are sold by the pound; some- 
times by the quart. Bunches may be three or four or eight or any 
number that suits the dealer's fancy. Marketmen say that 
women are becoming more interested in all these things, and a 
simplification of methods of sale would increase this interest. 

The public is not wholly to blame for its ignorance in these 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 83 

directions. The gardeners often grow different varieties for their 
own table from those they offer for sale, and the greengrocers 
apparently know no difference in qualities of different species of 
vegetable. One market handbook devotes fifty pages to describ- 
ing meats and fish, while but ten pages are given to vegetables 
and fruits. 

Easy transportation and culture under glass have served to* 
take away our appetite, since when we can have anything at any 
time we do not care for it at all. 

The forcing of vegetables out of season has confused the house- 
keeper unfamiliar with farm life. She does not know when any- 
thing is at its best and does not take advantage of an abundant 
market, but supplies herself with canned vegetables, which are 
always in season. 

There should be a strong movement against the use of foreign 
substances in canned and dried vegetables and fruits. Salicylic 
acid, coloring matters, and sulphur may or may not have ill 
effects, but they surely cannot improve the quality or flavor of 
first-rate vegetables. 

Dried fruit and vegetables would be more popular if specific 
directions had been given for their use. Few persons realize that 
long soaking and little cooking produce the best results. Per- 
haps all this instruction will have to be given by some enterpris- 
ing seedsman, just as the food-product people show how to cook 
their wares. 

The housekeeper knows little of the comparative merits of the 
vegetables in the market, and often is no wiser than the New 
Jersey family recently reported by the United States Department 
of Agriculture, where 14.8 per cent of the whole sum spent for 
food went for oranges and celery, which furnished but 1.4 per 
cent of the total full value. 

To quote Count Rumford again : " I constantly found that the 
richness or quality of a soup depended more upon the proper 
choice of the ingredients and a proper management of the fire in 
the combination of these ingredients than upon the quantity of 
solid nutritious matter employed ; much more upon the art and 
skill of the cook than upon the sums laid out in the market." 

The methods of cookery applied to vegetables are similar to 
those used for meat, but must be adapted to the composition and 
condition of the individual specimen. 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

There is usually some one way best for each vegetable, but 
where one kind only is available it is necessary to serve it in a 
variety of ways. This perhaps explains why the average cook 
book gives more receipts for the potato than for all other vegeta- 
bles. Almost any vegetable may appear by due Combination with 
milk, butter, and eggs in soups, fritters, croquettes, souffles, or 
salads. Suitable utensils are essential ; vegetables should not be 
cooked in iron kettles when any others are attainable ; strainers, 
ricers, and presses are desirable. 

Strong flavors frequently are due to careless preparation. 
Careful trimming and thorough washing are essential. Wilted 
vegetables are improved by soaking. Salad plants need especial 
care in washing to remove parasites as well as hellebore or Paris 
green. 

By cutting in small portions the time of cooking may be 
hastened. In general, vegetables are to be put in soft water, 
freshly boiling, and kept at the boiling point until tender. If 
uncovered the color is better preserved and the odors are less 
pronounced. Salt should be added when the cooking is partly 
completed. Soda may be used legitimately in minute quantities 
to aid in softening the water. 

As a rule, with all sweet, well-flavored vegetables the water 
should be allowed to evaporate at the end, instead of draining it 
off. By that means all the valuable qualities are preserved. 

In one of the publications of the United States Department of 
Agriculture the difference in digestion of the same food cooked 
in various ways is thus stated : Whole peas soaked and cooked, 
60 per cent digested; peas cooked a long time and strained, '82.5 
per cent ; pea flour cooked with milk, butter, and eggs, 92 per 
cent. This would seem to prove that the portion of vegetable 
food considered undigestible can be reduced by right methods of 
cooking. Why should not a meal or flour of peas and beans be 
obtainable in our general markets ? 

It is impossible to give the exact time for cooking any variety 
of vegetables, for every sample will differ. They are unpalata- 
ble when underdone and also at the other extreme. 

Contrary to the usual impression vegetables maybe warmed 
c if cure is taken in the process. 

I »ut it is to the home garden that we must look for the real 
luxuries in the vegetable line — where thev can be tended and 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 85 

petted individually and gathered as required, each at its own 
perfection. 

The best land is none too good for a garden. It should be near 
the house, where each member of the family can spend the odd 
minutes giving cultivation to the plants, and in turn receiving 
fresh air. More outdoor work for women would add immensely 
to the comfort of the family. The garden should be planted to 
fit the family as carefully as a library should be selected. Many 
a professional man, living in city suburbs, would save doctors' 
bills as well as grocers' bills by cultivation of a garden. 

Can we wonder that it is impossible to work the city poor out 
into the country when all education is away from Mother Earth ? 
Had Mayor Pingree started the potato gardens a generation ago 
matters might stand differently today. Some foreign countries 
have found it wise to teach horticulture in their public schools. 
It is not strange that country boys and girls come to the city, 
since they are not shown the interesting phases of country life. 
Why do not the horticultural societies offer generous premiums 
for the best lot of vegetables raised by boys and girls ? 

What has the future for us in the supply of garden products ? 
More progress than has been made in the past. By irrigation, elec- 
tricity, and new devices, methods of agriculture will reach greater 
perfection. New districts in New England even may become as 
famous for some specialties as Kalamazoo for its celery, Boston 
for lettuce, and Essex County for onions. 

New England is becoming a resort for summer travellers, and 
change of food is as necessary as change of air. Let the board- 
ing houses refrain from imitating the city hotels, and make a 
specialty of fresh fruits and vegetables raised in the immediate 
vicinity, and the better class of company will appreciate their 
efforts. 

Professor Goodale said awhile ago that as yet hardly one per 
cent of the plants, known to exist are used as food. When we 
think of the unpromising condition of the natural potato and 
celery, here is an attractive field for experiment. Moreover, we 
have not quite succeeded in supplying all the needs of our own 
people when we import Scotch potatoes, Danish cabbages, and 
Hungarian beans. 

The medicinal qualities of vegetables are known but little — they 
vary according to the soil and method of cooking and serving. A 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tithe of the money now expended on patent medicines, spent in 
experiments would determine these qualities. Celery, some 
physicians say, has an undeserved reputation for relieving rheu- 
matism ; lettuce is supposed to quiet the nerves ; spinach the 
French call the broom of the stomach ; but who knows whether 
these claims are valid? 

It has been worth while to study fermentation thoroughly 
because an immense amount of capital is invested in breweries. 
Cattle foods are investigated because they are a large expense to 
the farmers. Might not equal profit accrue from a thorough 
study of changes which take place in vegetable foods between the 
garden and the table ? 

So far as the nutritive value of the food is concerned, all efforts 
of horticulturists are useless unless these products are treated 
properly in the kitchen. 

One of our New England agricultural reports recently con- 
tained many photographs showing the effect of different fertiliz- 
ing agents on common crops. Why should not our agricultural 
experiment stations study different methods of cooking these 
foods, and tell us when and how to use soda and acids to soften 
the tough fibres of vegetables ; when cold water is best and the 
effect of different degrees of temperature ; how to treat the same 
vegetable at different stages of its growth ; whether anything is 
gained from the action of diastase by soaking seeds before cook- 
ing ; and a thousand other questions which perplex the cooks? 

You may say these are questions for the cook to settle, but the 
farmer has an agricultural experiment station in each State with 
skilled chemists and biologists, and all the apparatus needed for 
such experiments. Why should they not do a little for the cook ? 
The government holds schools and institutes for the teacher and 
for the farmer, why not for the housekeeper ? Why is there not 
a chair of domestic science in all our New England agricultural 
colleges as well as in the West? Why should not the fairs 
offer premiums for cooked vegetables, or give lessons in this 
branch of cookery? 

• 'Hie present need in this country is not so much of instruc- 
tion how to earn as how to spend an income, especially a small 
one." 



•• i 



1 Edward Atkinson. 



GOOD FOOD FROM THE GARDEN. 87 



Discussion. 

A lady asked. Did you say that no member of the cabbage 
family is poisonous ? If so, how about the skunk cabbage ? 

Miss Barrows answered that that plant is not botanically 
related to the cabbage of our gardens, but belongs to the Arum 
family, and is closely related to the Jack-in-the-Pulpit. 

In answer to another lady, who inquired about books, Miss 
Barrows said there are several that are helpful, but we need 
more. W. Mattieu's " Chemistry of Cookery " and Yeo's " Food 
in Health and Disease," which was quoted this morning, are 
among the best. She was convinced that writers on cookery do 
not know as much about vegetables as about meats. She would 
discourage the use of canned vegetables when fresh ones can be 
procured. There are all kinds and conditions of onions in the 
market. There is, as a result, a great difference in the time 
required for cooking and in the flavor ; she advised changing the 
water occasionally. In reply to an inquiry whether young milk- 
weeds are good for greens she said that they are, as also purslane 
and mustard. 

President Appleton said he thought this was a field for ladies 
to work upon, and he would like to see a list of the plants which 
might be used. We want more definite knowledge of the changes 
undergone in vegetable substances in cooking. 

Miss Barrows said asparagus beds are few and far between 
in farming communities. Swiss chard is seen occasionally in 
Boston markets. 

Benjamin W. Putnam had grown Swiss chard in his garden ; 
it will suit those who argue that we should eat only what 
grows above ground. A single plant will furnish enough for a 
family. It is our business as market gardeners to furnish what 
the public want. Prizetaker onions are said to weigh three or 
four pounds each. 

Miss Barrows replied that the onions raised here are generally 
reputed coarse, and stronger than those from milder climates. 
Our cooks want an onion that will cook quickly. 

Vice-President Ware thought the Danvers onion the most pro- 
ductive and having the best keeping qualities, but that it is not 
a desirable table onion. If one wishes to grow onions in a garden 
for his own use he should raise the Cracker onion. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mrs. Lincoln asked why we should have nails in celery ? 

A celery grower stated that all that have gone from his place- 
lately have been tied with matting instead of being nailed. 

President Appleton said we want to do all we can to raise the' 
standard of quality. We want to keep out the Bermuda onion 
by raising as good ones here. 

Vice-President Ware wanted to emphasize the importance of 
the home garden. He undertook to say that if they do justice 
to the garden, the farmer and market gardener can supply better 
food for their families than any one else. For sweet corn and 
green peas, do not rely on one planting ; plant every ten days.. 
It is your duty to provide for your families. 

Miss Barrows said the discussion on onions had brought out 
the point she made, that market gardeners do not raise the finest 
kinds. 

Miss Bedford, of New York, was quoted as having a lecture on 
the neglected vegetables. 

A gentleman mentioned using hogbrake, leaves of dog-tooth 
violets, and Clintonia borealis. Another said that more Egyptian 
onions are brought here than Bermudas, etc. 



MEETING FOR LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, March 13, 1897. 

A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, Vice-President Charles H. B. Breck in the 
chair. 

The following paper was read by the author : 

Horticulture in Canada. 

By Professor William Saunders, LL.D., Director of the Dominion Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. 

The subject which I have the privilege of bringing before you 
on this occasion is that of Horticulture in Canada, and in the dis- 
cussion of this topic it is my purpose to treat of horticulture in 
its widest sense, as embracing the art and science of the cultiva- 
tion of trees, shrubs, and plants for both utilitarian and decorative 



HOKTICULTURE IN CANADA. 89 

purposes. This subject covers so wide a field that the brief 
period of an hour will admit of touching on but a few of its 
more important features, and, with the view of presenting these 
in a clear and intelligent manner, I shall first give you a very 
short sketch of the country whose horticultural progress I am 
expected to outline. 

The Dominion of Canada consists of seven provinces, four 
provisional territories, and a vast area to the north, much of 
which is yet unexplored. If the traveller through this country 
takes the train at its eastern boundary, at Halifax on the broad 
Atlantic, he may ride with one change of cars through to the 
shores of the Pacific, covering a distance of three thousand six 
hundred and sixty-two miles, and all within the settled area of 
Canada. The three most easterly provinces form a group partly 
surrounded and more or less intersected by the ocean, known as 
the Maritime Provinces. Following these come the goodly prov- 
inces of Quebec and Ontario, the latter stretching westward 
along the margins of the Great Lakes — Ontario, Erie, Huron, 
and Superior — until its western boundary is found beyond the 
Lake of the Woods. Here Ontario joins the " prairie province" 
of Manitoba, west of which lie the four gigantic provisional terri- 
tories, — Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabasca, — 
comprising vast plains. In a part of the territories a wide belt 
of the country, lying north of the 49th parallel, — which forms 
the boundary line between the United States and Canada, — has 
a dry climate, caused by the hot winds which blow northward 
from the great American desert. But beyond the spent force of 
these hot currents, beginning from one hundred and twenty-five 
to one hundred and seventy-five miles north of the boundary, we 
find immense partly wooded areas, watered by streams flowing 
northward, with a soil wonderfully rich and fertile and with con- 
ditions favorable for mixed farming, especially for the raising of 
cattle and for dairying. Still further west stands British Co- 
lumbia with its sea of mountains enclosing an area abounding in 
minerals, coal, and lumber. Its waters teem with fish, and some 
of the fertile valleys are being fast converted into smiling fields 
of grain and prolific orchards. 

Let us touch briefly on the conditions found in each of the 
divisions of this your neighboring country, and note the indica- 
tions of horticultural progress. Prince Edward Island, the 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

* 

smallest of the provinces of Canada, has an area of two thousand 
one hundred and thirty-three square miles, is one hundred and fifty 
miles long and varies from nine to thirty miles in width, and has 
a population of one hundred and ten thousand. This island has 
a fertile soil; the climate is cool and bracing in summer, but 
rather severe in winter. Many varieties of apples, plums, and 
cherries succeed well there, and gooseberries, currants, and other 
small fruits are produced in abundance ; but the winter season is 
too severe to admit of growing the more tender fruits success- 
fully. The cultivation of flowers is very general, especially in 
the cities and towns, in which many avenues of stately trees are 
found, most of which are European. So also are the shrubs 
which decorate the grounds about rural and city homes. The 
number of varieties of trees grown are few, and in shrubs one 
notices the absence of many beautiful forms which are grown 
very successfully in other provinces, and which will, no doubt, 
when introduced, do well here. Horticulture is encouraged by 
the holding of exhibitions of fruits and flowers in the capital at 
Charlottetown and elsewhere, which are assisted by grants from 
the provincial treasury. There is a fine park in Charlottetown, 
comprising about one hundred and fifty acres, with beautiful 
drives through the wooded areas and along the seashore, — a 
cool and delightful place of resort for the citizens throughout the 
summer months. 

Across the Northumberland Straits from Charlottetown, some 
thirty miles distant, lies the Province of Nova Scotia, with its 
twenty thousand five hundred and fifty square miles of area and 
a population of four hundred and fifty-one thousand. The 
climate of the eastern part of this province is mild and well 
adapted for the growing of many varieties of fruit of high 
quality and in great perfection. The Annapolis valley, so well 
known as the scene of Longfellow's beautiful and tragic poem, 
is specially adapted by climate and situation for fruit growing, 
and is rapidly being converted into avast orchard where the 
choicest sorts of apples, pears, plums, and cherries grow in the 
best abundance. In this valley there is a special school of 
horticulture, receiving a liberal provincial grant, where practical 
training is given to students in the propagation and growth of 
fruits, ornamental shrubs, trees, and flowers. To drive among 
the beautiful scenes in that charming valley, when the trees are 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 91 

covered with blossoms in the spring, or when their branches are 
pendant with golden fruit in the autumn, is a delight not soon 
to be forgotten. There are many other localities in Nova Scotia 
where fruit culture is carried on very successfully, and the 
exports of fruit from this province are large and constantly 
increasing. The Fruit Growers' Association of Nova Scotia, 
which is also aided by provincial funds, is a strong and active 
organization, holding meetings at intervals during the year for 
the discussion of subjects relating to fruit growing and other 
branches of horticulture, and the information brought out is 
published in the proceedings of the Association. During the 
past year the quantity of apples exported was about five hundred 
thousand barrels. Some of this fruit, I am told, finds its way to 
Boston, where the high-flavored Gravensteins are said to be 
much appreciated ; but much the larger portion finds a ready 
market in the larger cities in Great Britain. In Halifax there 
are several parks, including in all about two hundred and eighty 
acres. The Public Gardens, containing about sixteen acres, are 
also very attractive and contain some excellent specimens of 
trees, mostly European, and many varieties of shrubs and coni- 
fers, including some choice specimens of Japanese Betinosporas, 
notably of Chamwcyparis plmnosa and C. plumosa aurea. The 
Scotch heather, Calluna vulgaris, also luxuriates here, and some 
of the fine flower beds are margined with this pretty plant, 
which has become naturalized and is growing in large patches in 
the public parks. Truro and other smaller cities and towns west 
of Halifax are emulating the capital in the establishment of 
parks, adorning their streets with avenues of trees, and embel- 
lishing their homes with groups of choice shrubs and beds of 
flowers. 

In New Brunswick, with an area of twenty-eight thousand 
square miles and a population of three hundred and twenty-one 
thousand, the climate is not so favorable for general progress in 
horticulture as in the sister province of Nova Scotia. While 
orchards have been successfully established in the valley of the 
St. John river, the varieties of fruit grown are chiefly of the 
hardier sorts, and the cultivation of large fruits is not general. 
Small fruits, however, are grown in abundance, and the cool 
weather in early summer retards the ripening season and permits 
of the growing of large quantities of luscious strawberries, which, 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ripening after the main supplies in the New England States, find 
a ready market in Boston and other cities, with but little compe- 
tition and at good prices. 

Recently a public park comprising two hundred and forty 
acres has been established at the city of St. John, occupying a 
commanding position overlooking the turbulent waters of the 
Bay of Fundy. Through this park roads are being laid out 
amidst charming and, in some places, rugged scenery. This 
must in time become a most attractive place of resort. 

The Province of Quebec, with an area of two hundred and 
twenty-seven thousand square miles and a population of about 
one and one-half million, is also making progress in horticulture. . 
In the valley of the St. Lawrence there are many fine orchards, 
and nowhere does the celebrated Fameuse apple reach so high a,. 
degree of perfection as on the Island of Montreal, where many 
varieties of pears also, and plums of fine flavor, thrive well. In 
the eastern townships, on the south side of the river St. Law- 
rence, fruit growing is carried on to a considerable extent and 
quantities of apples from this territory find their way to Mon- 
treal or are shipped to foreign markets ; but on the interior lands, 
on the north side of the river, only the hardier fruits succeed, 
and the orchards are few and small. In Montreal and other 
cities and towns in this province, much taste is displayed in the 
laying out of the public parks and squares, and in the ornamenta- 
tion of the grounds of the more wealthy members of the com- 
munity. Horticultural societies and a Provincial Fruit Growers' 
Association have been organized, which are aided by provincial 
funds ; annual exhibitions are held, and thus the love for the 
cultivation of fruits and flowers is fostered. 

Ontario is the banner province of the Dominion, and its 
wonderful variety of climate and rich horticultural possibilities 
are as yet but partially known. With the noble area of two 
hundred and twenty thousand square miles, and a population of 
two million one hundred and fifteen thousand, this province has 
twelve and a half million acres of cleared land, about three hun- 
dred and twenty thousand acres of which are under orchard, 
garden, and vineyard. The number of apple trees of bearing age 
in this province is about six millions, while there are three and 
millions more of younger trees, most of which will 
<u be in bearing condition. The yield of apples in 1896 was- 



k HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 93 

very large, and is estimated at fifty-six million bushels. In the 
Niagara peninsula, and along the shores of the western part of 
Lake Erie, peaches are grown very successfully, and there are 
said to be over half a million of peach trees planted in that part 
of Canada. G-rapes, also, are grown in immense quantities. 
There are about three million of bearing grape vines in Ontario, 
producing annually about fifteen million pounds of grapes. There 
are also large orchards of pears, plums, and cherries, so that 
Canadian markets are well supplied with home-grown fruits of 
excellent quality throughout the season, and a large quantity of 
apples is exported to Great Britain. During the past year more 
than two million barrels were exported from Montreal. Ontario 
also sends large supplies of fruit to the prairie districts in the 
west. A thriving organization, known as the Fruit Growers' 
Association of Ontario, has been in existence for the past twenty- 
eight years, and has done much to stimulate fruit growing through- 
out the province, and also to cultivate a taste for ornamental 
trees, shrubs, and flowers. This Association receives a liberal 
annual grant from the provincial funds. The large display of 
fruit and flowers at the leading annual exhibitions helps to draw 
further attention to these interesting and important subjects. 
The Ontario government also gives annual grants towards the 
support of horticultural societies, which are established in most of 
the towns and cities of the province. Under this stimulus, fre- 
quent floral exhibitions have been held, and the people have been 
led to vie with each other in beautifying their homes by the 
planting of trees and flowers. Many large floral establishments 
are well supported by lovers of flowers. In the cities and larger 
towns public parks have been established, valuable not only as 
health resorts, but as repositories for some of nature's choicest 
arboreal gifts. 1 Horticulture also forms an important part in 
the curriculum of the Ontario College of Agriculture, which is 
located at Guelph. 

Adjoining Ontario at its western extremity is the Province of 
Manitoba, with sixty-four thousand square miles of territory and 
a population of one hundred and fifty-two thousand. Here the 
climatic conations are too severe to admit of the rapid extension 

1 The lecture was illustrated with lantern slides, showing scenes in the public parks and 
gardens in the different cities in the Dominion; also views of many beautiful individual 
specimens of ornamental trees and shrubs grown on the experimental farms. 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of horticulture. The larger fruits are not successfully grown,, 
but many of the small fruits are produced in abundance. The 
people are everywhere fond of flowers, and the long days and 
abundance of sunshine in the summer months give a wealth of 
bloom to many annuals and hardy perennials unknown in eastern 
climates. 

Westward of Manitoba lie the four organized territories of the 
Canadian Northwest — Assiniboia, with an area of eighty-eight 
thousand square miles ; Saskatchewan, one hundred and one thou- 
sand ; Alberta, one hundred and five thousand ; and Athabasca, 
one hundred and three thousand. These great divisions extend 
from the western boundary of Manitoba to the Rocky Mountains, 
are partly traversed by railways, which have opened up the 
country for settlement, and a sparse population of from fifty 
thousand to sixty thousand people is scattered here and there 
throughout this very large area. The love of trees, shrubs, and 
flowers is universal on the plains, and luxuriant gardens full of 
bloom are frequently found among the settlers. In the country 
to the north lie the unsurveyed and but partly explored districts, 
occupied only, as yet, by widely distant trading posts and occa- 
sional settlers, but mainly in possession of Indians and fur- 
traders. In this wide expanse are included the districts of Un- 
gava, Keewatin, Franklin, Mackenzie, and Yukon, comprising 
in all about a million and a half square miles, exclusive of the 
water areas. 

The most westerly province, British Columbia, includes three 
hundred and eighty-two thousand square miles and has a popula- 
tion of about one hundred and twenty-five thousand. In the busy 
mining districts not much attention is paid to horticulture, but 
west of the Coast Range of mountains, where the climate is mild 
and genial, much like that of England, fruits and flowers grow in 
profusion. There the holly, laurel, rhododendron, and yew 
flourish with the apple, pear, plum, and cherry, and, in some 
localities, the peach. In those parts of the province between the 
Coast Range and the Rockies there are many fine valleys, some 
of which have not sufficient rainfall to admit of the successful 
cultivation either of grain or fruit without irrigation. There are, 
however, many mountain streams available for this purpose and 
on some of the ranches very fine apples are grown. The taste for 
Hovers is almost universal, and the long, mild season permits of 



HOKTICULTURE IN CANADA. 95 

many of them being grown in perfection. This province has also 
a Fruit Growers' Association, assisted by a grant from the public 
purse, and exhibitions, of fruits and flowers are held annually in 
the larger towns and cities. Vancouver and Victoria have both 
very fine public parks. 

The progress of horticulture, as well as agriculture, throughout 
Canada has been greatly stimulated by the organization and main- 
tenance of experimental farms by the Dominion Government. 
Ten years ago this good work was begun, and while the greater 
attention has been given to measures looking towards the im- 
provement of farming, many lines of horticultural work have been 
vigorously prosecuted. These experimental farms are five in 
number, the central or principal farm being located at Ottawa, 
the seat of government, — where, on the boundary line between 
Ontario and Quebec, it serves the purposes of these two important 
provinces, — and the four branch farms in the more distant prov- 
inces of the Dominion. A site was chosen for one of these at 
Nappan, in Nova Scotia, near the dividing line between that Prov- 
ince and New Brunswick, where it ministers to the needs of the 
three Maritime Provinces. One was located near Brandon, in the 
central part of Manitoba. A third was placed at Indian Head, a 
small town on the Canadian Pacific Railway, in Assiniboia, one 
of the Northwest Territories ; and the fourth at Agassiz, in the 
coast climate of British Columbia. The climatic conditions pre- 
vailing at these several points are all very different, and each 
location in this respect fairly represents a large area. 

At each of these farms, orchards and fruit plantations have 
been established and a large number of varieties of fruits tested, 
while similar experimental work has been carried on with many 
different sorts of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers. The 
selections made in each case have been of such varieties as were 
thought to be most likely to succeed in the climates in which they 
were to be tried. In the Maritime Provinces the climate resembles 
that of many parts of New England, and the branch experimen- 
tal farm at Nappan occupies a fairly representative position. 
The climate is milder and more moist than that of Ottawa, and 
all the varieties of trees and shrubs which succeed at the central 
farm do quite as well, or better, at Nappan, and many varieties 
of fruits which thrive in Nova Scotia are not able to endure the 
more severe winters at Ottawa. At this eastern branch farm 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

there are now nearly four hundred varieties of large .and small 
fruits under trial and about three hundred varieties of ornamental 
trees and shrubs, and most of these are making satisfactory growth. 
Many additions are made to these lists every year. Already these 
plantations are proving a useful guide to the people in the Mari- 
time Provinces, whether they desire to grow fruit or to beautify 
their homes by ornamental planting. 

Passing now at one bound over a distance of seven hundred 
and forty-two miles west of Nappan, we find ourselves at Ottawa, 
the capital. Three miles from the centre of the city lies the cen- 
tral experimental farm, consisting of four hundred and sixty- 
five acres. Ten years ago this land was liberally sprinkled with 
stumps and stones, and encumbered with one hundred and forty 
acres of second-growth timber and forty acres of swamp. This 
has all been cleared and reclaimed, and brought into a fair con- 
dition of cultivation. About three hundred, and thirty acres are 
devoted to agricultural work, thirty-five acres to the testing of 
fruits and vegetables, twenty-one acres to experiments with forest 
trees, nine acres to ornamental planting along the margins of the 
roads and about the buildings, and sixty-five acres to an arbore- 
tum and botanic garden. 

There is an office building with chemical laboratory below, and 
overhead a museum of farm products, in which the fruits grown 
at the several farms make a striking display. Near by are the 
houses of the chemist, botanist, and horticulturist, about which 
there are some pretty groups of trees and shrubs. 

The conservatory consists of two glass structures, each 
seventy -five feet long, in one of which there is a fair collection 
of economic and ornamental plants. In the list of the former 
will be found tea, coffee, cinnamon, camphor, pepper, cinchona, 
cocoa and other plants serviceable to man. There are also col- 
lections of orchids and cacti, with palms and ferns and many of 
the commoner house plants. Another house is used, during the 
early months of the year, for testing the vitality of seed grain 
for farmers and for general propagating purposes. 

The barn with adjacent planting shows that the surroundings . 
of even a barn may be made attractive by a judicious use of trees 
and shrubs. 

Orchards have been planted and are used for testing fruits, and 
the number of varieties of large fruits under trial here is about 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. . 97 

eight hundred, and of small fruits about as many more. Many 
new varieties have been produced on the farm, by growing large 
numbers of seedlings of choice sorts and selecting the best, and 
by cross-fertilization. Comparative tests have also been made of 
a large number of vegetables. 

A useful adjunct to the horticultural department is the apiary, 
where the busy bees work all the summer day, gathering stores 
of honey from the flowers of various plants and trees, and in 
carrying on their regular work render valued assistance in 
fertilizing the blossoms of fruits. 

Some people object to planting trees, fearing they may not 
live long enough to realize much enjoyment from them. 1 To 
produce the best results comparatively small specimens should 
be selected. A young and thrifty tree accommodates itself to 
change of location much more readily than an older one, and the 
young tree usually develops its normal form more perfectly. 

During the early years of our work collections of bulbs — in- 
cluding lilies, hyacinths, narcissus, and many other sorts — were 
planted in the autumn; but the grouDd being open and without 
shelter, the snow at times was so blown off the ground as to 
leave it nearly bare and most of the bulbs were killed during the 
winter. To provide shelter, and collect and retain snow over 
them, an enclosure hedged with arbor vitae and Norway spruce 
was planned and the bulbs planted within it ; since then nearly 
all have wintered well. During the winter the enclosure and its 
surroundings are protected by snow, which gathers within and 
about it to a considerable depth. The evergreen margin is now 
about three and a half feet high, and portions of it are almost 
covered with snow during the colder part of the season. 

The beds outside this enclosure afford different aspects, which 
make them very suitable for certain classes of plants. 

Within, a constant succession of bloom during the summer is 
maintained : hyacinths, tulips, and other bulbs in the spring, and 
later fine masses of lilies, herbaceous peonies, and irises are 
grown. 

The lilacs, when in bloom in the spring, are among the most 
beautiful of shrubs, and what delightful improvements have of 
late been made in this old-fashioned favorite ! More than sixty 

1 Views were shown to demonstrate the development in growth und beauty which can be 
made in a brief period of seven or eight years. 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

varieties are under test at Ottawa, and nearly all are doing well. 
Charles the Tenth is one of the best ; it is very rich in color,, 
a wonderfully free bloomer, and the clusters of flowers are large. 
Alba grandinora is also a good variety ; its large white flower 
dusters contrasting with the rich deep green foliage make it very 
attractive. 

A group of Scotch Pines, Pinus sylvestris, is a prominent 
feature in one part of the grounds ; this was planted eight years 
ago. The trees were then eighteen inches high ; now they 
measure from thirteen to fourteen feet. The rich green color of 
this species, which is well preserved throughout the winter, makes 
this tree an attractive object at all seasons of the year. 

The Rocky Mountain Blue Spruce, Picea pungens, is one of 
the most valuable introductions of late years, and ranks among 
the most beautiful of hardy evergreens. The foliage in some 
specimens assumes a rich shade of steely blue, most striking in 
the early part of the summer. Many of these trees have been 
planted in different exposures on the central farm, during the 
past seven years, and all have proved perfectly hardy. 

The European Mountain Ash, or Rowan Tree, Pyrus Aucuparia, 
is a fine object on the lawn when well-grown and clothed with 
branches to near the ground. Its beautiful foliage and abundant 
clusters of white blossoms in the spring, succeeded by bunches of 
scarlet berries in the autumn, make it attractive all through the 
season. 

The Katsura Tree, Cercidiphyllum Japonicum, from northern 
Japan, is an interesting tree, which is quite hardy at Ottawa. 
The unique character of its foliage as well as its handsome form 
render it most desirable. 

The Sweet Chestnut, Castanea sativa var. Americana, is a native 
of the western part of Ontario and is grown with some difficulty 
in the climate of Ottawa. After several failures, two or three 
trees have now become established and are doing well. One of 
these blossomed last spring. 

The variegated Dogwood, Cornus mas var. variegata, is one of the 
most beautiful shrubs at all seasons of the year. The foliage is 
richly variegated with white and the variegation is well main- 
tained throughout the season. 

When speaking of the divisions made of the land at the 
central farm and the purposes to which the several portions 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 99 

were devoted, I stated that sixty-five acres had been set aside for 
an arboretnm and botanic garden devoted to the testing of trees, 
shrubs, and plants from all parts of the world. Work was begun 
in this branch six years ago, and already nearly two thousand 
species and varieties of trees and shrubs, and about one thousand 
of herbaceous perennials, have been brought together from all the 
northern sections of the globe and are being tested as to their 
suitability for the climate of Ottawa. Canada was for a long 
time the only important British colony without a botanic garden. 
This stigma has now been removed, and it is hoped that this 
institution at the farm will soon reach that stage of advancement 
which will make it a credit to the country. 

Permit me to direct your attention for a short time to a few of 
the individual specimens on this part of the grounds : 

The European Larch, Larix Europea, is a very handsome tree, 
valuable for its timber. It is a rapid grower and has a most 
graceful drooping habit. 

The Golden Arbor Vitae is a beautiful form of the common 
Arbor Vitse, Thuya occidentalism in which the foliage assumes a 
golden yellow hue. This is a brilliant object for a lawn and 
makes a beautiful hedge. 

The Pyramidal Arbor Vitse is another interesting form of the 
same species, quite pillar-like in its growth. 

The Austrian Pine, Finns Austriaca, is a stately evergreen, of 
fine form and habit, very hardy, and a fairly vigorous grower. A 
tree in the Arboretum which when planted six years ago was 
eighteen inches high now stands about seven feet. 

The Norway or Red Pine, Finns resinosa, has also a stately 
habit, but is of softer outline than the Austrian Pine and makes 
a handsome tree. 

The Mountain Pine, Finns Montana, is a very desirable object 
for a lawn. Its low-growing, bushy habit, with branches close to 
the ground, makes it well adapted for localities where space is 
limited. 

The Tartarian or Bush Honeysuckle is a free-flowering shrub 
and one of the earliest to bloom in the spring, and when covered 
with its pink or white flowers, or later with its bright-colored 
berries, is very pretty. 

Van Houtte's Spiraea, Spiraea Van JTouttei, is a lovely shrub, 
which, during the latter part of May and early in June, is 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

literally covered with masses of white bloom. In growth it has a 
pendulous habit and is very graceful in form. 

Spircea Bumalda is another species of the same genus, which, 
has an upright form. This is also a free bloomer and is very 
attractive. 

The Weigelas are very beautiful shrubs which are not entirely 
hardy at Ottawa, the new wood being usually killed back more 
or less by the severe weather in winter. In most instances, 
however, a sufficient quantity of the wood survives to give a 
considerable amount of bloom. Siebold's Variegated Weigela 
has proved one of the hardiest forms at the central farm. It 
blooms abundantly in its season, and its variegated foliage makes 
it at all times very attractive. 

The different species and varieties of Philadelphus (known 
also as Syringa and Mock Orange) are charming objects for the 
flower border, and quite hardy. The flowers vary in size from 
one to two inches across ; some of them are single and some 
double ; most of the varieties are richly perfumed. 

The Snowball, Viburnum, opulus var. sterilis, is an old-fashioned, 
but most desirable species for the shrubbery. During the bloom- 
ing season it is literally covered with masses of snow-white 
bloom. V. lantana and V. dentatum are also very valuable 
hardy ornamental shrubs. 

The Siberian Cornus, Comus alba var. Sibirica, is another 
very useful and hardy sort. It is a pretty shrub when covered 
with its flat, white clusters of bloom in June ; and when devoid 
of foliage during the winter, its brilliant red stems form a beauti- 
ful contrast with the white background of snow. 

The Russian Olive, said to be a hardy form of Elwagnus hor- 
/cnsis var. angustifolia, is a small tree of very graceful habit, with 
foliage and branches of a charming silvery hue, which is best 
brought out where it has a background of dark green growth. 
This is a very hardy tree and endures the severe climate of the 
northwest plains well, and when in bloom its numerous small 
yellow flowers fill the air with their fragance. 

Later in the season the Japanese Hydrangea, Hydrangea 
paniculata var. grandiftora, becomes a very prominent object in 
the collection of shrubs, from the large bunches of flowers so 
freely produced at the ends of the branches. This species has 
found its way into public favor very rapidly. Only twenty-three- 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 101 

years have passed since this shrub was first introduced from 
Japan, and during that comparatively brief period its merits 
have been universally recognized and it has become one of the 
most widely distributed and favorite shrubs in cultivation. 

Fo'pulus Berolinensis is a Russian Poplar and one of the 
hardiest species tested. It endures the climate in all parts of 
Canada well, making a strong and rapid growth. Many thousand 
cuttings of this tree have been sent out from the experimental 
farms to settlers in different parts of the Canadian Northwest. 
These strike readily and soon form handsome trees, wind-breaks, 
■or hedges. A specimen which was planted in the arboretum at 
Ottawa six years ago as a small tree now stands over twenty- 
five feet high. 

Many inquiries are made every year as to the best sorts of 
shrubs or trees to plant for hedges. To gain experience and fur- 
nish object lessons, many different sorts are being tested for this 
purpose. Seventy-live varieties have already been planted as 
sample hedges, each fifty feet long, and a large proportion of them 
have had five or six years' growth. These are proving an attrac- 
tive feature in connection with the ornamental planting at the 
central farm. 

A journey of one thousand four hundred and thirty-seven miles 
west, by the Canadian Pacific Railway, brings us to the flourish- 
ing town of Brandon, in Manitoba, adjoining which is the 
experimental farm for that province. It is located partly in 
the valley of the Assiniboine river and partly on the heights 
above the bluffs which margin the valley. This farm has been 
greatly improved by the planting of trees, about sixty-five thou- 
sand of which have been put out in avenues, shelter belts, 
clumps, and hedges. Most of the hedges have been planted with 
quick-growing trees, such as poplars and willows, and enclose 
good-sized plots of ground. These hedges grow quite tall and act 
as wind-breaks during the summer and help to collect large banks 
of snow in the winter, which, on melting, leaves the ground in a 
very favorable condition of moisture. These plantations have 
placed examples before the settlers, which many have been 
induced to follow, and this incentive has produced gratifying- 
results. Tree planting has been further stimulated by free dis- 
tributions of tree seeds, large quantities of which have been 
collected, especially of the Box Elder, Negundo aceroides, and 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the Green Ash, Fraxinus viridis. These seeds have been 
hitherto collected in the river valleys and ravines in the bluffs in 
Manitoba and the Territories, and during the past seven years- 
more than five tons of such seeds have been distributed free by 
mail, and during the same period about six thousand packages 
of young forest trees and cuttings have been sent out in the 
same way to settlers in that country. Last year the native trees 
planted on the two western experimental farms produced seed 
freely, and more than a ton of this has been collected for distri- 
bution during the coming season. An arboretum has been 
started at Brandon, and there are more than one hundred species 
and varieties of trees and shrubs in it which have proved hardy, 
and many more are under test. A large number of varieties of 
flowers have also been tried. Nearly all the annuals do well, and 
the large amount of sunshine they enjoy there brings many of the 
species to a higher degree of perfection and results in a greater 
abundance of bloom than is usually found in the east. In peren- 
nials, the hardy list includes Tulips, Herbaceous Peonies, several 
species of Iris, Hemerocallis, Aquilegia, Aconite, Delphinium,, 
and many others. The love of flowers among the people is very 
general, and many take great pride in their gardens. 

While most of the hardier varieties of small fruits, such as 
raspberries, currants, and gooseberries, are grown with success, 
all attempts to grow the larger fruits produced in the east, such 
as apples, crab apples, pears, plums, and cherries, have failed;, 
the trees do not endure the climate. There is, however, one 
small wild crab, Pyrus baccata, with a fruit about the size of a 
large cherry, which has been obtained from the northern part of 
Siberia, that has proved perfectly hardy, having stood four or 
five winters without showing any sign of winter killing. This 
bears fruit very freely, and notwithstanding their diminutive 
size these tiny apples make excellent jelly, and in their present 
unimproved state would be much appreciated. Efforts are, how- 
ever, being made to improve this small crab by cross-fertilizing it 
with many of the hardiest sorts of apples. A large number of 
these cross-bred seedlings will be ready for planting on the north- 
ist farms in another year. Suitable enclosures are being pre- 
pared which will afford the young trees some protection and 
rithin two or three years it is expected that some of these will 
par fruit. Similar experiments have also been carried on with 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 103< 

Pyrus baccata prunifolia, which has also stood one winter in the 
northwest without injury, and this fruit is about double the size 
of that of P. baccata. It is probable that some of these cross- 
bred seedlings will bear fruit of larger size and improved quality, 
which will be valuable to the settlers there. These trees are 
both small and low-branched and well adapted to endure the 
climatic conditions prevailing in the prairie country. 

The wild Plum, Primus Americana, is found native in different, 
parts of Manitoba and is common in the valley of the Assiniboine 
river and in the other river valleys in the southern part of that 
province. The fruit varies much in size, color, and quality, 
some trees producing red fruit and others yellow, and while 
some of the fruit is but slightly astringent and of fair quality,, 
other samples are scarcely edible. Efforts are being made to 
improve the wild plum by selection from seedlings grown from 
the best varieties. It is proposed also to follow this up by cross- 
fertilizing with better sorts. 

The Sand Cherry, Prunus pumila, is also a native of the far 
west. It is common about the Lake of the Woods and has been 
found on the prairies as far west as the 108th meridian, and as 
far north as Prince Albert, which is about three hundred miles 
north of the United States boundary. The Sand Cherry is a very 
variable fruit ; the commoner forms are about the size of a large 
Marrowfat Pea, with a disproportionately large stone and astrin- 
gent flesh, while occasional bushes are found bearing fruit as large 
as the English Morello Cherry, with a much larger proportion of 
pulp to stone and a superior quality of flesh. Emits subject to 
such free variations in the wild state may be expected to improve 
still more, in size and quality, under the influences attending 
higher cultivation and cross-fertilizing. It is believed that the 
prospects in connection with the efforts which are being made to 
improve the fruits referred to are hopeful, and that there will in 
time be produced such varieties as will prove useful fruits to 
the people of the northwest country. 

A further journey of one hundred and eighty-five miles over 
the plains brings us to the experimental farm at Indian Head, 
in Assiniboia, one of the Northwest Territories. This farm is 
about the same size as that at Brandon, viz., six hundred and 
eighty acres. When this land was purchased it was a piece 
of bare prairie, without tree or bush. During the eight years it 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

has been occupied tree planting on a rather large scale lias been 
carried on, and there are now growing on this farm, in shelter 
belts, blocks, avenues, wind-breaks, and hedges, more than 
one hundred thousand trees. Difficulties were encountered 
at first from the very strong winds, which gave the trees a 
stunted appearance, but these obstacles were gradually overcome 
and the trees have now made such a free growth that they protect 
one another, producing a vast improvement in the appearance of 
the place, and affording much shelter. 

Although the climate is more severe here, the experiences had 
with fruit trees and with forest and ornamental trees, as well as 
with flowers, are nearly the same as those which have been gained 
at Brandon. 

A further railway ride of five hundred and fifty miles from 
Indian Head brings us to the end of the one thousand miles of 
plains which stretch from the easterly part of Manitoba to the 
Rocky mountains, and now we find ourselves ascending among 
the foot-hills, the landscape broken into bluffs and valleys with 
clumps of wood and park-like openings between them, and after 
two or three hours more of journeying, Banff, where the Can- 
adian government has established a national park, is reached. 
It nestles among the mountains, and the efforts to improve this 
beautiful spot have been mainly in the way of making roads so 
as to open up the romantic beauties of the place, and render those 
points which afford the most striking views easily accessible. 
As we approach this elegant resting place for tourists, we pass 
the " Three Sisters/'" a lovely group of mountains ; also the Cas- 
cade mountain, whose bold rocky summit rises abruptly from near 
the railroad track more than five thousand feet above the valley. 
This mountain derives its name from a small cascade which dashes 
down the mountain side, in which it has worn a distinct channel. 
Some of the most lovely views to be had anywhere in the moun- 
tains are to be seen at Banff, where there is a delightful combina- 
tion of mountain, water, and forest. A museum has been 
established here by the government, which contains collections of 
the mam mals, birds, and plants found in the national park. 

There are also some beautiful lakes in this neighborhood. 

Lake Louise is one of the prettiest. The bright green color of 

waters contrasts strongly with the pure white of the glaciers 

1><\\ ond, while the many-hued cliffs, with various shades of brown 



HORTICULTURE IN CANADA. 105 

on the one side arid the deep green of the spruce-clad banks on 
the other, all help to form a most harmonious and striking pict- 
ure. Near by, but about a thousand feet higher, Lake Agnes 
bursts upon the view, with wilder and totally different surround- 
ings. 

One more stretch of about four hundred and eighty miles, 
through wonderfully varied mountain and valley scenery, takes 
us through to the valleys and delta lands of the coast line. Here 
we have the coast climate, which, on this part of the shore of the 
Pacific, is cool in summer and mild and moist in winter; but 
returning eastward towards the interior, it becomes hotter in 
summer and colder in winter, with less rain. 

At Agassiz, seventy miles east of the ocean, the most westerly 
of the experimental farms is located, in the valley of the Eraser 
river. Seven years ago this place was a wilderness. Now 
there are one hundred and thirty acres of land cleared and 
under cultivation, and about half of it has been planted to fruit, 
and more than two thousand varieties of fruits are under test 
there, nearly all of which are doing well. The climate is mild, 
and suitable for this industry, and nowhere do the plum, apple, 
cherry, and pear bear fruit in greater profusion. Every variety 
likely to be of benefit to the country is being tested, so that the 
fullest information may be available to the settlers as to the 
best and most profitable varieties to plant. 

AH sorts of small fruits succeed remarkably well here. A 
very large number of ornamental trees and shrubs are also suc- 
cessfully grown, including some of the more tender varieties, 
which are not hardy at Ottawa. Flowers also succeed admirably 
in this moist climate. The Japanese and other lilies grow 
luxuriantly, and during the flowering season they fill the air 
with their fragrance. 

I must not trespass further on your time. I have but touched 
here and there on the almost limitless field covered by my sub- 
ject. I hope, however, that I have succeeded in showing that 
horticulture is not entirely neglected in Canada, but that indi- 
viduals, communities, and governments (both Provincial and 
Dominion) from one end of the country to the other are striving 
to help along this good work. While we cannot expect soon to 
reach that degree of horticultural advancement which we see 
and admire so much in older and wealthier communities like 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

your own, we are striving to follow in a measure your noble 
example and to profit by the generous help which you are always 
ready to give. Your Arnold Arboretum has aided our experi- 
mental farm work in a princely manner, and your ever welcome 
publications are a constant stimulus towards progress. Although 
not under quite the same form of government, we are of the same 
stock as yourselves, and the love for and appreciation of the 
marvellous beauties of nature brings like pleasure wherever we 
dwell, whether we acknowledge as our ruler a worthy president 
or a matchless queen. Horticulture is bounded by no political 
lines, but in every community where the mind is sufficiently cult- 
ured to appreciate the wonderful beauties with which the world 
is studded, there these lovely trees and shrubs and flowers, which 
combine so much of grace and beauty, become a perennial source- 
of quiet delight. They are but expressions of the thoughts of 
the great Creator, who established and sustains the laws which 
govern their growth and development. Some ]ove for the beauti- 
ful in nature is found in almost every breast, and companionship 
with such charming objects tends to deepen and enlarge that 
feeling of admiration, to elevate our thoughts and lead thenx 
from Nature up to Nature's God. Their beauty is inspiring,, 
and while we study them we catch the spirit and gladly follow 
the teaching of the great Master in his inimitable Sermon on 
the Mount, when, gazing on the lovely flowers growing around 
him, with the deepest insight into the perfection of their beauty, 
he exhorted his hearers to " Consider the lilies of the field how 
they grow. ... I say unto you that even Solomon in all his 
glory was not arrayed like one of these." 



SOILS AND POTTING. 107 



MEETING FOE LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, March 20, 1897. 

A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. 

The following paper was read by the author : 

Soils and Potting. 

By T. D. Hatfield, of Wellesley. 

The subject which your Committee on Lectures has been kind 
enough to choose for me is generally considered by gardeners as 
the most important one they have to deal with. This is true, but 
we must not narrow the question down to one simply of garden- 
ers' methods, for many of us are farmers as well, cultivating a 
great variety of plants, and we wish to consider whatever in this 
connection affects our material welfare. 

Gardeners seldom fully agree about the proper soil for any 
crop. Few of us find ourselves having the same conditions of 
soil to deal with. Our soil may be heavy or light, the land high 
or low, and with every variation of exposure. We go from 
one place to another, and often wonder at our neighbor's success 
when we should consider failure certain. I have received plants 
with the soil so stiff that I wondered how they ever dried out 
when once wet ; and from another place where the soil would 
appear to be about the same as our swamp mud. An acquaint- 
ance of mine tells me that at one place where he was gardener, in 
the neighborhood of Cape Ann, the only bit of potting soil he 
could find was turf from what had at some time been a salt marsh. 
After it was broken up, and the air and frost went through it, 
he found he could grow almost anything, from a geranium up to 
an azalea. Everybody finds a way of dealing with the problem 
before him. 

Sometimes we find ourselves with a garden lot so springy that 
nothing can be done in the way of cultivating it until very late 
in the season, and again with a soil so dry that we must irrigate 
for all except early crops. A dry soil is easily worked, but more 
difficult to keep in condition for supporting crops, because it holds 
sustenance poorly. Frequent manuring is required to keep it in 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trim. For general purposes, probably a heavy soil is best. It 
is easy to make a part of the land light enough for a few early 
crops. Then a heavy soil holds manures better. By autumn 
plowing and cultivating the ground in plats, one can bring it into a 
good friable condition. We all know the value of a retentive 
soil in summer time. These general remarks have some bearing 
on what I shall say later. 

We gardeners, taken together, are a conservative lot. We 
believe in " leaving well enough alone." It is a good policy, and 
one which carries much weight with it, and respect also. There 
are methods which we continue, often because it is the custom or 
practice to do so, and often we cannot explain why. Much expe- 
rience is scratched up in a hand to hand sort of way ; we find 
out as we must, and often we are obliged to experiment for our- 
selves, for the best practice of one does not always suit the case 
of the other. The gardeners of the United States have to thank 
the old-country gardeners, and many of us our old-country train- 
ing ; though much that we do here is done differently, yet an 
intelligent training helps us better to gauge our practice to the 
altered conditions, and these are principally of climate. Wrong 
Ave may be sometimes, and often too particular, but it is better 
always to err on the side of prudence. 

Take the old books, and we shall read : " One-third of turfy 
loam, one-third of leaf soil, and a third of sand ; " or it may be 
fourths, including rotted manure, or fifths, with peat added ; but 
accurate measuring is tedious work, and too slow to suit Yankee 
ideas, so the tendency is toward simpler methods. As a matter 
of fact there are but few mixtures of soil in use today. Leaf 
soil, one of the best ingredients in any compost, is seldom used 
in any except private gardens. Many gardeners manage to get 
along without it. Well rotted manure is a good substitute, and 
in some cases is better. It is necessary, however, owing to the 
prevailing slipshod methods, that the soil should be light for potted 
plants. The man with a hose can over water with safety when 
the weather is hot, and the plants soon dry out, and when it is 
•old artificial heat has the same effect. But you cannot persuade 
I be old-time gardeners to use the hose, though they may see that 
it really makes little difference, if ordinary care is used. Many 
plants set down as requiring heavy soil may be grown as well ina 
light soil. Wherever the rose grower is located, he finds means 



SOILS AND POTTING. 109 

of meeting the natural wants of his soil. He may add clay, but 
will not if he finds he can succeed without it, and he is almost 
sure to do so. 

Take Azaleas. It used to be, and is yet in some places, con- 
sidered necessary to import English peat in order to be success- 
ful with them. Ninety per cent of these beautiful hard-wooded 
plants are still grown in peaty soil in England. Nothing succeeds 
like success there as well as here, even though it be arbitration ! 
If an English gardenerg rows good Azaleas in peaty soil he is 
not likely to change his practice. Ocular demonstration cannot 
be overcome, and if we will not be convinced by any other argu- 
ment we must be by this. For instance, take a look at the 
Azaleas grown by Mr. Charles Sanders, gardener for Professor 
C. S. Sargent, of Brookline, and you will see that Azaleas can be 
grown in a soil almost wholly lacking peat. 

This brings us to another part of the subject. The successful 
cultivator of plants finds there are other considerations almost as 
important as the soil and its consistency. I have tried all kinds 
of soil for Gloxinias, consulting this and that formula. I potted 
them in light soil, heavy soil, rich and poor, all to little advan- 
tage. With these handsome tuberous-rooted plants much depends 
on caring for the tubers during what is called the resting season, 
though they are never absolutely at rest and we make a mistake 
when we enforce it by removing the tubers from the soil in which 
they have been growing and storing them in dry sand, as is fre- 
quently the practice. They should never become thoroughly dry, 
for living roots will at all times be found, and these require some 
nourishment. It is important that we should start with sound, 
healthy roots, start them slowly by withholding water until some 
leaf growth is made, and at all times keep them near the light, 
though not in direct sunlight. If we attend to these essential 
conditions we shall find that Gloxinias succeed in almost any 
soil. Peat soil may be necessary for some Ferns, but almost all 
of them will thrive as well in good loam and leaf soil. 

It may surprise you to know that I have but one compost heap,, 
and that is seldom as good as I should like to have it. Good 
turfy loam is not . as plentiful as I could wish, and though it is 
really the best, some of us have found out how to get along with- 
out it. The old country carnation growers are extremely careful 
when mixing their potting soil — a barrow full of this and that 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and so much brick rubbish and charcoal; but the American 
grower prepares his in the field without a foot of turf ; he must 
and so he does. He has several methods and perhaps the best 
and most common-sense one is to cultivate the area for stripping, 
growing thereon a crop of clover with no object beyond turning 
the best of what is put into the soil as manure into plant food 
of the kind which the Carnation most needs. The American 
grower raises more and better Carnations than his English com- 
peer. He has, it is true, many advantages not possessed by the 
Briton. He has better light during the winter time, he has 
made a specialty of the work, and more than all, he has originated 
a new type of Carnations. What I have said about Carnation 
growing only goes to show that the importance of a prescribed 
composition of the soil is over-estimated. 

I said I had only one compost heap ; this is not quite true, for 
beside it I have a special one for Chrysanthemums. Perhaps I 
am fussy in this, as I don't think it makes much difference. I am 
fond of experiments and have made lots of blunders in my time, 
but I can say this, that two plants potted in the soil from the 
common pile were just as good as those grown in special soil. 
The specimen Garza shown at the last exhibition here was one 
of these. 

When I first set out to pile up potting soil I scratched hard 
for turf. I landed in New Jersey, and those who have lived in 
the manufacturing districts about New York know how scarce a 
bit of turf is. I was bound to have it, and so made up a pile of 
witch grass dug from the road-side. It was not very bad, for witch 
grass does not grow in poor soil. I was delighted, however, when 
I came to Massachusetts and the possibilities of a rare com- 
post heap grew in my imagination, but I soon learned that 
turf here was not as free as water by any means. It is an old 
saying that " one never knows the worth of a thing until he wants to 
buy it." I was not to be baffled, however, and in less than a year 
I had half a dozen piles. I scoured the hollows in the woods for 
decayed leaf soil, and well remember coming across an old-time 
charcoal burner's camping ground in a clearing, well covered with 
turf. I thought I had now found just the right kind of soil for 
•ry thing; but it proved to be the deadest stuff I ever used. 
Like a fancy dish it was no good without a dressing — a dress- 
ing of manure in this case. I made up my mind to keep my 



SOILS AND POTTING. Ill 

find a secret and did until another was disappointed in the same 
way, and then, remembering that " misery loves company,?' I 
told how I had been deceived. 

On a gentleman's place there is always a good deal of turf 
trimming to be done in spring time, grass edges to be neatly cut 
off around the walks, and borders straightened. By taking a 
generous slice where I dared, I usually managed to get together 
enough for the season's use. I am less ambitious now ; if I get 
half a dozen cartloads of turf, I mix with it two loads of my best 
manure — sheep manure when I can get it. That which comes 
from the Colorado ranches is just right for composting, being three 
or four times as rich as other manures, and less is required on this 
account. This I put in layers alternately with -pure ground bone. 
The bone meal and sheep manure will start fermentation, and this 
chemical action is valuable in more ways than one. Soil heated 
to 120 degrees Fahrenheit is fatal to all insect life and weed seeds, 
and further than this experience has shown that this chemical 
action is necessary to render bone meal available as a plant food. 
I have seen it used in a green state, but cannot say that I have 
been pleased with it; the odor is most disagreeable, and the 
mouldy condition it assumes, which is, no doubt, a necessary 
stage of its transition from a crude into a soluble plant food, is, to 
say the least, unpleasant to look upon. Bone meal is slow in be- 
coming available, but lasting when it is ; it should be worked into 
the compost long before it is needed, as it is not fit for use until 
fermentation has subsided. It should never be applied as a top 
dressing. Before I knew this I thought it would be a good idea 
to scatter a layer of bone meal on the bottom of flats I was 
working up for young Chrysanthemum plants. I intended they 
should have a good start and was, I suppose, too liberal, for 
in all my experience I never saw such a sickly looking lot of 
plants. I examined them every day and tried my best, hoping 
and believing they would come round. I waited almost too long. 
Finally I potted them in fresh soil, and when taken out of the 
bone meal compost I could almost have blown them over ; how 
they managed to exist with so few roots is a mystery. 

I said a light soil is best for potted plants, but this is only my 

experience ; where a man must, perchance, get along with a heavy 

, soil, and understands its management thoroughly, he may say as 

much in its favor. Two or three years ago my employer dug 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

out a slough ; lie wanted mud and also a place to dump gravel. 
This slough was found to be a depression in which for untold 
ages decayed leaves had gathered ; the ground was spongy and 
too wet for general farming purposes. Little did we think to 
find black soil ten or twelve feet deep. It was piled up and 
valued only as swamp mud, but when it sweetened and vegetable 
life got a chance for possession we found that grass and whatever 
grew on it thrived luxuriantly, showing there was body in it. 
Though black in color it is light in weight and does not pack. I 
have grown Geraniums, Cinerarias, Chrysanthemums, Calceolarias, 
Cytisuses, Heaths, and Azaleas in it and all have done well. So it 
is ; much must be gained by experience, and in no other occupa- 
tion is one so much subject to his environment. All the functions 
of gardening go hand in hand ; if we fail in one, we may fail in 
all. Injudicious watering of plants would lessen the value of the 
best compost ; a lack of air and the requisite amount of heat and 
moisture would ruin the best plants. 

To pot our plants properly is only part of the work; still 
" whatever is worth doing is worth doing well." Potting is like 
cooking a hare : " you must first catch your hare ; " that is, see 
that you have clean pots and, if new, properly deodorized. Let 
me explain — gardeners know that plants seldom thrive in pots 
fresh from the kiln ; exposure to the weathering influence of a rain- 
storm will sweeten them, or, lacking this, a good plan is to fill 
the new pots with moist earth and let it stay in them for a day 
or two ; this earth should not be used. Next in importance to 
sweet, clean pots is good drainage. Crocks of broken pots are 
the best material to use. In healthy plants the bulk of the roots- 
will be found among the drainage. Coal ashes are excellent for 
many plants, but they contain lime, and while this is a necessary 
ingredient in the food of some plants, it is not needed for all, and 
to some it is decidedly objectionable. 

Plants which do the greater part of their growing during 
winter time, as well as those which remain a long time without 
repotting, require the greatest care. All potting should be done 
firmly and this for the most part can be done by the hand; it is 
Lom necessary to use the potting stick in order to pack the soil 
more firmly, and then only for large plants and such as have 
solid balls of earth, as Azaleas, Heaths, and other shrubby green- 
house plants of slow growth. I remember once hearing a story 



SOILS AND POTTING. 113 

of a youth fresh from school, about to begin his apprenticeship 
in a large place on the other side. He came into the potting 
shed, whittling a stick ; on being asked what he was going to 
do with that, he replied he was going to pot orchids with it. 

Plants which grow quickly, such as Geraniums, Heliotropes, 
Coleuses, Fuchsias, and what gardeners include under the general 
term of " soft-wooded plants," require less care ; in fact, as spring 
advances and time becomes precious, quickly growing stock is 
potted with very little ceremony. A quick hand will pot several 
thousands of small plants in a day. 

A common practice among amateurs is to put out their window 
plants for a summer's growth. It is often a surprise and also a 
pleasure to watch such plants make luxuriant growth in their 
natural elements — free and unrestricted root area with plenty 
of air and sunshine. Usually their growth is altogether out of 
proportion to the space they must occupy for the winter, and it 
seems as if they would require much larger pots. If, however, 
as is generally the case, the greater number are of the Zonale 
type of Pelargonium, or what we know as Geraniums, they will 
bear considerable hard treatment and may be roughly pruned in 
and much curtailed in amount of root room, and very likely will 
do as well as if more liberally treated. The same applies to 
almost all window plants. The disposition is to be far too gener- 
ous with pot room. The conditions under which window plants 
must exist in living rooms are anything but congenial. I should 
prefer to dispense with my old stock after the summer's growth,, 
having raised a lot of young stock in the meantime. The disposi- 
tion to be generous is natural. It has always been regarded as 
" more blessed to give than to receive." One question the amateur 
is sure to ask is, u What fertilizer can I give my plants to start 
them up ? " when all that is needed is better light and air, or 
more or less heat as the case may be. Artificial manures, no 
matter how attractively labelled, are sure to do more harm than 
good to window plants in winter time. If the plants are sick it 
will be owing to some other cause, and manures would only make 
them worse ; it would be like trying to cure a dyspeptic with a 
course of high living. 

A word or two on the use of artificial manures in the liquid 
form for potted plants may not be out of place here. It is in- 
tended by their use to increase growth and general productive- 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ness whether it be fruits or flowers. More skill is required to 
continue a crop of flowers or fruits in productiveness after it has 
exhausted the natural resources of the soil than in bringing it to 
this condition ; this is the mark of success with some men. It 
is not my intention here to name one manure above another ; 
there are a dozen good ones, only some are safer to use than 
others. One of the simplest and best is the dregs from the barn- 
yard. They contain in a highly concentrated form nearly all the 
constituents of a complete plant food ; but even this cannot be 
used unstintingly. Some experience and good judgment will be 
required to gauge properly the amount which may be safely used 
in proportion to clear water. It is well to start with a one-eighth 
strength and increase it as experience dictates. I have used dry 
Colorado sheep manure, at the rate of a peck to fifty gallons, 
and this is right to use without fining down. Sulphate of 
ammonia or nitrate of soda may be used at the rate of one 
pound to fifty gallons of water ; these are really stimulants and 
not lasting manures. Their action is quick both of benefit as 
well as injury, and an overdose is a terrible trial for one to 
experience. These should only be used as alternatives. Some of 
us have used Albert's Horticultural Manure, which is an excel- 
lent article in the hands of a cautious person, but an overdose is 
awful. I am not skilled in mixing manures; but am satisfied to 
use one at a time. Liquid manures should be used only on plants 
making healthy growth, and the drainage must always be free. 
It is very seldom that sick plants will be benefited. 

The sowing of seed, when the quantities are small and often 
precious, requires some special mention. Here again few 
gardeners are in accord. In giving my own methods I know I 
am likely to run counter to many experienced practitioners. Mr. 
Jackson Dawson, of the Arnold Arboretum, and an old fellow at 
the Harvard Botanic G-arden, whose name I regret I never 
knew, could give many of us points on sowing seeds and raising 
dlings ; still some general rules may here be given. 

Sixty degrees Fahrenheit is a good temperature in which to 
germinate seeds of tender plants coming from semi-tropical 
regions. Tropical plants require somewhere in the neighborhood 
of eighty degrees, while seeds of many hardy plants germinate 
well enough at sixty, but for some even this will be too high, 

•ecially for many kinds of clematis and all such as take a long 



SOILS AND POTTING. 115 

time to germinate ; some will germinate in a temperature scarcely 
above freezing. A light sandy loam with some leaf soil, charcoal, 
and brick dnst sifted together will suit all seeds. Boxes or pans 
may be used with crocks over the holes and coarse siftings laid 
above this and the boxes filled with the prepared soil to within 
half an inch of the top and pressed firmly, then mark out drills 
with the edge of a label or bit of wood and scatter the seeds 
along ; vary the depth of the drill according to the size of the 
seeds. Very fine seeds need no drill and may be scattered upon 
the surface. A shaking will generally cover the seeds enough, 
and the surface should again be pressed firmly with a brick or 
something which will leave a smooth surface. With the excep- 
tion of very coarse seed, I do not practise overhead watering, 
preferring the sub-irrigation plan of immersing the boxes or pans 
to the edge, letting the water in from below. Less frequent 
wetting will be required and most seedlings will be up before a 
second application is necessary. There are several ways of dis- 
posing of the seed pans until germination takes place. I usually 
put over them a piece of glass and a light shading of paper; but 
where space is limited I have set them away in tiers, so that the 
bottoms do not actually rest upon the tops, of those below them, 
and find they do almost as well as when spread over more space. 
As fast as germination proceeds I expose the young plants to 
light and air. At this stage they require very careful watering, 
or the whole lot will damp off in a single night. Seedlings should 
be transplanted as soon as large enough to be handled con- 
veniently. 

, In what I have said it has not been my intention to lay down 
any strict rules in regard to the use of soils and potting. I 
should be travelling on altogether too dangerous ground. I have 
preferred rather to deal with some general principles on which 
these operations are based. 

Discussion. 

The lecture was illustrated by examples in potting plants, 
rapid potting being shown by three Ageratums, while careful 
potting was illustrated by the Begonia. 

The lecturer said that seedsmen should always state in their 
catalogues, especially with regard to new plants, whether they 
are from tropical, temperate, or cold regions. 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

•i 

A lady asked how to repot a Rubber Plant. Mr. Hatfield said 
that the example given would be just right ; he would not cut off 
any roots, but he would like to see the plant first. 

Thomas Harrison asked what the method of preparing bone 
meal was. 

Mr. Hatfield replied, " Take half a dozen cart-loads of turf and. 
three hundred pounds of bone meal. The value of bone meal is 
increased by fermentation, which process is accompanied by heat, 
and often destroys insects and weed seeds." He said he would 
not use bone meal on Geraniums. 

Mrs. E. M. Gill said she used it, and that her Geraniums did 
well. 

A stranger asked how much sheep manure would be used with 
six cart-loads of turf. Mr. Hatfield considered five to six hun- 
dred pounds enough. 

George D. Moore said that he used bone meal liberally on Let- 
tuce, and it prevented " dropping." He used bone meal which 
was as fine as flour, and gave it to Cucumbers as well as Let- 
tuce ; in two hills left without it the vines were a foot less in 
growth in a short time. 

W. D. Hinds asked the difference between bone meal and bone 
flour. Mr. Moore answered that the bone flour is so fine that it 
has to be put in double bags. 

A gentleman asked whether old potting soil can be used a 
second time. 

Mr. Hatfield replied that he saves old potting soil when he 
thinks it good enough, and uses it for annuals, such as Asters^ 
Zinnias, Stocks, and Verbenas. 

President Appleton inquired if it did not make a difference 
whether it is thrown over and aerated. 

Mr. Hatfield said that it did. Some soil is too good to throw 
away, and most any can be renovated by aerating and sweetening.. 

A Geranium was potted to illustrate how many roots may be 
taken off. 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 117 

MEETING EOR LECTURE AND DISCUSSION. 

Saturday, March 27, 1897. 

A meeting for Lecture and Discussion was holden today at 
•eleven o'clock, the President, Erancis H. Appleton, in the 
•chair. 

The following lecture was delivered on the John Lewis Russell 
Eoundation : 

The Spread of Plant Diseases — A Consideration of 
Some of the Ways in which Parasitic Organisms are 
Disseminated. 

By Dr. Erwin F. Smith, Assistant Pathologist, Division of Vegetable Physiology and 
Pathology, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

The subject selected for this address is a rather large one for 
treatment in a single lecture. Parasitic diseases of plants are 
disseminated in a great variety of ways. I shall not try to 
cover the whole field. All I desire or expect to do at this time 
is to call your attention in a plain, straightforward way to cer- 
tain well-known facts, and to others not so well known, drawing 
as I proceed certain inferences or conclusions which may be of 
use to you hereafter in your daily work. This lecture will neces- 
sarily be rather categorical, and not of much interest, I fear, 
except to those who are actually growing plants as a means of 
livelihood. I shall for the most part neglect the common and 
well-known dissemination of parasites by wind and water, and 
deal chiefly with methods of dissemination which are to a large 
-extent within our control. " The wind bloweth where it listeth," 
and we cannot stop it, but there are certain dangers we may 
avoid, and some of these I will endeavor to point out. I wish 
particularly to show how farmers, fruit growers, florists, market 
•gardeners, and all who have to do with the growing of plants are 
themselves not infrequently responsible for the spread of dis- 
eases, which either destroy their crops outright or leave the bal- 
ance on the wrong side of the ledger. If I can make this one 
fact perfectly clear to you, your own reading and reflection will 
do the rest, and I shall not have cast my seed into stony places 
•or by the wayside. 

As you all know, our modern intensive cultivation of flowers, 
fruits, and vegetables for market purposes is beset with many 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. , 

difficulties. To a transient visitor who strolls about, admiring- 
the regularity, thrift, and fruitfulness of every plant in sight, it 
may seem an easy matter to grow violets, roses, or chrysanthe- 
mums ; tomatoes, cauliflowers, or cucumbers ; strawberries, grapes,, 
or cherries, as the case may be. Certainly nothing seems easier, 
and just as certainly no business of life is beset with more diffi- 
culties, requires more constant attention, more good judgment, 
more knowledge derived from painful experience, or more 
thoughtful consideration of every least detail of the business.. 
The transient visitor sees the brilliant successes ; what he does 
not see is the long line of mingled successes and failures, the 
worries and disappointments, the long experience and sleepless 
care of years, which have led up to this fine consummation. If 
he thinks such results are born full-fledged out of Mother Earth, 
like Minerva from the brain of Jove, and that all one has to do 
is to plant seeds or set out cuttings and wait contentedly for the 
early and the later rains, let him try for himself. It is usually 
easy to find some pessimistic mortal with greenhouses and truck- 
ing grounds for sale, and he can begin at once, if so inclined, let 
us say, on cucumbers or tomatoes for the winter and early spring 
market. He has himself paid fifty cents a pound for tomatoes 
and ten cents apiece for cucumbers, and knows there is "big- 
money " in it. Let us follow our optimistic friend for a time and 
see what happens. He starts in well and early the first season. 
He is up with the lark and overflowing with energy. Things 
must gee. He has the writings of Peter Henderson by heart and 
all he lacks is experience. Let us drop in some months later. 
The plants are not doing well ; the crop has practically failed. 
What is the matter? The seeds were poor, and did not come 
up, or germinated slowly and irregularly, or the seedlings damped 
off in great numbers, necessitating a second sowing, which set 
the crop back and brought the product into an overflow- 
ing market with poor prices. Or the soil was not properly 
selected, and yielded only inferior plants and stunted fruits, in 
te of all care and coaxing. Or, possibly, the crop may 
bave started off well, but the gardener or other help did not 
understand firing or the management of ventilation, the plants 
being nearly roasted at times, in spite of the plentiful supply 
of expensive thermometers hung in all parts of the house, and 
then suddenly chilled with floods of cold air by way of compen- 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 119 

sation. Or, finally, perhaps the chief trouble was in the use of 
water. The management of water in hothouses is a fine art. 
Nothing requires better judgment and in nothing is our friend 
less experienced. The plants suffered at times and in particular 
parts of the house, let us say, from lack of water, and then were 
drenched by the hired man ; or the unsatisfied owner, seeing that 
things were going wrong, took the watering out of the hands of 
the foreman and daily flooded the house himself according to 
ideas evolved out of his own inner consciousness. About this 
time slugs, scale insects, red spider, plant lice, nematodes, and a 
variety of fungous diseases made their appearance in alarming 
proportions, and some man of my profession was sent for. Of 
course, he found a most interesting set of conditions, — interest- 
ing, I mean, to the pathologist, — and, possibly, was able to afford 
the disheartened grower the cold comfort of some good advice 
about what not to do next time. This is an extreme case, and 
yet there are plenty of such cases every year around every great 
city, and the troubles and failures are not all confined to begin- 
ners or to plants grown in hothouses. If the tyros were the only 
sufferers, we might be content to let them alone, trusting to the 
hard doctrine of the survival of the fittest as the all-sufficient 
remedy. This, however, is not the case, even old growers some- 
times experiencing great losses which might have been avoided. 
There are now so many people engaged in growing things for 
market, and competition on most crops is so very close and the 
profits so small, that even the most experienced and successful 
grower must stop every leak in his expense account, and take ad- 
vantage of every least chance for increasing the quantity, quality, 
earliness, etc., of his crops. This he can do only by a thorough 
understanding of all the conditions necessary for successful 
growth, the avoidance of parasitic diseases being one very im- 
portant consideration. It is just here that plant physiologists 
and pathologists, while themselves learning much from the prac- 
tical grower, may nevertheless be able to render him very material 
assistance. As such an individual, I have been invited to ad- 
dress you. 

If, however, you expect me to tell you today how parasitic dis- 
eases may always be avoided, you are expecting the impossible 
and will be disappointed. The most I can do is to tell you how 
some of them may be prevented, and put you on your guard as to 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. . 

the doing or not doing of certain things. Along with what I shall 
say today, I would have you remember that plant pathology is a 
very new science, of which as yet we barely know the rudiments. 

Every year, however, adds to the sum of our exact knowledge, 
and it will not be long before those growers who learn and apply 
this new knowledge will outstrip their fellows, and have the field 
to themselves. Competition is not likely to decrease, nor are 
prices likely to advance very much, and the profits must come 
from avoiding losses. 

It is particularly to this enterprising class of men that I should 
like to speak concerning the restriction of plant diseases. In 
this art, as in that of modern medicine, an ounce of prevention is 
worth many pounds of cure. There are at least three classes of 
growers : First, those who never learn anything except by bitter 
personal experience. To such men, and I may be speaking to 
some of this type today, much of this address may seem theo- 
retical and impracticable. The loss of one or two crops in suc- 
cession by the attack of some preventable parasite usually affords 
such a man the needed personal stimulus, and thereafter, as far 
as my own experience with such men goes, he is a faithful con- 
vert. There is a second class of growers who believe it all, 
know it all, and can give pointers to any expert, but are what 
might be called eleventh-hour men. Whether from inertia, love 
of ease, or inability to plan, they never get around to try any 
preventive until the mischief is done. Such men are the worst 
to deal with, since they are pretty certain to apply some remedy 
when it is too late, and equally certain to declare afterwards that 
all such remedies are worthless, as they know from " personal 
experience," having tried them. There is a third class of growers 
who are very quick to see and equally quick to apply anything 
likely to add to their pecuniary profit. Probably no country in 
the world has more men of this type than our own. They are 
the men whose hard common sense will try what stuff the 
specialist's fine-spun theories are made of, and woe to him if 
he is a quack, for they will surely find him out ! It is this 
class of men whom I most fear, and at the same time most desire 
to reach. 

I may take for granted that all of you already know that dis- 
eases which prevail extensively, and are known as contagious 
or -'catching" diseases, are due to parasites. This is true not 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 121 

only of human and animal diseases, but also of plant diseases. The 
plant world has its own consumption and leprosy, its cholera and 
black plague, its typhoid and malaria, its grippe, diphtheria, an- 
thrax, and glanders — diseases due to other organisms and 
totally different, of course, in their symptoms from those I have 
named, but no less widespread and destructive in their course, and 
no less amenable to hygienic measures, than the terrible human 
and animal scourges with which we are all more or less familiar. 

These plant parasites are plants or animals which have in some 
way lodged on or gained an entrance into the plant, or " host 
plant," as we usually designate it, and which there multiply to its 
detriment. Many of these organisms are exceedingly small, so as 
to be readily overlooked, and all of them are well provided with 
means of reproduction. In case of the parasitic fungi the repro- 
ductive bodies developed on a single host plant often amount to 
hundreds of thousands, and in case of bacteria even to hundreds 
of millions. These bodies are, of course, very small, requiring 
good microscopes and other facilities for their study, but if the 
conditions are favorable a single one of them may be all that is 
necessary to start disease in a healthy plant. 

Why, then, are not all our plants destroyed outright ? This 
leads to another question, viz., what constitutes a parasite ? In a 
•crude way, and for the sake of convenience, we often divide the 
lower organisms into two classes — saprophytes and parasites ; 
the former obtaining their nourishment from dead and decaying 
substances, the latter nourished at the expense of other living 
organisms. There are, however, all grades of saprophytism and of 
parasitism. Any saprophyte may become a parasite if it can gain 
an entrance into the plant, and can there find conditions adapted 
to its growth. There is a constant struggle for existence in all 
animate nature, and one organism or another prospers according 
to environmental conditions. Sometimes the advantage is wholly 
with the host plant, at other times largely with the parasite. 
Many saprophytes become only slowly adapted to parasitic ways 
of living. Many parasites are very sensitive to light, to heat, to 
dry air, and perish in a short time if exposed to these conditions. 
Many parasites will thrive only under unusual conditions of heat 
and moisture. Many of the higher plants have devised special 
means for their own protection, such as the physical obstacle of a 
thick and hard covering not easily penetrated, a waxy covering 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. - 

not easily wetted, a smooth covering from which the water runs- 
off quickly ; or have interposed chemical obstacles, such as a sap 
not adapted to the growth of the parasite. These then are some 
of the reasons why all of our plants are not immediately attacked 
and destroyed. To sum up or restate the case : First, the para- 
site is very liable to be destroyed by adverse conditions before it 
reaches the plant. Second, it must gain an entrance into the 
plant by its own exertions or by the help of other organisms, and 
this may be difficult or impossible. Third, once in, its growth may 
be effectually stopped by insuperable chemical or physical ob- 
stacles. Not every potential parasite becomes an actual parasite. 
The difficulties lying in the way are often too great for the organ- 
ism to overcome and consequently a good portion of our crops 
escape. The business of the pathologist is to find out just what 
these difficulties are in case of each particular parasite and to 
teach the grower how he may increase them. 

The most of this address will be devoted to showing just how 
certain parasites succeed in getting from one plant to another. 
It is commonly assumed, I know, that their reproductive bodies 
float through the air and accidentally lodge on the plants, but 
while not denying that this often occurs, and is perhaps in 
many cases the exclusive means of infection, I am certain that 
in some cases this rarely or never occurs, and I am inclined to 
believe, for reasons which I will now explain, that in quite a large 
number of diseases the chief danger of infection lies in other di- 
rections. I shall occasionally refer to preventive measures, but 
with the facts before you, you will in many cases be able to draw 
your own conclusions as to the best method of procedure. 

The first subject to which I invite your attention is the spread 
of parasite organisms by means of insects. 

Spread by Insects. — This is a method of distribution which 
has received little attention from the cultivator, but one which I 
am persuaded is very common. The gnawings, borings, and. 
punctures of insects, injurious as these often are, can by no means 
be reckoned as the whole of the injury which they do, and some- 
ies they are the least part of it. As carriers of disease they 
• no less potent in the vegetable than in the animal world. In 
what I have to say under this head I shall deal only with three 
diseases, but these are widespread, and their dissemination by 
insects has been fairly well worked out: 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 123 

Bear Blight. — I will not undertake to say who first ascribed 
the spread of this disease to insects, but the honor of clearly 
proving it to be so disseminated belongs to Mr. Merton B. 
Waite. He it was who first isolated the pear blight germ from 
the mouth part of bees which had visited blighting pear flowers ;. 
who saw bees pass from such flowers to healthy ones and the 
blight subsequently appear in the latter; and who afterwards 
showed conclusively on a large scale that pear flowers covered by 
mosquito netting always remained free from blight, while the 
unprotected, insect-visited ones blighted freely. There is not 
only no doubt that pear blight is spread through the agency of 
insect visits, but so far as he has been able to determine, it is, 
never disseminated in any other way. The organism exudes 
from the tree in the form of small sticky or gummy masses 
which are not likely to be blown about by the wind, and is easily 
destroyed by drying. The disease occasionally winters over in the 
tree, and so far as Mr. Waite has been able to determine all the 
spring outbreaks of pear blight start from these hold-over cases, 
as a result of insect visits, and not from the soil. Indeed, we 
have as yet no evidence that pear blight lives over in the soil. 

Bacterial Wilt of Cucumbers, Muskmelons, Bumpkins, and 
Squashes. — This is a common disease in the northern United 
States, and often does great injury. It is due to a very sticky, 
white micro-organism which fills the water ducts, and thus brings 
about a sudden collapse of the plant. I have experimented with 
it extensively since 1893, and find it to be readily communicated 
by the striped cucumber beetle and sometimes also by squash bugs. 
Wilting vines are very full of virulent, sticky germs, ready to be 
carried away on the beak or jaws of the first visiting insect and 
deposited on the surface or in the interior of the next plant that 
is bitten. On one occasion I examined nearly a thousand freshly 
blighted leaves, and found small gnawed places inside of the 
blighted area of every one, and in such relation thereto that the 
wilt appeared to have proceeded outward from the bitten places. 
Subsequently I produced the disease by allowing striped beetles 
and squash bugs to feed on diseased leaves and then on healthy 
plants. My greenhouse inoculation experiments with this bacillus 
now exceed four hundred, but I have never had the disease escape 
from inoculated plants to controls, and I believe that in the field 
it is spread almost wholly, if not exclusively, by insects. In 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. , 

what form or in what place it passes the winter, I do not yet 
know, but given one affected plant in a squash or cucumber field 
in June or July, and plenty of beetles to feed on it, and in a 
month or six weeks there will frequently be more diseased than 
healthy plants. That all are not destroyed by it appears to be 
due largely, if not wholly, to the fact that it is readily killed by 
exposure to sunlight and to dry air. 

Bacterial Brown Rot of the Potato, Tomato, and Egg-Plant. — 
The Department of Agriculture has recently published a bulletin 
on this disease, which some of you may have seen. This disease 
is also disseminated by insects, and in all probability owes the 
greater part of its destructiveness to this fact. The insects feed 
on diseased plants that are swarming with the parasite and then 
crawl or fly to other plants, which are bitten and subsequently 
become diseased. I do not yet know how widespread this dis- 
ease may be, but am now inclined to attribute to it a large part 
of the potato rot of the eastern United States. It may be known 
by the sudden wilt of the foliage, the stems becoming brown 
internally and shrivelling. The bacillus passes down the inte- 
rior of the stem into the tubers, and brown-rots them from within. 
I succeeded in communicating this disease from sick to healthy 
plants very readily by means of Colorado potato beetles. They 
were taken from healthy potato fields which remained healthy, 
were allowed to feed on diseased leaves and stems for a few 
hours and then transferred to healthy plants, which they gnawed 
a little in various places, but from which the beetles were re- 
moved before they had done any serious injury of that sort. 
Seven to nine days later the plants suddenly developed the dis- 
ease on many parts of the top, corresponding to many bites, and 
the progress of the disease after the first day or two was rapid. 
As the spread of this disease is simply a matter of the transfer 
of a few germs from the interior of diseased to the interior of 
healthy plants, I do not see why any gnawing or puncturing 
insect might not serve just as well as the potato beetle as a 
carrier of this disease. 1 

Spread by Snails and Slugs. — The role of mollusks in the 
-semination of fungous and bacterial diseases is also an impor- 

1 As this paper goes through the press (Feb., 1898), Dr. W. 0. Sturgis, of the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station, reports the interesting discovery that the mildew of Lima 
>oans (Phytophthora Phaseoli, Thaxter) is disseminated by bees which visit the flowers for 
nectar. 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 125 

tant one. The subject is new even to scientific men, and most 
cultivators know nothing about it. Nevertheless, the indirect 
damage done by these animals as carriers of disease germs is 
often immensely greater than the immediate and visible injuries 
they induce by feeding. Again I shall refer only to a few cases, 
but these I consider to be well-established ones. 

Wagner's Experiment with Snails. — Last year a German by 
the name of G-. Wagner published an interesting paper on the 
spread of fungi by snails. He experimented with downy and 
powdery mildews, ascomycetous fungi, and rust fungi. Snails of 
various sorts were transferred from diseased to healthy plants, 
and the disease appeared on the latter ; they were fed various 
parasitic fungi, and a subsequent examination of the excreta 
showed that the spores of these fungi passed through the animals 
uninjured, and in condition to germinate. Finally, the dung of 
these snails was dissolved in water and painted on the leaves or 
stems of host plants and the disease followed. 

In this way, three downy mildews, two powdery mildews, one 
Nectria, and one rust fungus were transferred to healthy plants 
of various sorts. Mr. Wagner thinks that fungi are very com- 
monly distributed by snails. 

Galbraith's Experiments. — Mr. Galbraith, an Englishman living 
in the Seychelles islands, has recently obtained equally interesting 
results with snails, which he finds to be largely responsible for 
the spread of a vanilla disease prevalent in those islands. 

The Bacterial Brown Rot of Cabbage. — This disease is preva- 
lent in many parts of the United States, and is tolerably well 
known to market gardeners. It blackens the veins of the leaves 
and the woody ring in the stem, causes the leaves to fall off, and 
prevents the formation of heads, or spoils those which have al- 
ready formed. It is due to a micro-organism, and is disseminated 
in various ways. I have myself the present winter obtained strik- 
ing infections by means of the common greenhouse slug. These ani- 
mals were fed on diseased cabbage leaves and then transferred for a 
few hours to healthy cabbage plants, the disease appearing a week 
or two later. Insects are probably also carriers of this disease. 1 

I will next invite your attention to the danger of spread of 
parasitic diseases by way of the manure pile. 

1 Since this was written I have obtained conclusive evidence, using the " Southern cabbage 
worm" (larvae of Plusia brassicoe), and have been able to confirm these green-house ex" 
periments by many observations in the field. 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. „ 

Spread through the Manure Pile. — Barnyard manure 
always contains a great variety of organisms, most of which are 
harmless to plants. Occasionally, however, some parasite gets 
into the manure heap, finds a congenial place for extended growth, 
and is finally hauled out by the unsuspecting cultivator and put 
just where it can do him the most damage. Sometimes the spores 
of these parasites get in through the fodder or bedding, but they 
are also probably occasionally introduced along with mouldy or 
rotting vegetables which have been thoughtlessly thrown into 
the barn yard or on to the manure pile. One of the most strik- 
ing cases that has come under my own observation is worth de- 
scribing somewhat in detail. 

The Watermelon Wilt. — This disease of the watermelon is due 
to a fungus (Fusarium niveum) which enters the plant through 
the soil and fills up its water-conducting system, causing sudden 
wilt and subsequent death. It prevails extensively from South 
Carolina to Texas, and is by far the worst trouble melon growers 
have to contend with. The fungus lives over winter in the dead 
stems, and grows readily in manure. In 1894 I was sent to South 
Carolina to investigate this disease, at the urgent request of a 
planter who had lost nearly his whole crop. Nothing was then 
known as to the cause of the disease, and the conclusions I shall 
here give you are based on studies of the disease which have since 
been made in the laboratory and field. The man of whom I speak 
had planted seventy acres, and nearly the whole crop was affected 
by this disease, just that part of the field being most severely 
attacked that had been most carefully manured. He had for- 
merly been a very successful melon grower, but had suffered 
some from this disease the preceding year. In order to have an 
extra fine crop, by way of compensation for losses of the pre- 
vious year, he had raked and scraped every bit of litter he 
could procure from the whole farm, and made a large compost 
heap in his barnyard. Into this heap went also the refuse of a 
thirty-five acre melon field of the preceding year. This consisted 
principally of hay cut from the field in the fall, and including 
many dry melon vines full of the fungus, which only needed the 
moisture and food supply of the dung heap to grow again luxuri- 
antly. In the spring, when he had unwittingly made an immense 
culture bed of his barnyard, he hauled out this infected manure 
and put it under his melon hills, with most disastrous results. I 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 127 

have since obtained confirmatory results in other places, and am 
very certain that this disease was in that instance spread by way 
of the manure pile. Probably it is often disseminated in this 
manner. I shall have more to say of this interesting disease 
under another head. 

Smut Diseases. — Some of the smut diseases are also well 
known to be transmissible through dung, especially in fresh 
manure, and for this reason the latter should never be used on 
fields of cereals. 

Other Diseases. — While not conclusive, the evidence is strong 
that many diseases come out of the dung pile. I recall a bad 
outbreak of the so-called timber rot of cucumbers in a hothouse 
near Washington where it seemed almost certain that the fungus 
was introduced with the manure. And within the last six 
months three cases have come to my knowledge where serious 
diseases followed unusually heavy applications of manure. One 
of those was a sclerotium disease of ginseng in Pennsylvania, 
another the bacterial brown rot of turnips in Maryland, and the 
third a rot of celery in Florida. 

This subject is at least- worthy of much more careful attention 
than it has hitherto received, and would undoubtedly amply 
repay all the time put upon it. Manure should at least be kept 
free from the rubbish of plants that have been attacked by 
parasitic diseases and ought to be thoroughly composted and rotted 
before it is used. 

Spread by Way of the Soil. — Certain parasitic diseases 
of plants are peculiarly soil troubles. Their home is the earth. 
They live and multiply in the soil indefinitely as saprophytes, and 
yet are always ready to become parasites when there is an oppor- 
tunity. Not enough attention has been paid to this class of dis- 
eases. Among these soil fungi are some of the worst enemies 
the cultivator has to contend with. They are hidden out of 
sight, are very difficult to combat by fungicidal treatment, and 
when a field is onCe well seeded down to one of them it is practi- 
cally worthless for the growing of such crops as are subject to 
the disease, the only satisfactory management of the land in 
most cases being a long rotation with crops not subject to the 
attacks of the parasite. These soil fungi manage to get about 
from field to field in various ways. Some of them are known to 
have been distributed in irrigation water or to have been washed 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. - 

from higher to lower fields by floods ; some have been carried by 
the plow or other tools, or on the feet of animals. Occasionally man 
himself digs them up and transports them into hotbeds, green- 
houses, and fields. One year all of our potting soil at the Depart- 
ment was so badly infested with the damp-off fungus that plants 
could be gotten past the seedling stage only with great difficulty. 
Frequently these fungi creep through the earth for considerable 
distances, destroying nearly everything they meet or only certain 
species of plants. Others distort or corrode underground parts 
without destroying the plant. Onion smut, potato scab, the club- 
root of cruciferous plants, the fairy-ring fungus, Rolf 's sclerotium 
disease, the cotton root rot ; the Dematophora necatrix, destructive 
to the roots of grape vines, figs, and many other plants; the 
Polyporus annosus ; Trametes radiciperda, especially destructive 
to the roots of coniferous trees ; and the root fungus of New 
Zealand, which is said to destroy every sort of plant in its way, 
are examples of these soil parasites. I shall mention particularly 
only one type of these troubles, viz. : 

The Fusarium Diseases of the United States. — It has fallen 
to my lot to study some of these parasites quite carefully, and I 
now know eight important cultivated plants subject to them, viz., 
cotton, cow-pea, watermelon, cabbage, potato, tomato, sweet 
potato, and pineapple. Whether we have here to deal with eight 
parasites or with only one widely distributed polymorphic organ- 
ism remains to be determined. I am inclined to think, however, 
from my own numerous experiments, covering a series of years 
and not yet completed, that we have to do with closely related 
but distinct forms. All of these host plants are seriously in- 
jured and some of them over wide areas. In all of them the 
trouble is due to a sort of embolism or parasitic clogging of the 
water ducts of the plant. I have already alluded to the water- 
melon wilt when speaking of parasites disseminated in barnyard 
manure, and will here devote most of my remarks to' that disease. 
It occurs from the Carolinas to Texas, and has practically put an 
end to profitable melon culture in parts of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, and Texas. The plants are attacked in all 
stages from seedlings to mature vines in fruit. The first sign is 
a sudden wilting of the whole or a part of the vine without 
apparent cause. The fungus enters the plant from the soil and 
almost always destroys it. I have seen large fields entirely 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 129 

ruined by it, and know of fertile tracts miles in extent where 
melon culture has been abandoned. When the soil is once infested 
it is worthless for melon growing for a long time — five to seven 
years, according to South Georgia growers who have had much 
experience with it. 

A successful Sea Island cotton grower writes that he has 
abandoned fifteen acres of his best cotton land on account of this 
blight. A New York cabbage grower informs me that his best 
soil, which formerly yielded abundant crops, is now worthless for 
cabbage growing, and I know from a careful examination that his 
sole trouble arises from the fact that his soil is infested with a 
parasitic Fusarium. Undoubtedly these troubles have arisen, 
or at least have become intensified, by too frequent growing of 
the same crop, and the best remedy is to be found in a wide rota- 
tion. At present I know of no other. 

Spread by Way of Seeds, Seedlings, Buds, Tubers, Cut- 
tings, and Nursery Stock. — One of the best examples of a 
disease disseminated on seeds is the loose smut of oats and 
wheat. The smut spores simply adhere to the sound kernels, 
germinate at the same time as the kernels, and bore into the young 
seedlings, to remain hidden till the plants blossom. The parasite 
of beet burn finds its way to the young seedlings in much the 
same way, being carried to the beet fields along with the seed. 
Potato scab is spread in much the same way, i.e., from the mother 
tuber to the progeny, but this parasite also lives over in the soil. 
A bad lettuce Septoria, which sometimes causes much trouble, 
appears to be carried over from year to year, and spread from 
place to place in the seed. 

Many diseases are distributed in seedlings, bulbs, buds, and 
cuttings, and too much care cannot be exercised in their selec- 
tion. Among these may be mentioned the Easter lily disease, the 
yellow disease of hyacinths, certain violet diseases, the California 
vine disease, peach yellows, peach rosette, peach mildew, and 
peach curl. 1 

But perhaps the most wholesale manner of distribution is 
through the medium of irresponsible nurserymen. In this way 
all sorts of fungi and insect pests are spread from one end of the 

1 Since this was written I have found that the bacterial brown rot or black rot of the 
cabbage is often transplanted to healthy fields from the seed bed along with the young 
plants. (See "Farmers' Bulletin," No. 68, U.S. Department of Agriculture, for a full ac- 
count of this discovery.) 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

country to the other. Many examples might be adduced. The 
most notorious recent one in this country is the wholesale distri- 
bution of the pestiferous San Jose scale in the eastern United 
States by two New Jersey nursery men. More than this, some 
dealers appear to be still sending out infested trees in spite of 
claims to the contrary. There is no good reason why all of this 
nursery stock should not be fumigated in a dormant condition. 
If done properly the scales would be destroyed without injury to 
the plants. The only safety for growers appears to be in demand- 
ing this, and in refusing to accept any trees or other plants which 
are not clean. The damage to an orchard which is certain to result 
from the introduction of a single tree infested with the San Jose 
scale is so great that it becomes every fruit grower to be on his 
guard. The white scale or West Indian scale of the peach is also 
very destructive and should be guarded against with great care. 
If by any accident it should be as widely distributed from nur- 
series as the San Jose scale has been, it would injure the peach 
orchards to quite as great an extent, a few years sufficing to de- 
stroy the most robust trees. I have sometimes called it the 
u whitewash scale " because at a little distance affected trees look 
as if covered with lime. 

General Conclusions respecting Preventive Measures. 

1. Prompt Removal and Destruction of Diseased Material. — 
There are special reasons for this, owing (a) to ability of many 
parasites to grow and fructify on the plants, or parts of plants, 
which they have already destroyed, i.e., to live as pure sapro- 
phytes, and (b) to the persistent vitality of many other sorts 
under what would seem to be very unfavorable conditions, e.g., 
after being dry for months. The fusarium of watermelon grew 
from a dried-out laboratory culture after two and one-half years. 

Practical application in : 

(1) Field. — Pear blight, rot of stone fruits, lemon scab, black 
knot of plum and cherry, peach yellows, San Jose scale (when 
restricted to a few trees). 

(2) Greenhouse. — Rust of chrysanthemums and carnations, 
spot of violets, rot of lettuce, black spot of roses, anthracnose 
and timber rot of cucumbers, wet rot of hyacinths, etc. 

It. is not enough to pick off the diseased parts. They must be 
disposed of properly. Loss may result from throwing diseased 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 131 

leaves or plants under the benches. If this is the only method 
of disposal they might almost as well be left, in place. It is 
generally best to burn them. 

2. Destruction of Insects and Mollusks. — More practicable in 
some cases than in others. 

(1) Field. — In the field we may make use of hand picking, 
nets, resin wash, kerosene emulsion, and traps of various sorts. 
No very satisfactory method of dealing with certain of these 
carriers of disease has yet been worked out. The discovery of 
cheap efficient ways of destroying these insects furnishes many 
interesting problems for the economic entomologist. A combina- 
tion of this method and the preceding (removal of diseased 
material) is recommended for such diseases as the brown rot of 
the potato and cabbage and the bacterial wilt of cucurbits. 
Root aphides may sometimes be reached by tobacco dust dug 
into the soil. Root nematodes specially infest certain soils, and 
are difficult to combat. 

(2) Hothouse. — The troubles most prevalent in hothouses are 
aphides, scale insects, red spiders, root nematodes, roaches, and 
slugs. Slugs may be handpicked at night. Roaches are easily 
poisoned with a mixture of phosphorus and honey. Nematodes 
in hothouses are seldom troublesome except when the potting 
soil is full of them to begin with or when the plants have been 
systematically over watered, and in either case the remedy is 
obvious. Red spiders are often very troublesome, especially 
when the air of houses has been kept too dry. They are not 
easily destroyed by the common insecticides, snapping their legs, 
so to speak, at tobacco smoke and even at the deadly hydrocyanic- 
acid gas, of which they can endure more than the plants. The 
best remedy is not to let the plants become infested, and the best 
palliative is frequent douching of the plants with a fine spray 
of water. Plant lice are readily held in check by fumigation 
with tobacco. This, however, must be managed with care, as 
radishes, violets, and some other plants are peculiarly sensitive, 
and a single careless fumigation might do more injury than a 
dozen generations of aphides. I have seen the following arrange- 
ment for fumigation in a large rose house in Washington, and 
many of you are probably already familiar with it : Long, 
narrow, shallow galvanized-iron pans half full of a very strong- 
tobacco water were distributed dow,n the aisles of the house, and 
into these about once a week was dropped a good-sized red-hot 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

rod or spike. These spikes were heated in the furnace and car- 
ried rapidly through the house in an iron basket. The house is 
quickly filled with tobacco steam. The manager assured me that 
this method was cheaper, less injurious to the plants; and more 
effective than the ordinary dry air method of tobacco fumigation. 
They were cutting thirteen hundred buds a day from this house 
and the thrift and beauty of the plants were remarkable. 

Scale insects are not so easily killed ; most of them will thrive 
on tobacco smoke and ordinary sprays. We have, however, 
found hydrocyanic acid gas very cheap and effective. It is a 
deadly poison, and must be used with the greatest care. In 
intelligent hands I am persuaded that it is the coming remedy for 
this class of troubles. There must, however, be considerable ex- 
perimenting and testing on the part of specialists before it comes 
into general successful use. Not only does it quickly diffuse 
through the air and speedily kill those who breathe it, but it also 
kills the plants as well as the scales, if the dose is too strong. 
Furthermore, plants are sensitive to it in very different degrees, 
as Mr. A. F. Woods has shown, so that a dose which will not 
harm one plant will kill another. In any given case it must be 
determined in advance ; first, what is the minimum dose for the 
scale, and, second, that this dose will not harm the plants. When 
these two facts have been ascertained the cubic contents of the 
house to be fumigated must be accurately computed, and then 
the proper amount of gas may be liberated after the house has 
been closed as tightly as possible and the roof wet down to make 
it still more air-tight. Details as to manufacture and liberation 
of the gas, method of computing air space, and proper dose for 
certain plants have been published recently by Mr. P. H. Dorsett, 
in the " Florists' Exchange/' and I will not here describe them. 

By use of this method I have seen one hundred thousand 
foliage plants (coleus, achy ran thes, etc.) which were covered 
with orthezia and ruined for transplanting freed from every 
scale in twenty minutes' time at a trivial expense, and without 
the least injury to the plants. I have also known of the gas 
being used successfully in violet houses for the destruction of 
1 1 >hides. 

(3) Fungicidal Treatment. — Among fungicidal treatments may 
be mentioned sulphur dusting, use of lime, use of mercuric chlo- 
ride, hot-water treatment, and spraying with copper compounds. 
Diseases amenable to one or other of these treatments are 



THE SPREAD OF PLANT DISEASES. 133 

powdery mildew, club-root of crucifers, potato scab, wheat and oat 
smut, downy mildew of grape, black rot of grape, pear and quince 
leaf blight, pear and apple scab, melanose of orange, and damp- 
off fungi. 

(4) Indirect Methods — i.e., by furnishing the host plant with 
the best possible conditions for growth and the parasites with 
the poorest. To apply these measures properly requires a very 
considerable body of knowledge, both of the needs of the crop 
grown and of the life history of the parasite. Here is just 
where many growers fail, and this is why so many hothouses 
seems to have been erected as a special banqueting chamber for 
bugs and fungi of all sorts. The first thing that the owner of 
such a house needs to do is to learn the habits of the parasites 
and study the requirements of his plants until he can properly 
repress the one and cater to the other. Many houses are badly 
adapted to the requirements of the crops grown in them. 

Some of the diseases commonly observed in houses, and due 
almost wholly to mismanagement, may be noted very briefly : 

The powdery mildew of the rose, cucumber, etc., is brought 
on very largely by chill due to improper ventilation. Cucumber 
anthracnose and the timber rot are favored by excess of water 
and insufficient ventilation. Some houses are so constructed that 
they cannot be properly ventilated. Timber rot is found specially 
in damp corners, where the water remains in the angles of stems 
and leaves for hours together. The lettuce rots due to Botrytis 
and to the downy mildew are often brought on by excess of 
water and irregular heating. If time permitted, many other 
instances might be cited. 

Sometimes these troubles are due to the attempt to grow too 
many kinds of plants in the same house. In such cases the 
grower generally tries to follow a medium course in the matter 
of heat, ventilation, and water-supply, and in doing so furnishes 
normal condition for none of his plants. 

Certain field diseases may also be restricted by stimulating the 
plants to make the best possible growth, or in case of the onion 
smut, as Dr. Thaxter and Dr. Sturgis have shown, by growing 
the plants in soil free from the fungus and not setting them out 
into the infected earth until they are beyond the receptive stage. 

Concerning care in the use of manure, in the selection of seeds 
and cuttings, and in the buying of trees and other plants, 
[ need not say more than I have already done. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Prefatory Note, . 3 

Business Meeting, January 2, 1897 ; Address of President Appleton, pp. 
5-10; Appropriations for 1897, 10; Addition to the Act Incorporating 
the Society, 10, 11 ; Appointment of Treasurer and Secretary, 11 ; 
Memorial of Samuel G. Damon, 11 ; Vote of thanks to the President, 
12; Motion concerning Peach Yellows negatived, 12; Letter from 
Boston Mycological Club read, 12; Two members elected, 12; Pro- 
gramme of Lectures and Discussions announced, 12 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, January 9; Tropical Horticul- 
ture, with Illustrations of the Principal Economic Plants of Hot Cli- 
mates, by Prof. George Lincoln Goodale, . . . . . . 12~i9 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, January 16 ; The Structure and 

Classification of Mushrooms, by Hollis "Webster, 20-28 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, January 23; The Chrysanthe- 
mum : Its Past, Present, and Future, by Edmund M. Wood, pp. 28-42 ; 
Discussion, . . 42, 43 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, January 30; Plant Beauty, by 

Henry T. Bailey 43-46 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, February 13; The Sweet Pea, 
the Flower for Everybody, by Rev. W. T. Hutchins, pp. 46-60; 
Discussion, 60-64 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, February 20; Some Phases of 

Market Gardening, by T. Greiner, pp. 64-73; Discussion, . . . 73-77 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, February 27 ; Good Food from 

the Garden, by Miss Anna Barrows, pp. 77-86 ; Discussion, . . .87, 88 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, March 13; Horticulture in 

Canada, by Prof. William Saunders, . . - < . . . . 88-106 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, March 20; Soils and Potting, 

by T. D. Hatfield, pp., 107-115; Discussion, 115, 116 

Meeting for Lecture and Discussion, March 27 ; The Spread of Plant 
Diseases : A Consideration of Some of the Ways in which Parasitic 
Organisms are disseminated, by Dr. Erwin F. Smith, . . . 117-133 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



|$fe«|tt^tfe Sflrtiorliral Sfoffetg, 



FOE THE YEAR 1897. 



PART II. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1898. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



^MmtoxMt |l0*toltttal JMetg* 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 3, 1897. 

A duly notified Stated Meeting of the Society was holden today 
at eleven o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the 
chair. 

Benjamin M. Watson, Chairman of the Committee to procure a 
portrait of Ex-President Nathaniel T. Kidder, reported that the 
Committee had performed that duty, and asked to be discharged. 
The report was accepted and the Committee was discharged. 

The President read a communication from J. D. W. French, 
Chairman of the Committee on Lectures and Publication, stating 
that the Committee desire suggestions as to subjects and lectures 
for another year ; also that a book is in the hands of the Secre- 
tary where such suggestions can be inscribed, and that the Com- 
mittee desire the cooperation of the members in making the 
lectures as far as possible instructive and entertaining. 

Charles E. Richardson read his Annual Report as Treasurer for 
the year 1896, which was accepted, adopted, and ordered to be 
printed. 

O. B. Hadwen announced the decease of Edward Winslow 
Lincoln, an Honorary Member of this Society, and for thirty-five 
years Secretary of the Worcester County Horticultural Society, 
and who had devoted his life to the advancement of Horticulture, 
and moved the appointment by the Chair of a committee to pre- 
pare memorial resolutions. The motion was carried, and the Chair 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

appointed as that Committee Mr. Hadwen, E. W. Wood, and 
Robert Manning. 

Benjamin M. Watson announced the decease of Charles Eliot, 
who, he said, was a man thoroughly identified with horticultural 
matters from the time of his graduation from college, — few had 
been so thoroughly identified, — and moved the appointment of a 
committee to prepare a memorial of him. The motion was carried, 
and the Chair appointed as that Committee Mr. Watson, Ex- 
President Dr. Henry P. Walcott, and James H. Bowditch. 

It was voted that the Committees on memorials to Messrs. 
Lincoln and Eliot be authorized to send the respective testi- 
monials to the families of the deceased as soon as prepared. 

Robert Manning announced the decease of Dr. Robert Hogg, of 
London, editor of the "Journal of Horticulture," author of the 
1 i Fruit Manual," and one of the leading horticulturists of Great 
Britain, and a Corresponding Member of this Society. It was 
voted that the President and Secretary write a letter to the family 
of Dr. Hogg expressing the Society's sense of the loss sustained 
by it in his decease. 

The subject of awards of premiums and gratuities to persons not 
members of the Society was brought up by the President, and after 
discussion by M. H. Norton, Joseph H. Woodford, William C. 
Strong, William J. Stewart, O. B. Hadwen, and Mrs. E. M. Grill, 
the subject was, on motion of Mr. Hadwen, referred to the Execu- 
tive Committee with full powers. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected: 

George B. Dorr, of Boston, 
Charles H. Rea, of Norwood, 
Frederic J. Rea, of Norwood, 
Charles Sander, of Brookline, 
Thomas J. Grey, of Chelsea, 
Ernest W. Bowditch, of Milton, 
Mrs. Mary L. Stevens, of Cambridge. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



WILL OF FRANCIS B. HAYES. 139 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 22, 1897. 
A Special Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
was holden at eleven o'clock today, in accordance with the follow- 
ing request : 

To the President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society: 

Dear Sir : We hereby request you to call a Special Meeting of 
the Society, to be held on Saturday, the twenty-second day of May 
next, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, to determine whether the 
Society will ratify an agreement lately made by the Finance Com- 
mittee, subject to ratification by the Society, for the settlement of 
the controversies respecting the validity of the will and trusts of 
Francis B. Hayes, deceased ; and also to consider what action the 
Society will take for the determination of questions which have 
arisen or may arise respecting the interests of the Society under 
said will and trusts, and the care and management of property 
which may come to the Society thereunder. 

Boston, May 17, 1897. . 

(Signed) Walter Hunnewell, 

Benj. C. Clark, 
T. O. Fuller, 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, 
Chas. H. Hall, 
Chas. E. Richardson, 
Jos. H. Woodford, 
Geo. F. Peikce, 
A. Shuman, 
E. J. Mitton, 
Chas. W. Parker, 
Robert Manning. 

In compliance with this request, agreeably to Section XII of 
the Constitution and By-Laws the following notice was sent by 
mail to every member of the Society : 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 

Boston, May 17, 1897. 
Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, at the request of 
twelve members of the Society the President hereby calls a 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Special Meeting of the Society, to be held at Horticultural Hall, 
No. 101 Tremont Street, Boston, on Saturday, the twenty-second 
day of May, 1897, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, to determine 
whether the Society will ratify an agreement lately made by the 
Finance Committee, subject to ratification by the Society, for the 
settlement of the controversies respecting the will and trusts of 
Francis B. Hayes, deceased ; and also to consider what action 
the Society will take for the determination of questions which 
shall have arisen or may arise respecting the interests of the 
Society under said will and trusts, and the care and management 
of property which may come to the Society thereunder. 

(Signed) Francis H. Appleton, 
President Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Robert Manning, 

Secretary. 

At this meeting the President, Francis H. Appleton, was in the 
chair. The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary. It was 
voted to dispense with the reading of the records of the last meeting. 

The President appointed the following named members as the 
Committee on School Gardens and Children's Herbariums for the 
year 1897 : 

Henry L. Clapp, Chairman. 
Mis. H. L. T. Wolcott, Mrs. P. D. Richards, 

George E. Davenport, William P. Rich, 

Miss Katharine W. Huston, W. E. C. Rich, Secretary. 

The President stated that Joseph B. Warner, Esq., who had 
been employed by the Finance Committee as counsel for the 
Society in the Hayes will case, was present, and it was voted to 
hear Mr. Warner in regard to that matter. 

Mr. Warner submitted to the meeting an agreement dated May 
14, 1897, made by the Finance Committee, on behalf of the Society, 
with Nino K. Hayes, William Minot, guardian of Harold Hayes, 
and Augustus P. Loring, and approved by the Attorney-General 
of the Commonwealth, providing for the settlement of certain 
questions respecting the will of Francis B. Hayes, deceased. 
Subsequently it was moved by Ex-President William C. Strong, 
and seconded by Benjamin P. Ware, that the following vote be 
passed : 



WILL OF FRANCIS B. HAYES. 141 

Voted, That the agreement which has been submitted to this 
meeting, dated May 14, 1897, and made by the Finance Com- 
mittee, on behalf of this Society, with Nino K. Hayes, William 
Minot, guardian of Harold Hayes, and Augustus P. Loring, and 
approved by the Attorney-General of the Commonwealth, pro- 
viding for the settlement of certain questions respecting the will 
and trusts of Francis B. Hayes, deceased, is hereby ratified, and 
the Finance Committee, or a majority of its members as it maybe 
at any time constituted, are hereby authorized to do all acts, exe- 
cute all papers and instruments on behalf of the Society, and 
make all payments which may be necessary or proper, in their 
judgment, to confirm said agreement and carry out its terms. 

This vote was unanimously passed. 

It was then moved by Ex-President William H. Spooner, and 
seconded by Mr. Ware, that the following vote be passed: 

Voted, That the whole matter of the interests of this Society 
under the will or trusts of Francis B. Hayes, deceased, is hereby 
referred to the Finance Committee, with full power to that Com- 
mittee, or a majority of its members as it may at any time be 
constituted, to determine, in their discretion, or by proceedings at 
law or equity, or by compromise, or in any way which may seem 
to them wise, all questions which have arisen or may arise in any 
way concerning the rights and interests of the Society under said 
will or trusts, or concerning the care, management, valuation, or 
disposition of the property covered by said will or trusts ; and 
generally with full power to act in all respects for this Society in 
all matters concerning its interests under said will and trusts ; and 
with full power also to invest any money which may come to the 
Society from said will or trusts until further action shall be taken 
by the Society concerning the same. 

This vote also was unanimously passed. 

Augustus Parker moved that a vote be passed thanking the 
Executive and Finance Committees and Mr. Warner, the counsel 
employed, for their able and discreet management of the interest 
of the Society in the Francis B. Hayes will case. 

The vote was unanimously passed. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



142 <y MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 3, 1897. 

A duly notified Stated Meeting of the Society was holden today 
at eleven o'clock. In the absence of the President and all the 
Vice-Presidents, the meeting was called to order b} T the Secretary r 
and Ex-President William H. Spooner was elected Chairman 
pro tern. 

The Chairman read a letter from John G. Barker, Chairman 
of the Committee on Gardens, resigning his membership of that 
Committee, on account of necessary absence from Boston, and 
thanking the Society most heartily for the honor conferred or, him 
in electing him for many successive years to important positions on 
the Flower and Garden Committees. The resignation was ac- 
cepted, and Patrick Norton was nominated from the floor to fill 
the vacancy, and elected. 

The Chairman presented a report from the Executive Committee, 
to whom was referred at the April meeting the subject of awards 
to persons not members of the Society, recommending that the 
subject be laid on the table. The report was accepted and adopted. 

O. B. Haclwen, Chairman of the Committee to prepare a memorial 
of the late Edward Winslow Lincoln, of Worcester, an Honorary 
Member of this Society, presented the following report : 

Memorial of Edward Winslow Lincoln. 

In the death of Edward Winslow Lincoln, of Worcester, this 
Society has lost an Honorary Member distinguished for his services 
to Horticulture during the last thirty-five years. Endowed with a 
natural as well as a highly cultivated taste, improved by his long 
term of service as Chairman of the Parks Commission of the City 
of Worcester and Secretary of the Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, his annual reports of each have abundantly manifested 
his strong love of assisting Nature, in gardens, parks, and land- 
scapes. The influence of his life work has stimulated the adorn- 
ment of horticulture in public and private places, and the landscape 
situated within the scope of his influence is graced with additional 
charms which he loved to encourage. 

The science, the practice, and the literature of Horticulture have 



MEMORIAL OF CHARLES ELIOT. 143 

been vastly promoted by the productions of his accomplished pen, 
and horticultural interests have gained in solid development by his 
untiring labors. His life work remains an enduring monument to 
perpetuate his memory. 

Herewith we desire briefly to place upon the record of this 
Society our deep sense of the loss which horticulture has sustained 
by his death. 

O. B. Had wen, ~\ 

E. W. Wood, > Committee. 

Robert Manning, J 

The report was unanimously accepted and adopted. 

Benjamin M. Watson, Chairman of the Committee to prepare a 
memorial of Charles Eliot, presented the following report : 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society wishes to record here, 
through the Committee appointed for the purpose, the death of 
Charles Eliot, of Brookline. 

It is seldom that such deep public regret is so conspicuously 
shown at the death of so young a man ; we, as members of a 
Horticultural Society, have peculiar reason to mourn. 

No one of the present generation has shown greater ability in 
matters pertaining to the art of gardening on an extensive scale 
than Mr. Eliot. From the time of his graduation to the time of 
bis death all his strength and energy had been given to the im- 
provement of public lands and private grounds. 

Mr. Eliot became a member of this Society November 4, 1893. 

After graduating at Harvard he took a course of one year at the 
Bussey Institution, spending much time in studying the trees and 
shrubs in the Arnold Arboretum, often coming back for this pur- 
pose after his course was finished. He soon entered the office of 
Frederick L. Olmsted, as a student; first, however, spending some 
time in Europe, familiarizing himself with foreign parks and 
gardens. On completing his studies with Mr. Olmsted he estab- 
lished himself in business in Boston, and soon obtained numerous 
clients. 

It was at this time and later, while he was a member of the firm 
of Olmsted, Olmsted, & Eliot, that he became identified with 
thoss undertakings by which he will be long remembered. While 
a member of the Appalachian Mountain Club he was one of the 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

founders of the corporation known as " Trustees of Public Reserva- 
tions," its Secretary and President ; from this organization sprang 
our admirable Metropolitan Park System. Mr. Eliot was the first 
Landscape Architect appointed by the Commission, and he con- 
tinued in their service until his death. To him, more than any 
other man, the community is indebted for the preservation and 
improvement of these large tracts of land. 

He was easily the best professional writer of the day on Land- 
scape Gardening. His style was clear, earnest, and convincing, 
and he allowed no minor considerations to stand in the way of 
what he deemed the broadest and finest treatment looked at from 
the future, and no man during the past few years has done so 
much towards crystallizing the better inspirations of our com- 
munity in this direction than Charles Eliot. 

Thoroughly informed by study, observation, and mature con- 
sideration, he brought also to his professional activity the influence 
of a trained intellect and a real personal charm. 

The loss of a man who united so many admirable qualities will 
be long felt and sincerely remembered by his associates here. 

H. P. Walcott, \ 

B. M. Watson, y Committee. 

J. H. Bowditch, ) 
Boston, 14th April, 1897. 

This report, also, was unanimously accepted and adopted, and 
ordered to be entered on the records. 

The Chairman read a letter from the Boston Society of Natural 
History asking the Society to join with the Society of Natural 
History and the several leading scientific and educational institu- 
tions in this city in an invitation to the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary 
of its organization in Boston, its birthplace, in August, 1898. 
This letter had been considered by the Executive Committee, who 
advised that this Society unite with the Society of Natural History 
in the invitation to the Association for the Advancement of 
Science. On motion of Nathaniel T. Kidder, it was voted that 
this Society do so unite. 

On motion of William C. Strong, it was 

Voted, That the President be authorized to offer the use of our 
Hall to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 



DECEASE OF MEMBERS ANNOUNCED. 145 

for the purpose of holding its meetings when in session in the City 
of Boston in 1898, in case this Society is in his opinion able to 
do so. 

The Chair announced the following Committee, appointed by 
the President, agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, to 
nominate candidates for Officers and Standing Committees for the 
year 1898: 

William H. Spooner, Chairman. 
Benjamin M. Watson, Patrick Norton, , 

Samuel Hartwell, Azell C. Bowditch, 

Benjamin P. Ware, Charles F. Curtis. 

The Chairman announced the receipt of a letter from Mary Yale 
Eliot, acknowledging the receipt of the memorial of her late hus- 
band, Charles Eliot, and expressing her high sense of its value, and 
also a letter from Robert Milligan Hogg, of London, of similar 
tenor, in reply to a letter written by the President and Secretary 
of this Society, agreeably to the vote of the Society at the April 
meeting, expressing the Society's sense of the loss sustained in the 
decease of its Corresponding Member, Dr. Robert Hogg. 

The decease of Hon. Joseph S. Fay, an Honorary Member of 
the Society, was announced, and Dr. Henry P. Walcott, E. W. 
Bowditch, and Walter Huunewell were appointed to prepare a 
memorial of him. 

The decease of Robert Douglas, of Waukegan, 111., a Corre- 
sponding Member of the Society, was announced, and Charles S. 
Sargent, J. W. Manning, and James H. Bowditch were appointed 
a Committee to prepare a memorial. 

The following vote, moved by Joseph H. Woodford, was 
passed : 

Voted, That the Secretary write to J. G. Barker, requesting 
him to send warrants, signed by him, to the Treasurer, for pay- 
ment of services by his Committee. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected : 



146 ^MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Osborn B. Hall, of Maiden, 
Frederick W. Damon, of Arlington, 
Georg-e H. Braman, of Newton, 
Wilfred Wheeler, of Concord, 
Dr. Mary E. Jones, of Boston. 

On recommendation of the Executive Committee, 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, 
D.C., was elected an Honorary Member of the Society, and 

J. W. Hoffman, Ph.D., Director of the Department of Agricult- 
ural Biology and Chemistry in Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama, was elected a Corresponding 
Member. 

Adjourned to Saturday, September 4. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 4, 1897. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden today at eleven 
o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the chair. 

William H. Spooner, Chairman of the Committee appointed at 
the July meeting to nominate candidates for Officers and Standing 
Committees for the year 1898, reported a printed list, which was 
accepted. It was voted that the Committee be continued, and re- 
quested to nominate candidates to fill any vacancies that might 
occur before election. 

The following memorial of Hon. Joseph S. Fay, prepared by 
the Committee appointed for that purpose at the July meeting, 
was presented and adopted : 

Hon. Joseph Story Fay, an Honorary Member of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, died at Boston on the 14th of June, 
18!)7. 

Many years ago he began, at his seaside home at Wood's Holl, 
the tree plantations which made him one of our earliest and most 
successful leaders in the reforesting of the denuded areas of the 
te. 



ANNUAL ELECTION. 147 

In the later years of his life he entered the lists at the exhibi- 
tions in this Hall with specimens of fruits, flowers, and vegetables 
which fairly earned an unusual number of our highest prizes. 

Beyond these successes, however, were those personal qualities 
which will attach to his memory the lasting sentiments of gratitude 
and respect of so many persons. 

An appropriate permanent memorial of him exists in the seventy 
acres of charming natural scenery in the town of Falmouth, 
given by him to the people as a continued place of recreation, and 
happily named by him u Goodwill Park." 

The multitudes that he made partners with him in all the attrac- 
tions of his beautiful garden at Wood's Holl will long remember 
the kindly presence of one who found the keenest enjoyments of 
his life in sharing his own possessions with his less fortunate 

neighbors. 

Henry P. Walcott, ) „ 

' > Committee. 
Walter Hunnewell, ) 

The decease of Samuel R. Payson, an Honorary Member of the 
Society, and that of Edwin W. Buswell, for many years Treas- 
urer of the Society, was announced, and it was voted that the 
President appoint Committees to prepare memorials of these 
two members. 

Adjourned. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 2, 1897. 

A Stated Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
being the Annual Meeting for the choice of Officers and Standing 
Committees, was holden today at eleven o'clock, the President, 
Francis H. Appleton, in the chair. 

The Secretary stated that the meeting had been duly called 
agreeably to the Constitution and* By-Laws. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, the President 
appointed Hon. Aaron Low, James Comley, and J. W. Manning a 
Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes given, and report 
the number. The polls were opened at five minutes past eleven 
o'clockc 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, made 
the following report : 

At a regular meeting of the Executive Committee, held Septem- 
ber 25, it was voted to recommend to the Society to transfer $30 
of the appropriation for the Fruit Committee for 1896 to the 
account of the Flower Committee for the same year, to make up 
for a deficiency in the amount at the command of the latter. 

The transfer was unanimously authorized. 

The following memorial of Robert Douglas, drawn up by 
Charles S. Sargent, Chairman of a Committee appointed at the 
July meeting for that purpose, was read and unanimously adopted : 

Robert Douglas was born at Gateshead, near Halifax, England, 
in 1813, and removed to Canada in 1836. Two years later he 
settled in Whitingham, Vt., where for a short time he kept the 
country inn, and in 1844 he made his home on the shores of Lake 
Michigan, about thirty miles north of Chicago, in what is now the 
city of Waukegan. Here, a few years later, having been interested 
in the cultivation of plants since he was a boy, when he lived with 
his parents in Fallon's Nursery, near Newcastle, he established a 
small nursery business and found his true occupation ; and here, 
during the remainder of his life, he devoted himself to raising 
conifer and other tree seedlings, of which he has distributed 
millions through the country. More recently Mr. Douglas made, 
under contract, successful plantations of forest trees in the western 
prairies, and in his time no one has been more active in increasing 
the love of planting trees in this country, or has studied trees 
from a cultural point of view with greater zeal, intelligence, or 
success. The integrity and purity of the life of Robert Douglas, 
his total lack of self-seeking, and his unfailing cheerfulness com- 
manded the respect and affection of all who knew him. 

Charles S. Sargent, -\ 

J. W. Manning, > Committee. 

James H. Bowditch, ) 

The Secretary read a letter from Joseph S. Fay, Jr., acknowl- 
edging, in behalf of his family, the memorial of his father adopted 
at the last meeting of the Society, and thanking the Society for it. 

The following vote, offered by Hon. Aaron Low, was unani- 
mously passed: 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 149 

Voted, That the several committees be required to hold official 
meetings to arrange a list of prizes to be presented to the Com- 
mittee on Establishing Prizes to be offered by the Society. 

The Committee provided for at the last meeting of the Society 
to prepare a memorial of the late Samuel R. Payson was an- 
nounced by the President as follows : Benjamin C. Clark, William 
H. Spooner, and Walter Hunnewell. 

And the Committee to prepare a memorial of Edwin W. Bus- 
well as follows : E. W. Wood, Samuel Hartwell, and George E. 
Davenport. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected : 

William H. Burlen, of Boston, 

William J. Kennedy, of Brighton, 

Marcellus A. Patten, of Tewksbury, 

Edward A. Wilkie, of Newtonville, 

George E. Francis, M.D., of Worcester, 

Arthur F. Estabrook, of Boston, 

James O. Hale, of By field, 

William S. Briggs, of Lincoln, 

Mrs. F. A. (Sarah C.) Pierce, of Brookline, 

Isaac Sprague, of Wellesley Hills. 

The polls were closed at five minutes past one o'clock, and the 
Committee to receive, assort, and count the number given reported 
the whole number of ballots cast to be fifty-five, and that the 
members named on the ticket reported by the Nominating Com- 
mittee had a plurality of votes and were elected. 

The report of the Committee was accepted, and the persons 
named on the above mentioned ticket were, agreeably to the 
Constitution and By-Laws, declared by the Chairman, O. B. 
Hadwen (the President having retired and called Mr. Hadwen to 
the chair) to have a plurality of votes, and to be elected Officers 
and Standing Committees of the Society for the year 1898. 

Adjourned to Saturday, November 6. 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. • 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 6, 1897. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden today at eleven 
o'clock, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the chair. 

The following memorial of Samuel B. Payson was read by Ben- 
jamin C. Clark, Chairman of the Committee appointed at the meet- 
ing on Saturday, September 4, to prepare an expression of the 
feelings of the Society on his death : 

Samuel R. Payson. 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society desires to place upon 
its records a deep-felt expression of its sense of loss in the decease 
of Mr. Samuel R. Payson, one of its oldest, most useful, and most 
honored members. 

Mr. Payson was a many sided man, a most eminent, and public 
spirited Boston merchant, and a true Christian gentleman. His 
leading characteristics were thoroughness, capacity, benevolence, 
and integrity. Familiar to an unusual degree with all his vast 
collection of fruits and plants, it was his pleasure conscientiously 
and generously to share with the public his enjoyment of them. 

When called upon to bear heavy pecuniary losses through the 
fault of others, he patiently submitted, and disaster only seemed, 
in his case, to prove a stimulus to efforts which ultimately resulted 
in the full discharge of every obligation. 

Faithful in the discharge of every duty, diligent in business, 
combining great sagacity with incorruptible integrity and an 
uprightness which never wavered, aiding always in promoting 
the aims and objects of our Society, he has gone to his rest in the 
fulness of years, leaving a memory which will be most cherished 
by those who knew him best and longest. 

Ben j. C. Clark, a 

Wm. H. Spooner, V Committee. 
Walter Hunnewell, ) 

The memorial was unanimously adopted. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, re- 
ported from that Committee a recommendation that the Society 
appropriate the following named sums for Prizes and Gratuities 



MEMORIAL OF EDWIN W. BUSWELL. 



151 



for the year 1898, the total being the same as the present year, 
viz. : 



For Prizes and Gratuities : 




For Plants . . . . . 


. $2,000 


u Flowers ..... 


2,668 


" Fruits 


1,732 


" Vegetables ..... 


1,200 


" Gardens ..... 


500 



Total for Prizes and Gratuities for the year 1898 . $8,100 

The report was accepted, and, agreeably to the Constitution 
and By-Laws, was laid over until the first Saturday in January. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected : 

Edward O. Orpet, of South Lancaster, 
Edward D. Blake, of Boston, 
Herbert Dumaresq, of Chestnut Hill. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 4. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 4, 1897. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden today at 
eleven o'clock. Neither the President nor either of the Vice- 
Presidents being present, the meeting was called to order by the 
Secretary, and Samuel Hartwell was unanimously elected Chair- 
man pro tern. 

E. W. Wood, Chairman of the Committee appointed at the 
October meeting to prepare a memorial of Edwin W. Buswell, 
presented the following : 

F^very year the Society is called to record the death of members 
who have been active in promoting its interests, and the present 
year has proved no exception. 

Edwin William Buswell was born April 25, 1813, and died 



152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

August 5, 1897. He held for a number of years important offices 
of the Society, and discharged his duties iu an efficient and ac- 
ceptable manner. He was passionately fond of flowers, and 
previously to his connection with the Society, while engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, he devoted his leisure hours to their cultiva- 
tion. 

He was elected a member of the Society in 1856. He was 
elected a member of the Flower Committee from 1861 to 1866, 
serving two years as Chairman. In August, 1866, he was elected 
Treasurer of the Society, and he also discharged the duties of 
Librarian and Corresponding Secretary. In these positions he 
found a congenial field of labor. Not only members of the Society, 
but strangers visiting the Library seeking information, were pleas- 
antly entertained and assisted in securing the information desired. 
He continued in the faithful discharge of his various duties until 
he tendered his resignation, June 2, 1881. He then removed to 
Brooklyn, N.Y., where he continued to reside until his death. 
He spent much of his time with his horticultural friends in the 
vicinity, many of whom expressed surprise at the extent and 
accuracy of his knowledge of the nomenclature of the plants in 
cultivation. 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Buswell the Society loses 
one among its oldest members, who spent the best years of his life 
in its service. 

Resolved, That this action of the Society be placed upon its 
records, and that a copy be sent to the family of the deceased. 

E. W. Wood, \ 

George E. Davenport, > Committee. 

Samuel Hartwell, ) 

The memorial was unanimously accepted and adopted. 

E. W. Wood, Chairman of the Fruit Committee, read the Annual 
Report of that Committee, which was accepted and referred to the, 
Committee on Publication. 

J. Woodward Manning, from the Committee on Establishing 
Prizes, reported the Schedule of Prizes for 1898 prepared by the 
Committee, and stated the principal changes from the Schedule of 
the present year. The report was accepted, and the Schedule as 
reported was adopted as the Schedule of Prizes for 1898. 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 153 

Mr. Manning also submitted the following further report : 
It is the sense of the Committee on Establishing Prizes that 
there should be a Committee appointed annually for the purpose of 
awarding prizes and gratuities to exhibits of a strictly botanical 
character, such as Native Plants exhibits, such committee to have 
similar powers and to be guided by similar rules to those which now 
guide the Committee on School Gardens and Children's Herbari- 
ums, and to be allowed a separate appropriation. 

After remarks by George E. Davenport, Robert Manning, J. 
H. Woodford, and J. Woodward Manning, on the importance 
which the work of the Committee on School Gardens, etc., has 
attained and the widespread interest which it has excited, and 
other points, the report was laid on the table. 

On motion of Azell C. Bowditch, it was voted that the thanks of 
the Society be presented to Charles A. Read, Jr., for his kind 
and generous offer of Prizes for Orchard Houses, and that it be 
accepted. 

The Librarian laid before the Society a copy of " A Traveller's 
Notes of a Tour through India, Malaysia, Japan, Corea, the Aus- 
tralian Colonies, and New Zealand during the Years 1891-1893," 
by James Herbert Veitch, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., printed for private 
circulation and presented by the author. It was voted that 
the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. Veitch for this 
interesting and valuable addition to the Library. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were on 
ballot duly elected : 

Edmund M. Wood, of Natick, 
James W. Nelson, of Framingham, 
Henry A. Wheeler, of Newtonville, 
John Bark, of Wellesley, 
George H. Morgan, of New York, 
J. A. Pettigrew, of Jamaica Plain. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 18, 1897. 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

business meeting. 

Saturday, December 18, 1897. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was . holden at eleven 
o'clock today, the President, Francis H. Appleton, in the chair. 

On motion of Joseph H. Woodford, it was 

Voted, That the Annual Reports of the several awarding 
committees, etc., be accepted and referred to the Committee on 
Publication, without reading. 

The following named reports were then presented and so referred : 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Plants, by Azell C. 
Bowditch, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Flowers, by J. Wood- 
ward Manning, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Vegetables, by Charles 
N. Brackett, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee of Arrangements, by 
Joseph H. Woodford, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on the Library, by William 
E. Endicott, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Secretary and Librarian, by Robert 
Manning, Secretary and Librarian. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



KEPORT 



COMMITTEE ON PLANTS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



By AZELL C. BOWDITCH, Chairman. 



The exhibitions of plants during the past season have been fully 
equal, and in many respects superior, to those of the preceding 
year. They have attracted many new exhibitors, and the speci- 
mens offered have shown a marked improvement, especially in 
Orchids. 

Many new plants have been brought to our notice which will be 
mentioned farther on. The public have taken a greater interest in 
the exhibitions through the season, as manifested by the increased 
attendance, the amateur and the beginner having a fine chance to 
study and compare varieties and acquire knowledge not otherwise 
attainable. 

The display of Azaleas has not been as good as your Committee 
could have wished, but, by doing away with the restrictions on the 
size of the pots, we hope in the future to get exhibits more worthy 
of the premiums offered. James Wheeler has entered for the Pros- 
pective Prize a fine white Azalea, named Mrs. J. H. White, of 
which your Committee think favorably ; if on further trial it should 
bear out its good points, it will be quite an acquisition. 

The first prize exhibition was on January 9, when John L. 
Gardner, Mrs. B. P. Cheney, and others showed some fine plants 
of an improved strain of the Chinese Primula. Your Committee 
hope, by removing the restrictions as to the size of pots, to have 
the coming season much larger and finer plants. 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

John L. Gardner exhibited Primula stellata for the first time. 
Your Committee think this will prove a valuable acquisition, owing 
to its long keeping qualities ; it lasts two or three weeks after 
being cut. It was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. 

January 16. Eight varieties of Cypripedium were shown by 
Oakes Ames. Among them was C. Susan Ames, which was 
awarded Honorable Mention. Mr. Ames exhibited also a fine plant 
of Scuticaria Steelii, the shoestring Orchid. C. E. Richardson 
brought a plant of Senecio Petasitis. 

January 23. J. S. Bailey showed plants of the semi-double 
Cyclamen. Your Committee do not think this will prove to be a 
very valuable acquisition, the petals being not well developed, but 
curly, and conveying the appearance of a badly shaped flower. 

Januaiy 30. We had from William Wallace Lunt a seedling 
Cypripedium bearing his name, a beautiful specimen. J. H. Hem- 
ingway, gardener to F. E. Simpson, brought some fine Violets. 

February 6. From George Mc William came two seedling 
Cymbidiums, having eburneum and Lowianum as parents, for 
which a First Class Certificate of Merit was awarded. He also ex- 
hibited four seedling Cypripediums. Mr. McWilliam has been a 
close student, and has met with marked success in hybridizing, as 
the above mentioned seedlings testify. Mrs. J. C. Whiton sent 
two baskets of Dendrobium nobile. J. E. Rothwell showed five 
varieties of Cypripediums, and John L. Gardner two plants of 
Sophronitis. » 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 

The Spring Exhibition tested the capacity of our halls, and 
certainly there has never been a finer display of bulbous plants. 
Among the larger contributors were the Bussey Institution, Dr. C. 
G. Weld, John L. Gardner, J. W. Howard, and Warren Ewell & 
Son. The prizes have been somewhat altered, as will be seen by 
referring to the Schedule for 1898. 

May 15. R. & J. Farquhar exhibited a new bedding Begonia, 
B. erecta compacta multiflora, which in the opinion of your Com- 
mittee will prove worthy of cultivation. J. E. Rothwell showed a 
fine plant of Cypripedium bellatulum, with ten flowers. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS. 157 

ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 
June 22 and 23. 

E. V. R. Thayer made a beautiful display of Orchids in variety, 
for which the first prize was awarded, W. P. Winsor taking the 
secoud. W. A. Manda, of South Orange, N. J., contributed a new 
hybrid Laelio-Cattleya, variety Superba, which was most remark- 
able for its brilliant coloring. 

July 31. There came from the estate of Joseph S. Fay four 
very fine plants of Hydrangea cyanoclada hortensia, which for pro- 
fusion of bloom and symmetry of plants have not been excelled. 

August 21. J. E. Rothwell was awarded a Silver Medal for 
Cypripedium Frau Ida Brandt, the first time exhibited. 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

September 1 and 2. 

The Annual Exhibition of Plants again demonstrated the fact 
that the Society has far outgrown the capacity of our halls. The 
collections of Greenhouse Plants were exceedingly fine and well 
grown. J. S. Bailey carried off the first prize, followed by John 
L. Gardner, N. T. Kidder, and Dr. C. G. Weld. J. H. White 
had about twenty specimens of Fuchsias, for which the first prize 
was awarded. William Donald had a superb plant of Alocasia 
S cinder iana; he was awarded a Silver Medal for its superior culti- 
vation. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM EXHIBITION. 

November 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

The Plant Department of the Chrysanthemum Exhibition the 
past season had not as many contributors as in former years, but 
excelled all previous efforts in quality ; the plants had a more even 
look, but would have been much finer could the exhibition have 
taken place one week later. The Committee have made some 
changes in the Schedule for the coming year which they hope will 
induce more growers to compete, and thus add to the appearance 
of. the exhibition. Among the larger contributors, N. T. Kidder 
was first and Mrs. B. P. Cheney a close second, followed by J. 
S. Bailey and others. 

J. S. Bailey also contributed a fine collection of Orchids. 



158 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



December 4. F. L. Harris, gardener to H. H. Hunnewell, ex- 
hibited a fine plant of Begonia Gloire de Lorraine, for which a Silver 
Medal was awarded. Too much cannot be said of this beautiful 
plant ; as a house plant it will prove a valuable acquisition, being 
in flower nearly all the time. Its culture will certainly well repay 
any one who has a love for house plants. 

On this day, and also on the eleventh, Hon. C. G. Roebling, of 
Trenton, N.J., exhibited some fine specimens of Cypripediums, 
especially G. Leeanum Clinkaberryanum, a garden variety, which 
was quite distinct and beautifully marked. A Silver Medal was 
awarded for each of these exhibits. 



Amount appropriated . 

Awarded in Premiums and Gratuities 

Thirteen Silver Medals . 



,811 00 
65 00 



:,000 00 



1,876 00 



Balance unexpended 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

A. C. Bowoitch, 
A. H. Fewkes, 
James Comley, 
William J. Martin, 



$124 00 



Committee 
on Plants. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS. 159 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS. 

1897. 

January 9. 

Chinese Primroses. — Six plants, in six-inch pots, JohnL. Gardner, $5 00 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney . . . . . . 4 00 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 3 00 

Gratuity : — 
John L. Gardner, Display of Orchids .... 5 00 

January 16. 

Gratuity : — 

Charles E. Eichardson, Senecio Petasitis . . . . . . 2 00 

February 6. 
Freesias. — Six pots or pans, Bussey Institution . ; . . 5 00 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. J. C. Whiton, two baskets of Dendrobiums . . . . 3 00 

James E. RothwelJ, Cypripediums 1 00 

John L. Gardner, Sophronitis .......... 1 00 

March 13. 

Gratuity : — 

James Comley, Large Azalea ........ 5 00 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Indian Azaleas. — Four distinct named varieties in not exceeding 

ten-inch pots, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, Bussey Institution ...... 

Two distinct named varieties in not exceeding ten-inch pots, Dr 

C. G. Weld 

Second, Bussey Institution .... 

Specimen Plant, named, Dr. C. G. Weld .... 

Second, Bussey Institution ...... 

Third, James Comley ....... 



12 


00 


10 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 



Society's Prizes. 
Orchids. — Three plants, John L. Gardner . . . . .10 00 
Hardy Orchids. — Collection in pots or pans, forced, not less than 

four species, John L. Gardner . . . . . • 00 

Stove or Greenhouse Plants. — Specimen in bloom other than 

Azalea or Orchid, Dr. C. G. Weld 8 00 

Second, J. W. Howard 6 00 



160 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hard-wooded Greenhouse Plants. — Four, in bloom, Dr. C. G 

Weld 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Forced, six plants, not less than three 
distinct varieties, Charles H. Souther 
Second, James Comley 
Climbing Rose, Crimson Rambler. — Specimen plant, in bloom 
Jackson Dawson . 
Second, Charles J. Dawson 
Hardy Flowering Deciduous Shrubs, Forced. — Four, of fou 
distinct species, named, Bussey Institution 
Second, Bussey Institution 
Hardy Flowering Evergreen Shrubs, Forced. — Four, of four 

distinct species, named, Bussey Institution 
Cannas. — Display in pots, the second prize to James L. Little 
Hardy Primroses and Polyanthuses. — Twelve plants of distinct 
varieties, John L. Gardner 
Second, John L. Gardner . 
Third, James L. Little 
Auriculas. — Six, in pots, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Cyclamens. — Ten plants, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Fourth, George M. Anderson 
Ten plants, in not over seven-inch pots, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Single plant, E. S. Converse . 
Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Cinerarias. — Six varieties, Jason S. Bailey 
Second, George M. Anderson 
Third, John L. Gardner 
Fourth, Dr. C. G. Weld . 
Three varieties, Jason S. Bailey . 
Second, George M. Anderson 
Third, E. S. Converse 
Single plant, Jason S. Bailey 
Second, H. H. Rogers 
Third, H. H. Rogers 
Hyacinths. —Twelve distinct named varieties 
pot, John L. Gardner 
Second, Bussey Institution 
Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Six distinct named varieties in pots, one in each pot, Dr. C. G 

Weld 

Second, Bussey Institution 
Third, E. S. Converse 



in pots, one in each 



$10 00 
8 00 

10 00 
8 00 

8 00 
6 00 

6 00 
4 00 

6 00 

8 00 

8 00 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

15 00 

12 00 

10 00 

8 00 

8 00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 



10 00 
8 00 
6 00 

5 00 

6 00 

5 00 
4 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

8 00 

6 00 

4 00 

5 00 
4 00 

3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS. 



161 



ety in 



each 



Three distinct named varieties in pots, one in each pot, Dr. C. G 

Weld 

Second, Bussey Institution ..... 

Third, J. W. Howard . . . . . 

Single named bulb, in pot, Bussey Institution 

Second, John L. Gardner ...... 

Three pans not to exceed twelve inches, ten bulbs of one variety 
in each pan, Dr. C. G. Weld ..... 

Second, Bussey Institution ..... 

Third, John L. Gardner ...... 

Two pans not to exceed twelve inches, ten bulbs of one vari 
each pan, John L. Gardner ..... 

Second, Bussey Institution . . . . 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Single pan not to exceed twelve inches, ten bulbs of one variety 

Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, John L. Gardner ...... 

Third, Bussey Institution ...... 

Tulips. — Six eight-inch pans, nine bulbs of one variety in 

W. S. Ewell & Son 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Three eight-inch pans, nine bulbs of one variety in each, W. S 

Ewell & Son 

Second, Bussey Institution ..... 

Third, Bussey Institution ...... 

Three ten-inch pans, twelve bulbs of one variety in each, Dr. 

Weld 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, James L. Little ...... 

Fourth, Bussey Institution ..... 

Polyanthus Narcissus. — Four seven-inch pots, five bulbs in 
distinct varieties, Dr. C. G. Weld .... 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, Bussey Institution ...... 

Jonquils. — Six pots or pans, not exceeding eight inches, the number 
, of bulbs in each to be at the discretion of the grower, W. S. 

Ewell & Son 

Second, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Third, Bussey Institution ...... 

Narcissuses. — Six eight-inch pans, distinct varieties, single or 

double, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Three eight-inch pans, W. S. Ewell & Son .... 

Second, Dr. G. G. Weld 

Lilium Longiflorum. — Six pots, not exceeding ten inches, J. W 
Howard .......... 



C. G 



each 



$3 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

8 00 
6 00 
4 00 

6 00 
4 00 

3 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 



4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 
4 00 

3 00 

10 00 



162 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



Lilium Harrisii. — Six pots, not exceeding ten inches, Dr. C. G 

Weld • 

Second, J. W. Howard ....... 

Lily of the Valley. — Six pots, not exceeding seven inches 
Bussey Institution . . . . . . . , ■■ •'. 

Second, Bussey Institution . . . . . . 

Third, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Anemones. — Three pots or pans, Bussey Institution 
Freesias. — Six pots or pans, James L. Little 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, Bussey Institution ....... 

Ixias and Tritonias. — Six pots or pans in varieties, Dr. C. G 

Weld 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Roman Hyacinths. — Six eight-inch pans, ten bulbs in a pan, W 

S. Ewell & Son 

Second, W. S. Ewell & Son 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 

General Display of Spring Bulbs. — All classes, Bussey Institu 
tion .... ... ... 

Second, J. W. Howard 

Third, W. S. Ewell & Son .... 

Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Display of Azaleas . . 
Bussey Institution, " " 

George M. Anderson, Display of Cyclamens 
H. H. Rogers, Display of Cyclamens and Cinerarias 
W. S. Ewell & Son, Display of Crocuses 



10 


00 


8 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


15 


00 


12 


00 


10 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


2 


00 



MAY EXHIBITION. 

May 1. 
Pelargoniums. — Six pots or pans of Ivy-Leaved, in bloom, the 
second prize to Dr. C. G. Weld 



Weld 



Indian Azaleas. — Six plants, in pots, named, Dr. C. G 
Single specimen, Dr. C. G. Weld . 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . 
Calceolarias. — Six varieties in pots, Jason S. Bailey 

Second, Mrs Benjamin P. Cheney 

Third, " " " 

Fourth, " " " 

Single plant, Jason S. Bailey 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 

Third, *' " «« 

Streptocarpuses. — Twelve in not exceeding six-inch pots, 
Benjamin P. Cheney 
Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney . 



Mri 



5 


00 


15 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


8 


00 


7 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS. 



163 



Gratuities : — 
Dr. G. G. Weld, Display of Seedling Amaryllises 
Dr. C. G. Weld, Boronias and Saintpaulia 
Charles H. Souther, Calceolarias . 

May 15. 

Gratuities : — 
Walter Hunnewell, Hydrangea Otaksa . 
Edward J. Mitton, Saxifraga sarmentosa 

May 22. 
Gratuity : — 
James Comley, Cattleya Gaskelliana 



Jo 00 
3 00 
3 00 



2 00 
1 00 



1 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 3 and 4. 
Gratuities : — 

William Wallace Lunt, Cattleya Reineckiana . 

John L. Gardner, Display of Orchids 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Display of Pelargoniums 



1 00 

10 00 

6 00 



ROSE EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 

Orchids. — Six plants of six named varieties in bloom, E. V. R. 
Thayer ..... 
Second, W. P. Winsor 
Three plants, John L. Gardner 

Second, W. P. Winsor 
Single specimen, Kenneth Finlayson 
Second, John L. Gardner 
Tuberous Begonias. — Six pots of six varieties, Edward J. Mitton, 

Gratuity : — 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Bougainvillea ....... 




25 00 

15 00 

15 00 

10 00 

8 00 

6 00 

6 00 

5 00 



June 26. 



Gratuity : — 
E. S. Converse, Begonia erecta 



4 00 



July 10. 
Gratuity : — 
Jason S. Bailey, Calogyne Massangeana . 

July 17. 
Gratuity : — 
Mrs. Arthur W. Blake, Hydrangeas 



2 00 



10 00 



164 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



July 24. 

Gratuity : — 
James E. Rothwell, Display of Orchids . 

July 31. 

Gratuities : — 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Hydrangeas 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Aerides odorata 

August 21. 
Ouvirandra Fenestralis. — E. S. Converse 
Second, John L. Gardner . ... 



. $4 00 






00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS, 

September 1 and 2. 

Palms. — Pair in pots or tubs not more than twenty-four inches in 
diameter, Joseph H. White ...... 

Second, John L. Gardner ....... 

Pair in pots not more than fourteen inches in diameter, Dr. C. G 

Weld 

Second, Joseph H. White ....... 

Greenhouse Plants. — Collection containing foliage plants of all 
descriptions, not to exceed forty plants, in pots or tubs, Jason 

S. Bailey 

Second, John L. Gardner . . . . . 
Six Greenhouse and Stove plants of different named varieties, two 
Crotons admissible, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, John L. Gardner ........ 

Single plant for table decoration, in a twelve-inch pan or basket, 
dressed at the base with living plants only; only one entry 
admissible, the second prize to E. S. Converse 

Third, Charles H. Souther 

Specimen Flowering Greenhouse Plant. — Single named variety 
Charles H. Souther . . . . 

Second, James L. Little ....... 

Fuchsias. — Six in not over ten-inch pots, Joseph H. White . 

Second, Charles H. Souther 

Flowering Plants. — Any or all classes, group arranged for effect, 

Joseph H. White 15 00 

Ornamental Foliaged Plant. — Single specimen, named, not 

offered in any collection, Joseph H. White . . . . 5 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder 3 00 

Caladiums. — Six named varieties, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . 6 00 
Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 



12 


00 


8 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


40 


00 


30 


00 


25 


00 


20 


00 


15 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


12 


00 


10 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS. 



165 



s,Dr 



Ferns. — Six named varieties, no Adiantums admissible, Joseph H 
White 

Third, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Specimen other than Tree Fern, Joseph H. White 

Second, E. S. Converse ...... 

Adiantums. — Five named varieties, Joseph H. White 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, John Jeffries ....... 

Lycopods. — Four named varieties, Dr. C. G. Weld 
Dracaenas. — Six named varieties, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder ..... 
Crotons. — Six named varieties in not less than eight-inch pot 

C. G. Weld 

Cycad. — Single plant, named, James L. Little 

Second, J. W. Howard ...... 

Third, John L. Gardner . . 
Orchids. — Three plants, named varieties, in bloom, the second 

prize to John L. Gardner ..... 

Begonia Rex. — Six pots of six varieties, E. S. Converse 

Second, James L. Little .... . . 

Begonias. — Rex Hybrids, collection, named, James L. Little 

Second, W. S. Lincoln . . . 
Cannas. — Collection of not less than ten named varieties, 
Jeffries ......... 

Second, James L. Little ...... 

Third, J. W. Howard 



Gratuities : — 
Oakes Ames, Stanhopea grandiflora 
B. Muto, Collection of Japanese Trees and Plants 
Robert Cameron, Display of Plants . 
Joseph H. White, " •' " 
Dr. C. G. Weld, """... 
Charles H. Souther, " 



John 



$10 00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


. 3 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


2 


00 


20 


00 


40 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


3 


CO 



Gratuity : — 
John L. Gardner, Display 



September 18. 



3 00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

September 30 and October 1. 

Decorative Plants. — Display, not less than forty, not to exceed 
three feet in height, to be arranged by the Committee, William 

A. Bock 25 00 

Second, John L. Gardner 20 00 



166 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuity : — 
E. S. Converse, Decorative Plants . 

October 16. 
Gratuities : — 
John L. Gardner, Display of Orchids 
James E. Rothwell, 
Mrs. A. 0. Simes, Wild Plants . 

October 30. 
James E. Rothwell, Display of Dendrobiums 



. $20 00 



6 00 
4 00 
1 00 



2 00 



CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Chrysanthemums. — Display of twelve named plants, any or all 
classes, distinct varieties, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 

Third, Jason S. Bailey ..... 
Three Japanese Incurved, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Three Refiexed, Mrs. Benjamin P: Cheney . 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 
Specimen Incurved, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney . 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 

Specimen Refiexed, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Specimen Anemone Flowered, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 

Specimen Pompon, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . . . 

Twelve plants of twelve different varieties, grown to one stem and 
bloom, in not over six-inch pots , preference being given to plants 
not more than three feet in height, Mrs. Arthur W. Blake 

Second, Mrs. Arthur W. Blake 

Third, James L. Little 

Fourth, E. S. Converse 
Six plants grown as above, but all of one color, red, 
Little 

Second, E. S. Converse 
White, Dr. C. G. Weld . 

Second, James L. Little 

Third, James Nicol 
Pink, Dr. C. G. Weld . 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 

Third, James L. Little 



. 50 CO 


. 40 00 


. 30. 00 


. 10 00 


10 00 


7 00 


6 00 


5 00 


4 00 


6 00 


I] 00 


. 5 00 


4 00 


. " 4 00 


3 00 


2 00 
1 


s 

. 10 00 


8 00 


6 00 


4 00 


5 00 


4 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS. 167 

Yellow, Dr. C. G. Weld $5 00 

Second, Charles H. Souther ....... 4 00 

Third, James L. Little 3 00 

Six of any other color, Dr. C. G.Weld 5 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld 4 00 

Group of Chrysanthemums arranged for effect, limited to one hun- 
dred square feet, and edged with ferns or low-growing decora- 
tive plants, Mrs. Arthur W. Blake 40 00 

Second, Dr. C. G. Weld . 35 00 

Third, John L. Gardner 30 00 

Fourth, J. W. Howard 25 00 

Fifth, E. S. Converse 20 00 

Gratuities : — 

F. E. Palmer, Nephrolepis exaltata ... . 4 00 

W. P. Winsor, Cypripedium insigne . . . . . . 1 00 

Jason S. Bailey, Display of Orchids . . . . . . 10 00 

Dr. C. G. Weld, Display of Plants . . .... 3 00 

December 4. 
Gratuity : — 
Hon. C. G. Roebling, Trenton, N.J., four varieties of Cypripediums, 3 00 

SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDALS. 

Spring Exhibition, March 23-26. Mrs. B P. Cheney, for Superior Cultiva- 
tion of Cyclamens. 
May 1. Kenneth Finlayson, for Seedling Amaryllis. 

" J. S. Bailey, for Dendrobium nobile Baileyanum. * 

May 15. J. E. Rothwell, for Cypripedium bellatulum. 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition, June 22 and 23. W. A. Manda, South 

Orange, N.J., for 

Lcelio-Cattleya Ar- 

noldiana var. superba. 

" " " " " " J. E. Rothwell, for 

Odontoglossum cris- 
pum var. virginale. 
" " " " " " John Mutch, for Supe- 

rior Cultivation of 
Orchids. 
July 3. J. E. Rothwell, for Miltonia vexillaria. 
August 21. J. E. Rothwell, for Cypripedium Frau Ida Brandt. 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, Sept. 1 and 2. William Donald, 

for Aloe a si a 
Sanderiana. 
" " " " " " J. E. Rothwell, 

for collection of 
Crotons. 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

November 20. W. W. Lunt, for Cypripedium insigne var. Ernestii. 
December 4. F. L. Harris, for Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. 
December 11. Hon. C. G. Roebling, Trenton, N.J., for Cypripedium Lee- 
anum Clinkaberfyanum. 

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 
January 9. John L. Gardner, for Primula stellata. 
February 6. George McWilliam, for Two Seedling Cymbidiums. 
April 10. J. E. Roth well, for Cypripedium bellatulum. 
April 10. James Wheeler, for Seedling Azalea Mrs. Joseph H. White. 
May 1. Donald McRea, for Superior Cultivation of Mimulus (Diplacus) 

glutinosus. 
July 31. J. E. Rothwell, for Cypripedium Corningii. 
Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, Sept. 1 and 2. Dr. C. G. Weld, 

for Heliconia illustris rubicolus. 
December 4. Hon. C. G. Roebling, Trenton, N.J. , for Cypripedium Niohe 

superbissima. 

HONORABLE MENTION. 

January 16. Oakes Ames, for Display of Cypripediums. 

Spring Exhibition, March 23-26. W. A. Manda, South Orange, N.J., for 
New Foliage Canna. 

May 15. R. & J. Farquhar & Co., for New Bedding Begonia, Begonia erecta 
compacta multiflora. 

July 3. W. E. Coburn, for Pelargonium Dorothy. 

Annual Exhibition of 'Plants and Flowers, September 1 and 2. J. E, Roth- 
well, for Collection of Orchids. 



REPORT 



COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, 

FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



By J. WOODWARD MANNING, Chairman. 



Your Committee beg leave to make the following report : 

The season of 1897 has brought forth a larger number of exhibi- 
tions than in the past, and has been remarkable in many respects 
for the quantity and quality of the flowers exhibited. The Lower 
Hall has been taxed to its utmost capacity on nearly every occa- 
sion when prizes have been offered for important classes of 
flowers. While the abnormally cool weather conditions of the 
early part of the summer retarded the development of the flowers, 
abundant later rains produced, on the whole, a greater quantity 
and better quality of flowers than in the past ; yet in some classes 
this served to develop diseases to an unusual degree, this being 
especially true of Hollyhocks, which, presumably for this cause, 
were shown in scanty numbers. 

Your Committee have found it necessary, in view of the con- 
tinued increase of exhibits other than those for which regular 
prizes are scheduled, to reduce very materially the gratuities that 
have in the past been awarded for such outside exhibits. This 
experience has made it evident that it will be necessary to reduce 
even to a larger extent the amount of such gratuities ; in fact, it 
seems almost necessary to award Certificates in the place of money 
prizes in the near future, unless a larger appropriation can be 
arranged. 

The exhibits of Native Plants have increased in number and 
have taxed the capacity of the hall, especially when exhibited in 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

connection With the strictly horticultural exhibitions. For that 
reason your Committee deem it wise that special space be granted 
such native plant exhibits, and would suggest the use of the Upper 
Hall on all days when they would not interfere with business 
meetings or other uses. These exhibits have created a great deal 
©f interest and form a very significant feature of the exhibitions 
to a large portion of the visiting public. Extension in this line 
would be desirable, and your Committee feel that it would be no 
more than right that the exhibitors should be given ample space in 
which to display their collections. While your Committee, with 
the addition of a botanical expert to its number, have found less 
difficulty in making awards the past season, still they deem it wise 
that a Special Committee should be appointed to judge the Native 
Plant exhibits. They being of a strictly botanical nature, it would 
seem that a Committee composed exclusively of botanists would 
be better able to judge of the comparative rarity and educational 
value of the exhibits than would a Committee composed chiefly of 
horticulturists. For that reason we would recommend that a 
Special Committee, working on such lines as do the present Com- 
mittee on School Gardens and Children's Herbariums, be appointed 
with the same powers and privileges, and that a special appro- 
priation be set aside for their use in awarding such prizes as may 
be scheduled and such gratuities as they may deem wise. 

On January 16 Kenneth Finlayson, gardener to Dr. C. G. Weld, 
made a very creditable exhibition of Hippeastrums, Erica Wd- 
moreana, Streptosolen speciosum major, S. Jamesonii, Epacris 
hyacintJiiflora, Phalwnopsis Sclulleriana, and Centropogon Lucy- 
anus. On the same day, Hugh Graham, of Philadelphia, Pa., ex- 
hibited a new Carnation, Victor, for which your Committee 
awarded Honorable Mention. 

The following Saturday, January 23, H. A. Cook exhibited the 
new Carnation Nivea, for which a First Class Certificate of Merit 
was awarded. 

The exhibition of Orchids on February 6 called forth a close 
competition, and was very creditable to the exhibitors. 

February 20 Hemerocallis aurantiaca major was exhibited by 
Jacob W. Manning as a new hardy Japanese Hemerocallis or Day 
Lily, and received a First Class Certificate of Merit. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS. 171 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 

At this exhibition the competition for most of the prizes offered 
for Roses was close ; the quality of the specimens has never been 
surpassed, and the display was in all respects extremely satisfac- 
tory. Carnations also were shown in unusual quantity and of the 
best quality, while Violets were shown in great abundance and 
perfection. James Comley exhibited a forced branch of a new 
variety of Japanese Flowering Cherry which was of remarkable 
character in its abundance of very double, pure white, pendulous 
flowers, hanging in clusters the length of the branch. This was 
very unique and was awarded a Silver Medal. 

MAY EXHIBITION. 
May 1. 

Pansies, Narcissuses, and Tulips were at this time shown in abun- 
dance and made a most creditable display. Native Plants were 
first entered at this time and continued at intervals for the re- 
mainder of the year. 

May 22, Carl Jurgens, of Newport, R.I., exhibited forced 
flowers of Convallaria prolificans, which attracted a great deal of 
attention, and for their very apparent value were awarded a Silver 
Medal by the Committee. At the same exhibition the Miellez 
Horticultural Company exhibited two vases of Lily of the Valley, 
which, for their superior culture, were awarded a First Class 
Certificate of Merit. 

RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 3 and 4. 

Although the weather conditions up to this date had not been 
propitious, the show of Rhododendrons and Azaleas was very fine 
and the quality of the flowers seemed fully up to that of previous 
years. At this time Oriental Poppies, German Irises, and Aqui- 
legias were shown in quantity and great variety, and of fine 
quality. T. C. Thurlow made a very creditable exhibit of named 
Hardy Trees and Shrubs, among which particular mention should 
be made of Cornus Jiorida var. rubra and a choice variety of Mag- 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

nolias. One of the most attractive features of this exhibition was 
a collection of Orchids by Henry T. Clinkaberry, gardener to Hon. 
C. G. Roebling, of Trenton, N.J. This exhibit attracted a great 
deal of attention, and for its great diversity and the unique character 
of many of the individual flowers was deemed worthy of the 
Appleton Gold Medal. A First Class Certificate of Merit was also 
awarded the same exhibitor for the fine hybrid Orchid, Laelio- 
Cattleya C. G. Roebling. W. A. Manda, of South Orange, N.J., 
was also awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for superior 
culture shown in a spike of Laelia purpurata var. South Orangiensis, 
and also for Lilium longiflorum var. foliis alba marginata. To 
James Comley, Honorable Mention was given for the new Hardy 
Rhododendron William Power Wilson, and a Silver Medal for the 
variety James Comley. 

P^EONY SHOW. 

June 12. 

In many respects this was the most remarkable exhibition of 
the }^ear. The Hall was amply filled with flowers grown to the 
height of perfection and displayed to the best possible advantage. 
The beauty and development of the individual flowers gave evidence 
of the highest possible culture on the part of the exhibitors, while 
their wide range of color was full testimony to the great value of 
this absolutely hardy garden plant, and seemed to make manifest 
the immense popularity that must soon ensue for these flowers. 
The Kelway Silver Gilt Medal was gained by Kenneth Finlayson, 
gardener to Dr. C. G. Weld, while the Kelway Bronze Medal was 
awarded to T. C. Thurlow. A First Class Certificate of Merit 
was awarded to George Hollis, for the new Seedling Paeony 
George Washington. 

ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 

The display of Roses was disappointing in many respects, 
owing to lack of fully developed flowers due to the cold weather 
and heavy rains that had occurred just previous to that date. 
The following Saturday, however, they were shown in ample 
quantity and of the highest quality. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS. 173 

June 22, Honorable Mention was given W. A. Manda, of South 
Orange, N.J., for Lcelia elegans Mandiana, and a First Class Cer- 
tificate of Merit was awarded the same person for two new Hybrid 
Roses, the first being a cross between Rosa Wichuraiana and Perle 
des Jardins ; the second a cross between Rosa Wichuraiana and 
Madame Hoste. Both show great possibilities for future culture. 
A Silver Medal was awarded to M. H. Walsh for the White Eose 
Lilian Nordica, and on the following day a First Class Certificate 
of Merit was awarded to him for the new Rose Joseph S. Fay. 

The display of Delphiniums on June 26 was the finest that 
has been made for several years past. The spikes were of perfect 
quality and showed great range of color. On this date Robert 
Cameron, gardener to the Botanic Ga,rden of Harvard University, 
made a remarkable exhibit of Hardy Herbaceous Perennials, well 
worthy of a larger gratuity than your Committee, owing to the 
limited amount of the appropriation, felt able to award. 

July 3, the display of Iris Ksempferi did not compare favorably 
with exhibits of former years, while Shirley Poppies, English 
Irises, and Lilium candidum unfortunately had been seriously 
affected by bad weather and other unfavorable conditions, and 
were not shown at all. The display of Campanula Medium, how- 
ever, was undoubtedly the finest that has been made in the Hall. 
William Thatcher, gardener to John L. Gardner, is deserving of 
great praise for the high character of the spikes shown. T. C. 
Thurlow on this date exhibited Rhus Cotinus atropurpureus, which 
was especially distinct from other types in the deeper purplish 
effect of its sprays of seed vessels, and which your Committee 
deemed worthy of a First Class Certificate of Merit. On this date 
also, Walter H. Cowing exhibited Rosa lucida alba, a pure white 
and very fragrant variety of our ordinary Rosa lucida, and for 
this a First Class Certificate of Merit was awarded. 

July 10, Hollyhocks were not exhibited, this being due, presum- 
ably, to the ravages of the Hollyhock disease, which seems to have 
made serious inroads upon all those collections which in the past 
have contributed so effectively to our exhibitions. On that 
day, James Wheeler, gardener to Joseph H. White, made a 
remarkable display of ninety varieties of Sweet Peas, all correctly 
named, and displayed in such a manner as to show the comparative 
difference as well as the merits of each particular variety. This 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

exhibit was most effective and elicited a great deal of praise. 
William Thatcher, gardener to John L. Gardner, exhibited a new 
seedling Delphinium, nearly pure white, for which Honorable 
Mention was awarded. 

The postponement of the Hollyhock prizes until July 17 did not 
gain the exhibits hoped for, and none were deemed worthy of the 
first prize. 

The exhibits of Sweet Peas on July 24 were ample and well 
shown, although weather conditions had been somewhat disadvan- 
tageous to individual flowers. However, distinct advancement in 
many of the newer sorts was evident, and the coming year will, 
with favorable weather conditions, undoubtedly assist in producing 
effective exhibits in this class. At this time, James Greene, 
gardener to James L. Little, exhibited flowers of Begonia Haageana 
which, for their abundance and unique character, were deemed 
worthy of a First Class Certificate of Merit. Robert Cameron, 
gardener to the Botanic Garden of Harvard Universit} 7 , displayed 
fruits of Podophyllum Emodi, whose unique character and orna- 
mental effect gained for them a First Class Certificate of Merit. 
Hardy Perennial Phloxes were not shown to as good advantage 
this year as in the past, owing to abundant rains, which seriously 
interfered with the perfection of the panicles. 

August 7, the display of Annuals resulted in very close compe- 
tition. A large portion of the Hall was filled and the character of 
the exhibits was of the best. Unfortunately Gladioli were not 
shown to as good advantage this year as in the past. We hope 
another season may bring a change in this respect. Montbretia 
crocosmiflora was shown both by the Bussey Institution and Judge 
C. W. Hoitt, of Nashua, N.H., and made a very interesting 
exhibit. This class of Hardy Bulbs should be far more widely 
cultivated than in the past. Its brilliancy of color, abundance of 
bloom, and ease of culture are valuable characteristics. 

AQUATIC EXHIBITION. 

August 21. 

This was held in the Upper Hall, several tanks being filled to 

repletion, and the exhibits commanded close attention from a large 

number of visitors. The same clay the prizes for China Asters 

were closely competed for by a number of exhibitors, and decided 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS. 175 

advancement was shown in the class. At this time a Silver Medal 
was awarded to Henry A. Dreer, of Philadelphia, Pa., for a remark- 
able collection of Cannas, among which the Canna Allemania was 
deemed worthy of a First Class Certificate of Merit. In addition, 
this gentleman exhibited the new pure white Gladiolus called White 
Lady, for which also a First Class Certificate of Merit was awarded, 
and a choice collection of double and fringed Petunias was given 
Honorable Mention, while Nymphaea Falconeriwas allotted a First 
Class Certificate of Merit. Honorable Mention was given George 
Hollis for a sport of Vallota purpurea, which was quite distinct in 
color from the ordinary type, and of larger size. 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

September 1 and 2. 

Not for many years past has there been such an increase of 
exhibits of Dahlias as at this show. The quality of the blooms 
was indicative of careful culture on the part of the exhibitors, 
while the quantity was ample evidence of the esteem in which this 
flower is held by the public at the present time. This exhibition 
was in many respects a surprise. Although your Committee recog- 
nized the fact that the Dahlia is fast coming to the front again 
and regaining its past eminence, yet they regret to find the appro- 
priation set aside for the special use of this class so comparatively 
small. 

September 11, there was shown a pure white form of Aster 
Novce-Anglim, for which a First Class Certificate of Merit was 
awarded Robert Cameron, gardener at the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard University. 

Robert Laurie, gardener to Cornelius Vanderbilt, of Newport, 
R.I., made a very creditable display of Fringed Tuberous Begonias. 
These obtained Honorable Mention. 

September 18, a display of Perennial Asters called forth close 
competition, and the Hall was well filled. On this date also, a 
noteworthy collection of ornamental fruit and hardy trees was made 
by Jackson Dawson, Superintendent of the Arnold Arboretum. 

The exhibition of Early Flowering Chrysanthemums scheduled 
under October 16 did not bring the competition that was expected, 
and although several creditable entries were made, your Committee 
regret that greater competition was not evident. 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

All things considered, this was undoubtedly the finest exhibition 
of Chrysanthemums ever made in our Halls. There were a greater 
number of entries, and the character of the flowers was seemingly 
perfect in all of the double blooming varieties. All the tables 
were closely filled, and the capacity of the Hall was taxed to its 
utmost. All exhibitors seemed to vie in giving their plants the 
highest culture. As a result, competition was extremely close and 
the general tone of the exhibition was immensely improved. The 
classes of twenty-five varieties were very closely competed for. 
The vases of cut blooms gave a remarkable effect upon entering 
the Hall, while nearly every scheduled prize w T as taken. As a 
result the surplus that would otherwise return to the Committee to 
help meet gratuities awarded during the year was very small, and 
in consequence your Committee find the appropriation nearly ex- 
hausted at the end of the year, and they cannot but reiterate the 
hope that a larger appropriation can be spared by the Society for 
the use of the Flower Committee, feeling as they do that this would 
enable them to award gratuities to exhibitors more nearly in pro- 
portion to the value of their exhibits. At this show, Arthur 
Griffin, gardener to J. J. Van Alen, of Newport, R.I., exhibited 
an improved strain of seedling Begonia semperjlorens in which a 
great range of color was apparent. For this a Silver Medal was 
given. 

M. H. Walsh has entered his new seedling Rose, Lilian Nordica, 
for the Prospective Prize. 

The amount appropriated for the year 1897 was . $2,600 00 
Awards of prizes and gratuities have been made to 

the amount of 2,514 00 



Leaving an unexpended balance of ... $86 00 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. Woodward Manning, \ 
George E. Davenport, I Committee 
M. H. Norton, ( on Floivers. 

Frederick S. Davis, ) 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 177 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FLOWERS. 

1897. 

January 2. 
Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Display ......... $5 00 

Mrs. B. M. Gill, " . . . 1 00 

January 9. 

Chinese E^rimroses. — Display of fifty or more individual blooms, 
Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney ...... 

Second, I. E. Coburn 

Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Display of Camellias and Orchids 
W. N. Craig, Vase of Cypripediums ..... 

W. N. Craig, Vase of Freesia refracta ..... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Vase of Flowers 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Display of Mosses and Ferns 

January 16. 

Gratuities : — 

Kenneth Finlayson, Display of Flowers . . . . . . 3 00 

James Comley, Display of Camellias .... 2 00 

January 23. 
Gratuities : — 

W. E. Coburn, cut blooms of Chinese Primulas . . . . 2 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers . . . . . . 100 

January 30. 

Gratuities ; — 

Oakes Ames, Display of Flowers ....... 3 00 

James Comley, *«".". ] 00 

February 6. 

Orchids. — Display of named species and varieties, filling not less 
than twenty bottles, E. O. Orpet ...... 

Second, William Thatcher ....... 

Violets. — Best collection of varieties, fifty blooms of each in a 
bunch, Alexander McKay ....... 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder ....... 

Carnations. — Display of cut blooms, with foliage, not less than six 

varieties, William Nicholson ....... 8 00 



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178 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Camellias.— Display of named varieties, cut flowers with foliage, 
not less than twelve blooms, of not less than six varieties, 
James Comley . . . . • • • • $4 00 

Second, James Comley 3 00 



Gratuities : — 

James Comley, Display of Flowers 

Joseph J. Comley, two vases of Roses — Bride and Bridesmaid 
John L. Bird, Display of Acacia pubescens .... 
Walter E. Coburn, Display of Chinese Primroses . 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



February 13. 
Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Vase of Coelogyne cristata . . . . . 3 00 

James Comley, Display of California Violets . . . . . 1 00 

February 20. 
Gratuities : — 

James Comley, Display 4 00 

Oakes Ames, " 3 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 1 00 

February 27. 
Gratuities : — 

James Comley, Basket of Flowers and Display . . . . 3 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers . . . . . 1 00 

March 6. 

Gratuity : — 

James Comley, Display 3 00 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twelve blooms, of not less than four 

distinct named varieties, David Nevins 12 00 

Second, James Comley 10 00 

Six blooms, not less than three named varieties, David Nevins . 6 00 

Second, James Comley . . 5 00 

Twelve blooms of Ulrich Brunner, David Nevins . . 10 00 
Tender Roses in Vases. — Twelve blooms of American Beauty, 

F. R. Pierson & Co., Tarrytown, N.Y 15 00 

Twenty-five blooms of Bridesmaid, William H. Elliott . . . 12 00 

Second, Robert McGoram 10 00 

Twenty-five blooms of Meteor, F. R. Pierson & Co. . .12 00 
Twenty-five blooms of Souvenir de President Carnot, F. R. Pier- 
son & Co. 12 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



179 



Twenty-five blooms of The Bride, William H. Elliott . 

Second, Robert McGoram 

Twenty-five blooms of Papa Gontier, William H. Elliott 

Second, William H. Elliott 

Vase of fifty blooms, assorted varieties, David Nevins . 
Carnations. — Vase of one hundred cut blooms with foliage, not 
less than six varieties, William Nicholson .... 

Third, William H. Elliott . 

Twenty-five blooms of any named Crimson variety, William 
Nicholson .......... 

Twenty-five blooms of any named Dark Pink variety, William 
Nicholson for William Scott ....... 

Twenty-five blooms of any named Light Pink variety, William 
Nicholson for Da} T break ....... 

Second, Peter Fisher for Daybreak ...... 

Twenty-five blooms of any named Scarlet variety, William Nichol- 
son for Hector ......... 

Twenty-five blooms of any named White variety, H. A. Cook for 
Nivea ........... 

Second, Peter Fisher for Freedom ...... 

Twenty-five blooms of any named Yellow variety, William Nichol- 
son for Eldorado .... ..... 

Violets. — Bunch of fifty blooms of California, David Nevins 
Second, James Comley . . 
Bunch of fifty blooms of Lady Hume Campbell, David Nevins 
Second, Joseph H. White ........ 

Bunch of fifty blooms of Marie Louise, David Nevins 

Second, Joseph H. White ........ 

Bunch of fifty blooms of any other variety, David Nevins for 
Farquhar .......... 

Second, David Nevins for Swanley White .... 

Antirrhinums. — Display, not less than three distinct varieties, 

Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Second, John Jeffries . ... 

Camellias. — Display of named varieties, cut flowers with foliage, 
not less than twenty-four blooms of not less than six varieties, 
Joseph H. White ......... 

Second, James Comley ........ 

Gratuities : — 
David Nevins, Display of Hardy Perpetual Roses . 



William E. Doyle, 
Jason S. Bailey, 
David Nevins, 
James L. Little, 
James Comley, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 



of Lady Hume Campbell Violets 

of Carnations 

of Orchids 

of Streptocarpus 



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180 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



April 3. 
Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Display of Cut Flowers ...... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " " , 

April 10. 
Gratuity : — 
James Comley, Display of Azaleas 

April 17. 
Gratuity : — 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, Display of Native Plants . 

April 24. 

Gratuities : — 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, Display of Native Plants .... 

Miss Vivien May Norris, " " " " . 

MAY EXHIBITION. 

May 1. 

Tulips. — Twenty-four blooms, distinct named varieties, Bussey 
Institution ....... 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson .... 

Hardy Narcissuses. — Collection of not less than 
varieties of blooms, Kenneth Finlayson 
Second, Bussey Institution .... 

Third, W. N. Craig 

Pansies. — Forty-eight blooms, not less than twenty-four varieties 
Hon. Joseph S. Fay 
Second, Hon. Joseph S. Fay 
Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill 
Native Plants. — Collection of thirty bottles of named species and 
varieties, one bottle of each, Mrs. P. D. Richards 
Second, Miss Genevieve Doran .... 
Third, Mrs. Kate E. Parker .... 

Gratuities : — 
Bussey Institution, Display of Tulips 
Hon. Joseph S. Fay, Display of Pansies . 
Ilea Brothers, Display of Hardy Perennials 
Kenneth Finlayson, Display 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
James Comley, " 

W. N. Craig, 
John Jeffries, " 

Oakes Ames, " 

Mrs. Kate E. Parker, Display of Native Plants 



ten named 



$3 00 

i oa 



3 00 



1 00 



1 00 
1 00 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



181 



Tulips 


3 00 


. 


2 00 


. 


I 00 


. 


3 00 


. 


2 00 


• . . . 


3 00 



May 8. 
Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Flowering Shrubs . . . . . . $3 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants . 2 00 

May 15. 

Gratuities : — 

Bussey Institution, Display of Late Tulips 

Kenneth Finlayson, Tulips 

Joseph S. Chase, " 

James Comley, Collection 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display . 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants 

May 22. 

Tree Pjeonies. — Collection of Single and Double varieties, named, 
Thomas C. Thurlow . . 

Second, James Comley 

Herbaceous Plants. — Thirty bottles, Jacob W. Manning . 

Gratuities : — 
Thomas C. Thurlow, Collection of Hardy Shrubs 
Charles H. Souther, Gloxinias . 
Carl Jurgens, Lily of the Valley 
Jacob W. Manning, Display 
James Comley, " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers 
Miss Eleanor Doran, " " 

Miss Vivien May Norris, Collection of Plants 

May 29. 

Gratuities : — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Display of Rhododendrons . . . . . 25 00 
Miss Vivien May Norris, Native Plants 2 00 



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RHODODENDRON EXHIBITION. 
June 3 and 4. 

IT. H. Hunnewell Fund. 

Rhododendrons. — Twelve distinct varieties of unquestioned hardi- 
ness, named, James Comley ....... 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 

Six distinct varieties of unquestioned hardiness, named, Ken- 
neth Finlayson ......... 

Second, Mrs. Arthur W. Blake 

Eighteen Tender varieties, named, James Comley 



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182 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Six Tender varieties, named, James Comley . 

Second, John L- Gardner 

Three Tender varieties, named, James Comley 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson .... 

Hardy Azaleas, from any or all Classes. — Fifteen varieties 
one vase of each, James Comley 

Second, Thomas C. Thurlow .... 
Six varieties, one vase of each, John L. Gardner . 

Second, James Comley ..... 
Cluster of trusses of one variety, Thomas C. Thurlow 

Second, John L. Gardner . . . . . 



$5 00 
4 00 

4 00 
3 00 

8 00 

5 00 
3 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 




Society's Prizes. 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Collection of named varieties, the second 
prize to Thomas C. Thurlow ....... 

German Irises. — Twelve distinct varieties, three spikes of each, 
John L. Gardner . 
Second, Walter H. Cowing 
Oriental Poppies. — Collection, named, Walter II 

Second, W. N. Craig 

Aquilegias. — Collection, Frederick S. Davis 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson 

Third, Walter H. Cowing .... 

Hardy Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. — Collection of not less 

than thirty species and varieties, named, cut blooms or foliage, 

Thomas C. Thurlow 

Native Plants. — Collection of thirty bottles of named species an 1 
varieties, one bottle of each, Mrs. P. D. Richards . 
Second, Mrs. Kate E. Parker ....... 

Third, Miss Genevieve Doran 

Vase of Flowers, Mrs. E. M. Gill 



Gratuities : — 
H. H. Hunnewell, Azaleas and Rhododendrons 
James Comley, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, etc. . 
Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney, Rhododendrons, etc. 
Kenneth Finlayson, Rhododendrons, etc. . 

Thomas C. Thurlow, Display of Azaleas and Rhododendrons 
W. A. Manda, Collection of Orchids 
William Nicholson, Vase of Carnations 
Bussey Institution, Tulips and Irises 
John Jeffries, Display 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, Display 
W. N. Craig, " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 



4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



8 00 



8 


00 


6 


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4 


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4 


00 


30 


00 


20 


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8 


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3 


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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



183 



June 12. 

Foxgloves. — Twelve spikes, Kenneth Finlayson . 

Second, W. N. Craig 

Third, John L. Gardner ....... 

Gratuities : — 
James Comley, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and other Shrubs, etc 
Hon. Joseph S. Fay, Flowering Shrubs . 
Thomas C. Thurlow, Paetfnies and Shrubs 
George Hollis, Paeonies ..... 
John L. Gardner, Paeonies .... 

Joseph S. Chase, Vase of Paeonies . 
W. N. Craig, Display of Carnations and Pseonies 
Thomas W. Dee, Late Flowering Tulips . 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants . 



$3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



15 00 



7 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 



1 00 



June 19. 

Herbaceous Pseonies. — Collection of named varieties, Double, 
Kenneth Finlayson ......... 

Second, Thomas C. Thurlow ....... 

Third, George Hollis 

Collection of named varieties, Single, Thomas C. Thurlow . 
Third, George Hollis ......... 

Specimen bloom, Kenneth Finlayson, for Blanche Neige 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson, for Model of Perfection 
Vase of blooms, on long stems, arranged for effect, Kenneth 
Finlayson . . 
Second, M. H. Walsh 



Gratuities : — 
M. H. Walsh, Display of Roses and Paeonies 
Charles H. Souther, Display of Paeonies . 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 



Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
James Comley, 
Thomas C. Thurlow, 
Mrs. A. A. Johnson, 
Miss C. M. Endicott, 



" " Roses 



" Alpine Plants 



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oT> 



ROSE EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 
Special Prizes, Theodore Lyman Fund. 
Hardy Roses. — Twenty-four distinct named varieties, three of 
each variety, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 



25 00 



184 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Third, Miss Eleanor J. Clark, Pomfret Centre, Conn. 

Society's Prizes. 
Sixteen distinct named varieties, three of each variety, Kenneth 
Finlayson ......... 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay . 
Twelve distinct named varieties, three of each, the second prize 

to the Estate of Joseph S. Fay . . . 
Six distinct named varieties, three of each, the second prize to the 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay ...... 

Third, Miss Eleanor J. Clark ...... 

Twenty-four distinct named varieties, one of each, the second 
prize to Miss Eleanor J. Clark ..... 

Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 

Eighteen distinct named varieties, one of each, the second prize 
to the Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 

Third, Miss Eleanor J. Clark 

Twelve distinct named varieties, one of each, Kenneth Finlayson 
Six distinct named varieties, one of each, W. N. Craig 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 

Third, Kenneth Finlayson ....... 

Twenty-four blooms of Mme. Gabriel Luizet, Miss Eleanor J 

Clark 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 

Third, Kenneth Finlayson . . . . . 

Six blooms of John Hopper, the second prize to Kenneth Finlayson, 

Six blooms of Marquise de Castellane, the second prize to Patrick 

Kane .......... 

Twelve blooms of any other variety, Kenneth Finlayson 

Second, W. N. Craig 

Best single bloom of a variety introduced since 1893, Miss Eleanor 

J. Clark 

Moss Roses. — Six distinct named varieties, three clusters o 
each, John L. Gardner ....... 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay . . . 
General Display. —One hundred bottles of Hardy Roses, bud 
admissible, W. N. Craig . . . . 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson ...... 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill . . .... 

Fourth, Miss Eleanor J. Clark 

Fifth, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Sixth, William H. Spooner 

Sweet Williams. — Thirty spikes, not less than six distinct varie 

ties, Bussey Institution 

Second, W. N. Craig 

Third, Miss Mary S. Walker 

Fourth, Charles H. Souther 



$20 00 
15 00 



15 00 
10 00 

8 00 



4 


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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



185 



Spanish Irises. — Collection, named, the second prize to the 

Bussey Institution . ... . . . . . $2 00 

Vase op Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's glass 

vases, the second prize to Miss Genevieve Doran . . . 4 00 



Gratuities : — 
Miss Eleanor J. Clark, Display of General Jacqueminot Roses 
William H. Spooner, Display of Roses 
Thomas C. Thurlow, seventy-two varieties of Paeonies 
Carl Blomberg, Hardy Flowers .... 

Rea Brothers, Hardy Perennials and Tuberous Begonias 
L. W. Goodell, two tubs of Aquatics 
James Comley, Display 

Patrick Kane, " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay, " 
W. N. Craig, 
William C. Winter, 
Mrs. E. A. Wilkie, " 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants 



8 00 



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June 26. 

Hardy Roses. — Collection, named, not less than twenty-five varie- 
ties, filling fifty vases, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay . . . . . 

Third, Kenneth Finlayson ........ 

Fourth, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ...... 

Sweet Williams. — Auricula flowered, ten spikes of ten distinct 
varieties, the second prize to Carl Blomberg .... 

Delphiniums. — Collection of twenty spikes, not less than five va- 
rieties, John L. Gardner . . . . . . . 

Second, Kenneth Finlayson ....... 

Herbaceous Plants. — Thirty bottles, Nathaniel T. Kidder . 

Second, Jacob W. Manning ....... 

Third, Rea Brothers ......... 

Vase of Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill . 

Second, Miss Hattie B. Winter ....... 



Gratuities ; — 

Robert Cameron, Hardy Herbaceous Plants 

W. N. Craig, Display of Roses and Sweet Williams 

Edwin Sheppard, Sweet Williams 

Mrs. E. A. Wilkie, Vases of Roses . 

Thomas Kane, Roses ...... 

John Jeffries, Paeonies . . ... 



15 00 

10 00 

6 00 

4 00 

2 00 



5 


00 


4 


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186 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Display 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay, " 
James Comley, 

J. Eaton, Jr., " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, 



July 3. 

Iris K,empferi. — Fifteen varieties, three of each, John L. Gardner, 
Six varieties, three of each, Miss Mary S. Walker 

Second, John L. Gardner 

Campanula Medium. — Collection, not less than twelve bottles, John 

L. Gardner 

Second, Bussey Institution 

Gratuities : — 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Roses 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Sweet Williams 

W. E. Coburn, Sweet Williams 

John L. Gardner, Delphiniums . 

John L. Gardner, Iris Kaempferi 

John L. Gardner, Phlox Miss Lingard 

Rea Brothers, Hardy Perennials 

Thomas C. Thurlow, Pseonies, etc. . 

James Comley, Display . . . 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, "... 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, " 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Flowers 



$6 00 
6 00 
6 00 
3 00 
3 00 



6 


00 


4 


CO 


3 


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3 


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July 10. 

Hollyhocks. — Single, twelve spikes, the second prize to John L. 
Gardner ........... 

Native Plants. — Collection, not exceeding forty bottles of named 
species and varieties, one bottle of each, Mrs. P. D. Rich- 
ards ........... 

Second, Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran 

Third, Miss Helen M. Noyes 

Vase of Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's glass 
vases, Mrs. E. M. Gill . . . .... 

Second, Miss Hattie B. Winter . 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph H. White, Display of ninety varieties of Sweet Peas 

John L. Gardner, Japanese Irises 

John L. Gardner, Stocks 

John L. Gardner, Display of Poppies .... 
James Comley, Japanese Irises 



3 00 



8 


00 


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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



187 



William H. Spooner, Rose Bardon Job $1 00 

James Comley, Display ......... 3 00 

Rea Brothers, " 2 00 

W. N. Craig, " 2 00 



July 17. 

Hollyhocks. — Double, twelve blooms of twelve distinct colors, 
the third prize to the Estate of Joseph S. Fay 
Double, six blooms, of six distinct colors, the second prize to the 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Gloxinias. — Twelve vases, cut blooms, three in each vase, ar 
ranged with any foliage, Kenneth Finlayson . . 
Second, Kenneth Finlayson ...... 

Third, James L. Little ....... 

Tuberous Begonias. — Collection, arranged with their own foliage 
James L. Little ........ 

Third, E. S. Converse 

Hardy Aquatic Flowers. — Collection, named, Carl Blomberg 
Hardy Ferns. — Display of named species and varieties, Mrs. P 
D. Richards ......... 

Second, Carl Blomberg ...... 

Gratuities : — 
John L. Gardner, Hardy Phlox . 
Rea Brothers, Hardy Perennials 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Display 
W. N. Craig, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 



3 00 



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July 24. 

Sweet Peas. — Display of named varieties, filling thirty vases, 

arranged with any foliage, Marshall B. Faxon 

Second, Mrs. H. A. Jones . . 

Display of named varieties in vases, six sprays in each vase, Joseph 

H. White 

Second, E. A. Weeks 

Third, Mrs. H. A. Jones 

Herbaceous Plants. — Thirty bottles, Nathaniel T. Kidder . 
Second, Jacob W. Manning ...... 

Third, Carl Blomberg ....... 

Vase of Flowers. — For table decoration, Mrs. E. M. Gill . 
Second, Miss Hattie B. Winter 

Gratuities : — 
Marshall B. Faxon, Display of Sweet Peas .... 
Botanic Garden of Harvard University, Hardy Perennials 



6 


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188 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



John L. Gardner, Display . 

James Comley, " 

James L. Little, " 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, " 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants 

Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran, Native Plants 



$3 00 
2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



July 31. 

Perennial Phloxes. — Eighteen distinct named varieties, one spike 

of each, the second prize to John L. Gardner . . . 
Antirrhinums. — Display of thirty vases, three spikes in each, the 
second prize to John Jeffries . . . 
Third, Carl Blomberg ........ 

Native Flowers. — Collection, not exceeding forty bottles of 
named species and varieties, one bottle of each, Mrs. P. D. 
Richards ........... 

Second, Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran .... 

Third, Miss Genevieve Doran 



Gratuities : — 
Marshall B. Faxon, Sweet Peas 
Bussey Institution, Monfbretia crocosmiflora 
J. Warren Clark, Gladioli 
John L. Gardner, Display . 
James Comley, "... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, "... 

Rea Brothers, " 

Carl Blomberg, Display of Native Plants 
John Jeffries, Native Plants 



5 00 



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August 7. 
Annuals. — General display, named, filling not less than one 

hundred and fifty bottles, John L. Gardner . . . 10 00 

Second, Carl Blomberg 8 00 

Third, Charles H. Souther 6 00 

Gratuities : — 

J. Warren Clark, Gladioli . . . . 1 00 

W. N. Craig, Display 2 00 

James Comley, " 2 00 

August 14. 
Gladioli. — Ten named varieties, in spikes, the second prize to 

John Parker .......... 2 00 

Display of named and unnamed varieties, filling one hundred 

vases, arranged for effect, with any foliage, J. Warren Clark, 8 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



189 



MoNTBRETIA CROCOSMIFLORA. — 

tion . . 

Second, Hon. C. W. Hoitt . 

Gratuities : — 
W. N. Craig, Display 

John Jeffries, " 

John L. Gardner, " 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, " 
G.A.Oliver, " 

John Parker, " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
William C. Winter, " 

H. A. Wheeler, 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants 
The Misses Doran, " " 



Display in vases, Bussey Institu- 



$3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



EXHIBITION OF AQUATIC PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

August 21. 

Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Aquatics. — General display of Nymphseas, Nelumbiums, Sedges, 
Papyrus, and other aquatic plants, arranged for effect, to in- 
clude not less than twenty-five blooms of Nymphseas, Henry 

A. Dreer, Philadelphia 50 00 

Second, Oakes Ames . . . . . . . . 30 00 

Display of twelve Nymphaeas and Nelumbiums, named, Oakes Ames, 10 00 
Asters. — Large flowered of all classes, fifty vases, not less than 

twelve varieties, three flowers in each vase, Joseph H. White, 6 00 

Second, John L. Gardner ........ 5 00' 

Third, Charles H. Souther .... . . . . 4 00 

Truffaut's Pseony Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than twelve 

varieties, Joseph H. White ....... 5 00 

Second, H. A. Wheeler 3 00 

Victoria Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than twelve varieties, 

Joseph H. White . 5 00 

Second, John Jeffries 3 00 

Pompon, twenty-four cut plants, not less than six varieties, John 

L. Gardner 5 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — Thirty bottles, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . 8 00 

Second, Jacob W. Manning . . . . . . . 6 00 

Third, Oakes Ames ......... 4 00 

Gratuities : — 

Botanic Garden of Harvard University, Herbaceous Plants . . 10 00 

John L. Gardner, Asters ......... 1 00 

Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, Phlox ...... 1 00 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

George Hollis, Display . $2 00 

Henry A. Dreer, " 1 00 

Rea Brothers, " 1 00 

John L. Gardner, " 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants ....... 1 00 

Miss Helen M. Noyes, " "...... 1 00 

August 28. 
Gratuity : — 

Botanic Garden of Harvard University, Display , . . . 3 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

September 1 and 2. 

Dahlias. — Show, twelve blooms, distinct named varieties, John 

Parker 4 00 

Second, Lothrop & Higgins ....... 3 00 

Third, H. F. Burt 2 00 

Fancy, twelve blooms, distinct named varieties, H. F. Burt . . 4 00 

Cactus, twelve blooms, distinct named varieties, L. W. Snow . 4 00 

Second, H. F. Burt 3 00 

Third, H. F. Burt 2 00 

Liliputian, twelve blooms, distinct named varieties, Lothrop & 

Higgins 4 00 

Second, Lothrop & Higgins . . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, L. W. Snow . . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Single, twelve blooms, distinct named varieties, John Endicott & 

Co. . . . . 4 00 

Second, John Endicott & Co 3 00 

General Display, all classes admissible, one hundred or more 

bottles, H. F. Burt 10 00 

Second, William C. Winter . . . ... . 8 00 

Third, Lothrop & Higgins 6 00 

Lilium Lanctfolium. — Collection of named varieties, Sumner 

Coolidge . . . . . ... . . . 4 00 

Trop^eolums. — Display with their own foliage, filling twenty-five 

vases, Kenneth Finlayson 4 00 

Second, James L. Little 3 00 

Third, John Jeffries . . . . 2 00 

Marigolds. — Display of French and African, filling twenty-five 

vases, John L. Gardner 3 00 

Second, James Comley 2 00 

Double Zinnias. — Twenty-five flowers, not less than six varieties, 

E. Sheppard & Son 4 00 

Second, Oakes Ames 3 00 

Third, Kenneth Finlayson 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 191 

Native Plants. — Collection, not exceeding forty bottles of named 

species and varieties, Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran . $ 8 00 

Second, Mrs. P. D. Richards 6 00 

Third, Miss Helen M. Noyes 4 00 

Vase of Flowers. — For table decoration, on the last day of the 

exhibition, Mrs. E. M. Gill 4 00 

Second, Miss Hattie B. Winter 3 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill . 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

Oakes Ames, Aquatics ......... 10 00 

L. W. Goodell, " 7 00 

N. B. Shaw, Nymphsea Devoniensis . . . . . . 2 00 

James L. Little, Begonias . . . . . . . . 2 00 

C. E. Richardson, Tuberous Begonias . . . . . . 1 00 

A. Lummus, Dahlias 1 00 

James Comley, Display . . . . . . . . . 4 00 

L. W. Goodell, " 2 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 2 00 

Mrs. J. A. Cain, " 1 00 

September 11. 

Herbaceous Plants. — Thirty bottles, Nathaniel T. Kidder . . 8 00 

Second, Oakes Ames . . ... . . . . 6 00 

Gratuities : — 

John Endicott & Co., Dahlias 1 00 

James Comley, Display ......... 3 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 1 00 

Miss Helen M. Noyes, Native Plants 1 00 

September 18. 

Perennial Asters. — Display of Native or Introduced species and 

varieties, Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran . . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. P. D. Richards 4 00 

Third, John L. Gardner 3 00 

Ornamental Fruited Hardy Trees and Shrubs. — Collection of 

cut branches, named, Jackson Dawson . . . . . 8 00 

Second, Jackson Dawson ........ 6 00 

Gratuities : — 

Walter E. Coburn, Aster Novce Anglice . . . . . . 1 00 

James Anderson, Display ......... 2 00 

Mrs.E. M. Gill " . . 2 00 

September 25. 

Gratvity : — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display 1 00 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

October 9, 
Gratuities : — 

H. A. Wheeler, Fetunias . $1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display 1 00 

Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran, Display of Native Plants . . 2 00 

October 16. 

Chrysanthemums. — Six blooms, distinct named varieties, James L. 

Little . 3 00 

Second, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Newport, R.L . . . . 2 00 

Third, J. W. Howard . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Ten blooms of one variety, long stemmed, in vase, Cornelius 

Vanderbilt 8 00 

Second, Cornelius Vanderbilt . . . . . . 6 00 

Third, J. W. Howard 4 00 

Gratuities : — 

J. W. Leach & Sons, Chrysanthemum Ivory . . . . . 1 00 

C. E. Richardson, Tuberous Begonias . . . . . . 1 00 

James Comley, Display ......... 2 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, » 1 00 

October 23. 
Gratuities : — 

W. N. Craig, Eucharis Amazonica 2 00 

" " " Chrysanthemums . . . . . . . 1 00 

H. A. Wheeler, " 1 00 

October 30. 
Gratuity : — 
Oakes Ames, Orchids . . 5 00 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Special Prizes. 

Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Chrysanthemums. —Twenty-five blooms of twenty-five distinct 

named varieties, E. M. Wood & Co 20 00 

Second, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Newport, R.I. . . .. . 15 00 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 10 00 

Six vases of six named varieties, ten blooms each, E. M. Wood & 

Co 30 00 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 25 00 

Third, J. W. Howard . . . . . . . . 20 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 



193 



Wood 



Souther 



Society's Prizes. 
Twelve cut blooms, Incurved, named, Joseph H. White 

Second, Charles H. Souther .... 
Twelve cut blooms, Japanese, named, David Nevins 

Second, Joseph H. White ..... 

Third, Nathaniel T. Kidder .... 
Twelve cut blooms, Japanese Incurved, named, E. M 
Co 

Second, Joseph H. White ..... 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Twelve cut blooms, Anemone, named, James L. Little 

Second, James L. Little ..... 
Six cut blooms, Incurved, named, Joseph H. White 

Second, Charles H. Souther .... 

Third, Elijah A. Wood 

Six cut blooms, Japanese, named, Charles H. Souther 

Second, James L. Little ..... 
Six cut blooms, Japanese Incurved, named, Charles H 

Second, James L. Little ..... 
Six cut blooms, Reflexed, named, Joseph H. White 

Second, Charles H. Souther .... 

Third, E. S. Converse 

Six cut blooms, Anemone, named, E. S. Converse 

Second, James L. Little ..... 

Third, J. W. Howard ...... 

Twelve sprays Pompons, not less than six named varieties, the 
third prize to J. W. Howard .... 

Twelve best varieties, named, introductions of 1897 
Finlayson . . 

Second, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems, Pink, named, C. Vanderbilt 
for Interocean ...... 

Second, H. McKay Twombly, for Viviand Morel 

Third, David Nevins, for Viviand Morel 
Vase often blooms on long stems, Red, named, David Nevins, for 
John Shrimpton ...... 

Second, E. M. Wood & Co., for Edwin Molyneux 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney, for John Shrimpton 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems, White, named, H. McKay 
Twombly, for Frank Hardy ...... 

Second, E. M. Wood & Co., for Mrs. Jerome Jones . 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney, for Mutual Friend 
Vase of ten blooms on long stems, Yellow, named, David Nevins 
for Major Bonnaf'on ....... 

Second, E. M. Wood & Co., for Golden Wedding . 

Third, Hon. John Simpkins, for Modesto .... 



Kenneth 



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00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 



1 00 



8 


00 


6 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


G 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 



194 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Vase of blooms on long stems, any other color, named, H. McKay 

Twombly, for Silver Cloud . 

Second, David Nevins, for Charles Davis 

Third, Mrs. Benjamin P. Cheney, for Mrs. George West . 
Vase of blooms on long stems, arranged in the Society's large 
China vases, to be kept in good condition during the exhibi- 
tion, E. M. Wood & Co. . 
Second, Hon. John Simpkins 
Third, Miss Eleanor J- Clark 
Fourth, Charles H. Souther 
Fifth, David Nevins . 
Sixth, W. N. Craig . 
Seventh, J. W. Howard 
Best Seedling, never disseminated, Yellow, six blooms, C. Vander- 

bilt, Newport, R.I., for Peter Kay . 
Best Seedling, never disseminated, Incurved, of any color,- six 
blooms, Joseph H. White, for Mrs. Gertrude Brydon 

Gratuities : — 
Frank Jones, Display of Chrysanthemums 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Chrysanthemums .... 

William Nicholson, Carnations and Chrysanthemums 
Peter Fisher, Carnations ...... 

James Comley, Display ...... 



$10 


00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


20 


00 


18 


00 


16 


00 


14 


00 


12 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 



November 13. 

Gratuity : — 

Mrs. E. M.Gill, Chrysanthemums . 



1 00 



SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDALS. 

Spring Exhibition, March 23. James Comley, for a new variety of Japanese 
Flowering Cherry. 

May 22. Carl Jurgens, Newport, EL, for Gonvallaria prolificans. 

Rhododendron Show, June 3. James Comley, for new hardy Rhododen- 
dron James Comley. 

Rose Exhibition, June 22. M. H. Walsh, for Rose Lilian Nordica. 

August 21. Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, for a Collection of new Cannas. 

Chrysanthemum Show, November 2. J. J. Van Alen, for Hybrid Begonia 
semperjlorens . 

APPLETON GOLD MEDAL. 

Rhododendron Show, June 3. Hon. C. G. Roebling, Trenton, N.J., for a 
Collection of Orchids. 



December 31. 



31 



APPLETON SILVER MEDAL. 
N. T. Kidder, he having taken the greatest number of First 

Prizes for Hardy Herbaceous Perennials through the 

season. 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, she having taken the greatest number 

of First Prizes for Native Plants through the season. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FLOWERS. 195 



APPLETON BRONZE MEDAL. 

December 31. Jacob W. Manning, he having taken the second greatest 
number of First Prizes for Hardy Herbaceous Perennials 
through the season. 
" 31. Misses Eleanor and Mollie Doran, they having taken the 

second greatest number of First Prizes for Native Plants 
through the season. 

KELWAY SILVER GILT MEDAL. 

June 19. Kenneth Finlayson, for the best Collection of eighteen named 
varieties of Pceonia albijiora, single or double. 

KELWAY BRONZE MEDAL. 

June 19. T. 0. Thurlow, for the second best Collection of eighteen named 
varieties of Pceonia albijiora, single or double. 

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

January 23. H. A. Cook, for Carnation Nivea. 

February 13. John N. May, Summit, N. J., for Carnation Lily Dean. 

" 20. Jacob W. Manning, for Ilemerocallis aurantiaca major. 

April 24. F. A. Blake, Rochdale, for Seedling Carnation Bon Ton. 
May 22. Miellez Horticultural Company, for Lily of the Valley. 
Rhododendron Show, June 3. Hon. C. G. Roebling, Trenton, N.J., for 

Lselio-Cattleya C. G. Roebling. 
" " " " W. A. Manda, South Orange, N.J., for Lcelia 

purpurata var. South Oran- 
giensis. 
" " " " " " for Lilium longijlorum foliis 

alba marginata. 
Paeony Exhibition, June 19. George Hollis, for Seedling Paeony George 

Washington. 
Rose Exhibition, June 22. W. A. Manda, South Orange, N.J., for new- 
Rose, a cross between Rosa 
Wichuraiana and Perle des 
Jardins. 
" " " " for new Rose, a cross between 

Rosa Wichuraiana and 
Madame Hoste. 
" " " M. H. Walsh, for Rose Joseph S. Fay. 

July 3. T. C. Thurlow, for Rhus cotinus atropurpureus. 
" " W. H. Cowing, for Rosa lucida alba. 
" 24. James L. Little, for Begonia Haageana. 
" " Harvard Botanic Garden, for Podophyllum Emodi. 
August 21. Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, for Nymphcea Falconerii. 
" " " " " " for Canna Allemania. 

" " " " " " for Gladiolus White Lady. 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

September 1L. Robert Cameron, for Aster Novce Anglice. 

October 30. I. E. Coburn, for a Collection of Pansies. 

Chrysanthemum Show, November 2. Peter Fisher, for Carnation Mrs. T. W. 

Lawson. 
" << " " Hugh Graham, Philadelphia, for Chrys- 

anthemum Pennsylvania. 

HONORABLE MENTION. 

January 16. Hugh Graham, Philadelphia, for new Carnation Victor. 
April 10. F. A. Blake, for new scarlet Seedling Carnation Bon Ton. 
June 3. James Comley, for new hardy Rhododendron William Power 
Wilson. 
" 22. W. A. Manda, South Orange, N.J., for Lcelia elegans Mandiana. 
July 10. John L. Gardner, for new Seedling Delphinium. 
" 31. " " " for new Seedling Delphinium. 

August 21. Henry A. Dreer, Philadelphia, for Double and Fringed Petunias. 

" George Hollis, for a sport of Vallota purpurea. 
September 11. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Newport, R.I., for Fringed Tuberous 

Begonias. 
Chrysanthemum Show, November 2. Joseph Hilbert, Nyack, N.Y., for a 

sport of Swainsonia. 
" " " " A. Roper, for Carnation Mayor Quincy. 

COMPLIMENTARY NOTICE. 
February 6. A. Roper, for new Carnation Roper's Seedling. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, 



FOB THE YEAR 1897. 



By E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 



The fruit crop of the present year, as indicated by our exhibi- 
tions, was below the average of the last few years. While there 
was no absolute failure in any particular line of fruit, the natural 
conditions were unfavorable for the best results. There was less 
injury to the peach buds and to the strawberry, raspberry, and 
blackberry plants than usual, but the excessive amount of moisture 
and the limited amount of sunshine were unfavorable to the growth 
and maturity of the small fruits. 

It being the off year for apples, the quantity shown and the 
quality of the exhibits compared unfavorably with the preceding 
year. The constant repetition of a biennial apple crop suggests 
the effort to change the bearing year of a portion of the orchard, 
especially of the late varieties, which may be clone by removing 
the blossoms for two or three successive bearing years on young 
or newly grafted trees. 

Seldom, if ever, has the pear crop been more abundant, and 
except when carefully thinned the fruit was inferior in size and 
quality. There was a large quantity of pears shown at the Annual 
Exhibition, and while there were comparatively few specimens 
deserving special mention, there were fewer than usual that did not 
do credit to the growers and the Exhibition. 

Peaches were shown in larger quantity than for several years. 
Some exhibits were of superior quality, while others showed 
unmistakable signs of being the product of diseased trees. 

Plums were fairly represented. The increase in the number and 
quantity of Japanese varieties was especially noticeable, and they 
will doubtless prove a valuable addition to the list of plums here- 
tofore under cultivation. 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HOR1ICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

At the Strawberry Prohibition all popular varieties were well 
represented. The Marshall, as in previous years, won all the 
prizes where it was in competition. There has been complaint 
from some of the commercial growers that it has not proved 
sufficiently productive, while others have found it the most profit- 
able variety they have grown. Whatever may be the final con- 
sensus of opinion as to its value as a field berry, there can be no 
question as to its superiority for the amateur and for exhibition. 
Several new seedlings were shown requiring further cultivation to 
establish their standing. Of recent introductions the Clyde seems 
to be the most popular variety. The fruit is of medium size and 
fair quality ; the plant is a strong grower, and, as far as tested, 
proves remarkably productive. It will be placed on the premium 
list for 1898. 

A pleasing and encouraging feature of our exhibitions has been 
the steady but constant improvement of the fruit placed on exhi- 
bition. The exhibitors are more careful in the selection and 
arrangement of their specimens, and where the competition is 
between single dishes of the same varieties there is little encourage- 
ment to compete with inferior or imperfect specimens. 

Campbell's Early Grape was shown at three exhibitions, and the 
specimens were an improvement in appearance and quality over 
those exhibited last year. There were seedling apples, pears, and 
grapes from other States shown during the season, but the Com- 
mittee could not, after careful examination, discover any single 
point of excellence over similar fruits already in general cultivation. 

Most of our new fruits have been chance seedlings. The fruit 
growers have hardly kept pace with the florists in improvement by 
cross-fertilization, as note the improvement in the rose, chrysan- 
themum, and carnation within the last ten years. Cross-breeding 
of animals shows what may be accomplished by intelligent and 
persevering effort and the selection of parents with a definite object 
in view. Fruits and flowers seem equally susceptible of improve- 
ment by cross-fertilization. 

The Committee have awarded in prizes and gratuities $1,604, 
leaving an unexpended balance of $196. 

E. W. Wood, 

O. B. Hadwen, 

> Committee. 
Samuel Hartwell, 



Warren Fenno 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



199 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 

1897. 
SPRING EXHIBITION. 



March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 

Winter Apples. — Baldwin, J. V. Fletcher 

Second, John W. Clark 

Third, Charles W. Boyden 
Northern Spy, F. J. Boyden 

Second, George V. Fletcher 

Third, George C. Rice 
Roxbury Russet, H. R. Kinney 

Second, George V. Fletcher 

Third, Charles C. Boyden 
Tompkins King, George C. Rice 

Second, F. J. Kinney 

Third, Charles C. Boyden 
Any other variety, George C. Rice, Yellow Bellflower 

Second, George C. Rice, Palmer 

Third, George V. Fletcher, Rhode Island Greening 
Strawberries. — One pint, E. S. Converse 

Gratuity : — 
Jackson Dawson, Strawberry plants in fruit 



May 29. 



Gratuity : — 
William Brown, Hothouse peaches 



$3 00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 00 



2 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 3 and 4. 



Gratuity : — 
E. S- Converse, Nectarines 



1 00 



Gratuities : — 
Hon. Joseph S. Fay, Strawberries 
W. N. Craig, " 

William Doran & Son, " 



June 12. 



2 00 

1 00 
1 00 



June 19. 
Gratuity : — 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Strawberries 



2 00 



200 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 
Special Prizes from the Theodore Lyman Fund. 
Strawberries. — Four quarts of any variety, Varnum Frost, Mar- 



varieties 



shall ...... 

Second, George E. Home, Marshall . 
Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Marshall 
Fourth, Warren Heustis & Son, " 

Fifth, George V. Fletcher, 

Special Prizes offered by the Society. 
Two quarts of any variety, best adapted for garden cultivation, for 
home use, to be judged by points, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, 

Marshall 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, Marshall .... 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn, Jessie . 

Fourth, George V. Fletcher, Marshall 

Regular Prizes. 

For the largest and best collection, not less than twenty baskets of 
two quarts each, and not less than five varieties, George F 
Wheeler .... 

Second, I. E. Coburn 
Ten baskets of two quarts each, not less than three 
George F. Wheeler . 

Second, I. E. Coburn 
Five baskets, two quarts each, of one variety, George E. Home 
Two quarts of Belmont, George V. Fletcher 

Second, Varnum Frost 
Bubach, George E. Home 

Second, I. E. Coburn 

Third, George V. Fletcher 
Champion, George E. Home . . . 
Charles Downing, Miss Mary S. Walke 

Second, George F. Wheeler ■ 

Third, William Doran & Son 
Crescent, George F. Wheeler 

Second, I. E. Coburn 

Third, Rev. C. Terry 
Haverland, I. E. Coburn . ' 

Second, John C. Haskell . 

Third, George F. Wheeler 
Hersey, George F. Wheeler . 
Jessie, George V. Fletcher 

Second, I. E.'Coburn 

Third, George F. Wheeler 



$20 00 

16 00 

12 00 

10 00 

8 00 



6 00 
5 00 
4 00 
3 00 



25 


00 


20 


00 


15 


00 


12 


00 


8 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



201 



E 



Leader, William Doran & Son 

Second, George F. Wheeler 

Third, E. S. Converse 
Marshall, Varnum Frost 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 

Third, George E. Home 
Miner's Prolific, Charles S. Smith . 

Second, George F. Wheeler 
Parker Earle, I. E. Coburn . 

Second, George F. Wheeler 
Sharpless, George E. Home . 

Second, William Doran & Son . 
Timbrell, the second prize to William Doran & Son 
Any other variety, George F. Wheeler, Enormous 

Second, S. H. Warren, Clyde . . 

Third, I. E. Coburn, Beverly .... 
Collection, not less than six varieties, one quart each, I.. 

Second, George F. Wheeler 
One quart of any new variety, not previously exhibited 
Warren, Seedling No. 3 .... 

Second, George E. Home, Seedling . 
Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety, O. R. Robbins 

Second, George V. Fletcher . . 

Third, Edwin Hastings 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, 
White . . . . . . . 

Second, William C. Winter . . 
Forced Peaches. — Six of any variety, A. Packard 

Second, William C. Winter .... 

Gratuity : — 
Edmund Hersey, Cranberries . . . . 

June 26. 

Two quarts of any variety, Warren Heustis & 



. Coburn. 
, S. H 



Joseph H 



$4 00 



Strawberries. 

Son ...... 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay 
Third, E. L. Smith 



Gratuity : — 
Thomas Harrison, Cherries ...... 

July 3. 

Cherries. — Two quarts of Black Eagle, E. S. Converse 
Second, Frederick W. Damon . 
Third, A. F. Coolidge 
Black Tartarian, George V. Fletcher 
Second, Charles B. Travis . 
Third, Edwin Hastings 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
2 00 
8 00 
6 00 



5 00 
4 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 

1 00 



4 00 
3 00 
2 00 

1 00 



3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



202 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



Coe's Transparent, John L. Bird . 

Downer, M. W. Chadbourne 

Any other variety, Charles B. Travis, Elton . 

Second, Charles S. Smith, Governor Wood 

Third, George V. Fletcher 



Gratuities : ■ — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Strawberries 
William C. Winter, Foreign Grapes . 
E. S. Converse, Peaches . 
William Doran & Son, Collection 



July 10. 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Benjamin G. Smith 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Currants. — Two quarts of any Red variety, W. N. Craig, Fay's 

Second, Sumner Coolidge, Fay's 

Third, William Doran & Son, Versaillaise 

Fourth, W. N. Craig, Versaillaise 
Two quarts of any White variety, Frederick W. Damon 

Second, Mrs. Arthur W. Blake . 

Third, E. S. Converse 
Gooseberries. — Two quarts of any variety 
Joseph S. Chase, Triumph 

Second, W. N. Craig, Columbus 

Third, W. G. Kendall, Chatauqua 

Fourth, Starkes Whiton, Bates's Seedling 

Gratuities : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Marshall Strawberries 
M. W. Chadbourne, Cherries . 
E. S. Chapell, " ... 



of American origin 



July 17. 
Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Benjamin G. Smith 

Second, William Doran & Son, Franconia 

Third, William Doran & Son, Antwerp . . 
Currants. — One quart of any Red variety, W. N. Craig, Versail- 
laise .... ........ 

Second, Sumner Coolidge 

Third, W. N. Craig, Fay's 

One quart of any White variety, Francis Blake, White Grape 
Second, George V. Fletcher, White Grape . 

Gooseberries. — Two quarts of any Foreign variety, Benjamin G. 

Smith, Hero of the Nile 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Green Ocean . 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, Ashton 

Fourth, W. N. Craig, Industry 



$3 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



203 



Gratuities : — 

Charles S. Smith, Cherries 

Vera Chapell, " 

A. H. Griesa, Lawrence, Kansas, for Superb Apricot, a^First^Class 

Certificate of Merit. 

July 24. 

Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, M. W. Chadbourne 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 
Apples. — Tetofsky, Sumner Coolidge 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne 

Third, Samuel Hartwell 
Pears. — Summer Doyenne, E. S. Converse 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 

Third, Warren Fenno 
Peaches. — Six of any variety, William C. Winter 

Second, W. D. Hinds .... 



$1 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



Gratuities : — 

P. Murray Winter, Seedling Gooseberry 
James L. Little, Seedling Gooseberries 
W. D. Hinds, Collection of Raspberries 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



July 31. 

Apples. — Red Astrachan, Frederick W. Damon . . . . 3 00 

Second, William C. Winter 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno 1 00 

Sweet Bough, George V. Fletcher 3 00 

Second, Charles B. Travis 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno 1 00 

Any other variety, Sumner Coolidge, Williams's Favorite . . 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Pears. —Giffard, Ruf us T. Tobey 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Emmons 2 00 

Third, A. T. Brown . . 1 00 

Any other variety, Mrs. S. Klaus, Clapp's Favorite . . . 3 00 

Second, A. T. Brown " " . . . . 2 00 

Third, Sumner Coolidge " " . . . . 1 00 

Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Sumner Coolidge . 3 00 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne 2 00 

Third, Francis Blake 1 00 

Peaches. — Outdoor culture, any variety, William G. Prescott . 3 00 

Second, Francis Blake 2 00 

Third, N. D. Harrington 1 00 



204 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



August 7. 
Apples. — Oldenburg, J. V. Fletcher .... 
Any other variety, Frederick W. Damon, Red Astrachan 
Second, Warren Fenno, Red Astrachan 
Third, George V. Fletcher, Sweet Bough 
Pears. — Clapp's Favorite, Mrs. S. Klaus 
Second, Sumner Coolidge 
Third, A. T. Brown .... 
Any other variety, Frederick W. Damon 
Second, Warren Fenno 
Peaches. — Twelve specimens of outdoor culture, any variety 
George H. Sherwin, Hale's Early . 
Second, Charles F. Curtis, Hale's Early 
Third, Francis Blake, Amsden . 
Six specimens, cold house or pot culture, William C. Winter 
Plums. — Japanese, any variety, T. A. Greenleaf, Abundance 
Second, W. D. Hinds, Burbank ..... 

Third, W. D. Hinds, Abundance 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, Miss Eleanor J 
Clark, Pomfret, C6nn., Black Hamburg 
Second, E. S. Converse, Syrian . . . 



$3 00 
3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

5 00 

4 00 



August 14. 

Apples. — Summer Pippin, Samuel Hartwell . 

Second, Warren Fenno . 
Williams's Favorite, Joshua C. Stone . 

Second, Charles F. Curtis .... 

Third, Sumner Coolidge .... 
Any other variety, H. F. Tuttle, Red Astrachan 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Gravenstein 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Bietigheimer 
Pears. — Rostiezer, M. W. Chadbourne . 

Second, S. F. & F. L. Weston 

Third, A. T. Brown . 
Tyson, Leverett M. Chase 

Second, John L. Bird 

Third, Clifford R. Weld . 
Any other variety, Sumner Coolidge, Clapp's Favorite 

Second, Mrs. S. Klaus, " " 

Third, A. T. Brown, " « 

Peaches. — Any variety, Sumner Coolidge, Early Rivers 

Second, E. S. Converse, Royal George .... 

Third, H. F. Tuttle, Early Rivers 

Plums. — Japanese, any variety, William C. Winter, Abundance 

Second, W. D. Hinds, Abundance 

Third, W. D. Hinds, Burbank . . 



3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 



1 00 



00 
00 
00- 
00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



PHIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 205 

Gratuities : — 

Joseph S. Chase, Collection of Japanese Plums . . . $1 00 

William C. Winter, Cold House Peaches . . ...... . . 1 00 

August 21. 

Apples. — Foundling, the second prize to Warren Fenno . ' . 2 00 

Gravenstein, Samuel Hartwell . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 2 00 

Third, W. D. Hinds 1 00 

Maiden's Blush, Warren Fenno 3 00 

Second, William C. Winter ........ . . .• . . 2 00 

Third, Joshua C. Stone . . . . . . . 1 00 

Porter, M. W. Chadbourne 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell . 1 00 

Any other variety, Joshua C. Stone, Williams's Favorite . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Summer Pippin . . . . 2 00 

Third, W. D. Hinds, Williams's Favorite ..... 1 00 

Pears. — Andrews, E. S. Converse . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone ..'.'. . . . . 2 00 

Bartlett, William Milman .... . . . ' . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. S. Klaus . . . . • . . . . 2 00 

Third, A. T. Brown 1 00 

Souvenir du Congres, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne 1 00 

Any other variety, Mrs. S. Klaus . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, J. L. Duncan ........ 2 00 

Third, A. T. Brown . . . ..... . 1 00 

Peaches. — Collection, the third prize to W. D. Hinds . . . 2 00 

Single dish of any variety, Sumner Coolidge . . . . 3 00 

Second, Francis Blake 2 00 

Third, T. A. Greenleaf 1 00 

Plums. — Bradshaw, George V. Fletcher 3 00 

Second, William H. Hunt 2 00 

Any other variety, Sumner Coolidge, Abundance . . . 3 00 

Second, T. A. Greenleaf, " .... 2 00 

Third, W. D. Hinds, " . . . . 1 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

September 1 and 2. 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of Black Alicante, Miss Eleanor 

J. Clark, Pomfret, Conn 5 00 

Black Hamburg, Miss E. J. Clark 5 00 

Second, E. S. Converse . . 4 00 



206 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Golden Hamburg, Miss E. J. Clark 

Lady Dowries, the second prize to E. S. Converse 

Muscat of Alexandria, Joseph H. White 

Second, E. S. Converse 

Any other variety, E. S. Converse, Blue Chasselas 

Second, William C. Winter, Frontignan . 

Third, E. S. Converse, Red Chasselas 



$5 00 

4 00 

5 00 

4 00 

5 00 
4 00 
3 00 



September 4. 
Gratuity : — 
C. R. Safford, Crawford's Early Peaches . 



1 00 



September 11. 

Apples. — Gravenstein, Samuel Hartwell . . . . 3 00 

Second, C. L. Hartshorn 2 00 

Third, Charles S. Smith ." 1 00 

Maiden's Blush, W. G. Kendall 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno 2 00 

Third, H. R. Kinney 1 00 

Porter, M. W. Chadbourne 3 00 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 2 00 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 1 00 

Pumpkin Sweet, Samuel Hartwell 3 00 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Washington Strawberry . . 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone, " " . . 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, Twenty Ounce . . . . 1 00 

Crab Apples. — Twenty-four specimens of Transcendent, Warren 

Fenno . . . . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Any other variety, M. W. Chadbourne, Hyslop . . . . 2 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone, Hyslop . . . . . 1 00 

Pears. — Bartlett, William Milman . . 3 00 

Second, Sumner Coolidge 2 00 

Third, Mrs. S. Klaus . . 1 00 

Belle Lucrative, Charles E. Richardson . . . . . 3 00 

Second, E. S. Converse 2 00 

Third, A. T. Brown . . . 1 00 

Boussock, Sumner Coolidge . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, W. H. Chipman 2 00 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne ........ 1 00 

Hardy, Warren Fenno 3 00 

Second. Mrs. E. M. Gill 2 00 

Third, Rufus T. Tobey 1 00 

Paradise of Autumn, William Milman 3 00 

Second, Leverett M. Chase 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



207 



Any other variety, Charles E. Swain, Bosc $3 00 

Second, Mrs. S. Klaus, Seckel ' . 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, Souvenir du Congres . . . . 1 00 

Peaches. — Coolidge's Favorite, Sumner Coolidge . . . . 3 00 

Second, Charles S. Smith 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell 1 00 

Crawford's Early, N. D. Harrington 3 00 

Second, Francis Blake . 2 00 

Third, F. W. Mendum 1 00 

Crosby, W. D. Hinds . . 3 00 

Second, T. A. Greenleaf 2 00 

Foster, Charles F. Curtis . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Bowman Kenrick ........ 2 00 

Third, C. R. Safford 1 00 

Oldmixon Freestone, Sumner Coolidge 3 00 

Second, Bowman Kenrick ........ 2 00 

Third, Elliott Moore 1 00 

Stump the World, Leverett M. Chase 3 00 

Second, Louville Curtis ........ 2 00 

Third, T. A. Greenleaf' 100 

Any other variety, T. A. Greenleaf, Mountain Rose . . . 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Champion . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Rufus T. Tobey, Mountain Rose . . . . . 1 00 
Peaches, Orchard House Culture. — Any variety, Miss Alice 

Carey 4 00 

Second, Joseph H. White 3 00 

Nectarines, Outdoor Culture. — Any variety, C. C. Donnell . 4 00 

Second, Francis Blake ........ 3 00 

Plums. — Imperial Gage, George V. Fletcher . . . . . 3 00 

Second, William H. Hunt 2 00 

Lombard, John L. Bird . . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. S. Klaus 2 00 

Third, Leverett M. Chase 1 00 

Washington, Charles F. Curtis 3 00 

Any other variety, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, Pond's Seedling . . 3 00 

Second, George V. Fletcher, Bradshaw 2 00 

Third, William C. Winter, Yellow Egg 1 00 

Japanese Plums, any variety, T. A. Greenleaf, Satsuma . . 3 00 

Second, W. D. Hinds, Burbank 2 00 

Native Grapes. — Six bunches of Eumelan, Benjamin G. Smith . 3 00 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 2 00 

Massasoit, Joseph S. Chase ........ 3 00 

Second, F. J. Kinney 2 00 

Moore's Early, Frederick W. Damon 3 00 

Second, C. R. Robbins 2 00 

Third, F. J. Kinney 1 00 



208 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Any other variety, George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, Camp 

bell's Early 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Wilder .... 
Third, H. R. Kinney, Green Mountain 
Any variety from girdled vines, F. J. Kinney, Worden 
Second, F. J. Kinney, Moore's Early . 

Third, H. R. Kinney, Agawam 

Figs. — Any variety, the second prize to William McRoberts 



$3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



September 18. 
Gratuities : — 

Horace Eaton, Peaches . ... . . . . . 1 00 

William Everett, Souvenir du Congres Pears . . . . . 1 00 

September 25. 

Gratuity : — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Seedling Peaches . . . . . 1 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

September 30 and October 1. 

Special Prizes from the Samuel Appleton Fund. 

Apples. — Baldwin, Joshua C. Stone 5 00 

Hubbardston, M. W. Chadbourne 5 00 

Pears. — Bosc, Sumner Coolidge 5 00 

Sheldon, Frederick W. Damon . 5 00 

Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Apples. — Gravenstein, C. L. Hartshorn 5 00 

Rhode Island Greening, C. L. Hartshorn ..... 5 00 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Pears. — Anjou, William Milman 4 00 

Second, Mrs. S. Klaus . . ... . . . 3 00 

Third, George V. Fletcher . 2 00 

Fourth, Sumner Coolidge . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Bartlett, A. T. Brown 4 00 

Second, George V. Fletcher 3 00 

Third, William Milman 2 00 

Fourth, Leverett M. Chase . . . . . . 1 00 

Native Grapes. —Twelve bunches of Concord, H. R. Kinney . 4 00 

Second, George W. Jameson 3 00 

Third, F. J. Kinney 2 00 

Twelve bunches of Worden, F. J. Kinney 4 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell 3 00 

Third, H. R. Kinney 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS, 



209 



Regular Prizes, Theodore Lyman^Fund 

Apples. — Baldwin, Sumner Coolidge 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 
Dutch Codlin, Warren Fenno 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . 
Holden, the second prize to EL R. Kinney 

Third, Charles S. Smith . 
Fameuse, H. Whittaker 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne . 
Fletcher Russet, John Fletcher 

Second, William H. Teele . 

Third, Charles F. Curtis . 
Gloria Mundi, Samuel Hartwell 
Golden Russet, Henry E. Rich 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 
Gravenstein, Benjamin M. Smith 

Second, C. L. Hartshorn . 

Third, Charles S. Smith . 
Hubbardston, Mrs. Rose Buxton 

Second, John Parker . 

Third, Samuel Hartwell 
Hunt Russet, Samuel Hartwell 

Second, William H. Teele . 

Third, S. P. Buxton . 
Mackintosh, F. J. Kinney 

Second, George C. Rice 

Third, C. M. Handley 
Maiden's Blush, Warren Fenno 
Northern Spy, William S. Janvrin 

Second, Henry E. Rich 

Third, George V. Fletcher 
Porter, the second prize to George V. Fletcher 

Third, Frederick W. Damon 
Pound Sweet, George V. Fletcher 

Second, Samuel Hartwell . 
Rhode Island Greening, C. L. Hartshorn 

Second, A. H. Newton 

Third, Henry E. Rich 
Roxbury Russet, Jacob A. Leonard 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . 

Third, Warren Fenno 
Sutton, C. L. Hartshorn 

Second, Henry E. Rich 
Tolman's Sweet, Jacob A. Leonard 



$4 


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210 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Tompkins King, George C. Rice $3 00 

Second, E. L. Conant 2 00 

Third, F. J. Kinney . . ' . 1 00 

Any other variety, F. J. Kinney, Washington Strawberry . . 3 00 

Second, George C. Rice, Fallawater . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, George C. Rice, Yellow Bellflower . . . . 1 00 

Crab Apples. — Hyslop, twenty-four specimens, J. L. Richardson, 2 00 

Second, C. L. Hartshorn . 1 00 

Edible Nuts. — Collection, named, Parry's Pomona Nurseries, 

Parry, N.J. . . . . 10 00 

Special Prizes offered by the Society. 

Pears. — Anjou, A. K. Gould 5 00 

Seckel, Joshua C. Stone 5 00 

Peaches. — Any variety, Francis Blake . . . . . . 5 00 

Native Grapes. — Any variety, Mount Vernon Nursery . . 5 00 

Society's Regular Prizes. 

Pears. — Angouleme, W. S. Janvrin 4 00 

Second, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Third, Mrs. Emmons 2 00 

Fourth, Frederick W. Damon 1 00 

Bosc, E. S. Converse 4 00 

Second, Orlendo W. Diraick .... . . . 3 00 

Third, A. T. Brown 2 00 

Fourth, Mary E. Walker . . 1 00 

Clairgeau, W. S. Janvrin 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno . 2 00 

Third, Sumner Coolidge . . 1 00 

Cornice, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Emmons 2 00 

Third, Frederick W. Damon . 1 00 

Dana's Hovey, A. T. Brown . 4 00 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 3 00 

Third, E. W. Wood 2 00 

Fourth, George V. Fletcher . 1 00 

Diel, A. T. Brown s 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Emmons . . . . * . . . . . 1 00 

Fulton, E. S. Converse 3 00 

Second, S. F. & F. L. Weston 2 00 

Third, John Ward 1 00 

Hardy, Charles F. Curtis 3 00 

Second, William Milman 2 00 

Third, Rufus T. Tobey 1 00 

Howell, Warren Fenno ......... 3 00 

Second, A. K. Gould '. . . 2 00 

Third, S. F. & F. L. Weston l 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 211 

Josephine of Malines, Warren Fenno $3 00 

Lawrence, W. S. Janvrin . . 3 00 

Second, A. T. Brown 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Swain 1 00 

Louise Bonne of Jersey, Francis Blake . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, A. T. Brown . . . . 2 00 

Third, Charles E. Richardson 1 00 

Marie Louise, Charles E. Swain 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Jones 1 00 

Merriam, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son . . ... . . . 1 00 

Seckel, David Perkins 4 00 

Second, N. D. Harrington 3 00 

Third, Mrs. J. W. Porter 2 00 

Fourth, Mrs. S. Klaus 1 00 

Sheldon, N. D. Harrington . . 4 00 

Second, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Third, Frederick W. Damon 2 00 

Fourth, Sumner Coolidge ........ 1 00 

St. Michael Archangel, T. M. Davis 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno ........ 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 1 00 

Superfin, Warren Fenno ........ 3 00 

Second, Sumner Coolidge ........ 2 00 

Third, Clifford R. Weld 1 00 

Urbaniste, Mrs. Emmons . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, A. T. Brown 2 00 

Third, E. S. Converse 1 00 

Vicar, A. T. Brown 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Jones ......... 2 00 

Third, E. S. Converse 1 00 

Winter Nelis, Mrs. Emmons 3 00 

Second, A. T. Brown 2 00 

Third, Clifford R. Weld 1 00 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Pratt 3 00 

Second, Rufus T. Tobey, Mount Vernon 2 00 

Third, Henry Y. Gilson, Flemish Beauty 1 00 

Quinces. — Champion, Orlendo W. Dimick 3 00 

Second, George V. Fletcher 2 00 

Third, Charles S. Smith 1 00 

Orange, Arthur F. Coolidge 3 00 

Second, J. L. Richardson ........ 2 00 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 1 00 

Pear, Benjamin G. Smith 3 00 

Second, George L. Brown ........ 2 00 

Third, George V. Fletcher 1 00 



212 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



variety, Eobert 



Rea, Warren Fenno .... 
Peaches. — Crawford's Late, E. M. Bruce 

Second, Francis Blake 

Third, H. R. Kinney . 
Any other variety, Benjamin M. Smith, Elberta 

Second, N. D. Harrington, Seedling 

Third, Charles E. Swain, Oldmixon 
Peaches, Orchard House Culture. — Any 
Leod, Newport, R.I. 

Second, Robert McLeod 
Plums. — Coe's Golden Drop, A. K. Gould 

Second, William C. Winter 
Yellow Egg, George V. Fletcher 
Any other variety, P. G. Hanson, Jefferson 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . ' 
Native Grapes. — Six bunches of Brighton, Thomas H 

Second, Mount Vernon Nursery 

Third, Samuel Hartwell 
Delaware, Mount Vernon Nursery 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Third, Warren Fenno 
Herbert, Benjamin G. Smith . 

Second, Mount Vernon Nursery 
Iona, Mount Vernon Nursery 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith . 
Lindley, Benjamin G. Smith . 

Third, Frederick W. Damon 
Niagara, E. S. Converse 

Second, George A. Wills . 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith . 
Pocklington, Frederick W. Damon 

Second, P. G. Hanson 

Third, S. F. & F. L. Weston 
Prentiss, Mount Vernon Nursery 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith 
Wilder, Benjamin G. Smith . 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Third, F. J. Kinney . 
Any other variety, Mount Vernon Nursery, Vergennes 

Second, Frederick W. Damon, Moore's Early 

Third, Frederick W. Damon, Diamond 
Concord, from girdled vines, H. R. Kinney . 

Second, F. J. Kinney ..... 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, E. S 
Chasselas ..... 

Second, E. S. Converse, Black Alicante 



Talbot 



Con 



Mc 



erse 



$3 00 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. . 213 

Cranberries. — Half peck, L. J. Fosdick, Gloriana . . $3 00 

Second, L. J. Fosdick, McFarlin 2 00 

Third, L. J. Fosdick, Early Black 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

James Comley, Collection ......... 3 00 

Mrs. E. M.Gill, " . . . . ■ 1 00 

Robert Manning, Figs 1 00 

Ellwanger & Barry, Collection of Pears and Quinces, Appleton 

Silver Medal. 

October 16. 
Gratuities : — 

Elbridge Torrey, Sheldon Pears 1 00 

William C. Clapp, " " 1 00 

John L. Gardner, Seckel Pears ....... 1 00 

S. S. Crosby, Quinces ......... 1 00 

Frederick W. Damon, Iona Grapes ....... 1 00 

October 23. 
Gratuity : — 

William C. Clapp, Seckel Pears 1 00 

EXHIBITION OF WINTER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

November 20. 

Benjamin V. French Fund. 

Apples. — Baldwin, Mrs. A. W. Blake . . . . . . 5 00 

Society's Prizes. 

Apples. — Baldwin, Mrs. A. W. Blake 3 00 

Second, J. W. Clark 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 1 00 

Dan vers Sweet, Benjamin P. Ware ... . . 3 00 

Fletcher Russet, John Fletcher 3 00 

Second, William H. Teele 2 00 

Hubbardston, M. W. Chadbourne 3 00 

Second, John Parker 2 00 

Hunt Russet, Samuel Hartwell 3 00 

Second, William H. Teele 2 00 

Third, F. J. Boyden 1 00 

Northern Spy, William O'Connell . 3 00 

Second, W. S. Janvrin 2 00 

Third, George V. Fletcher 1 00 

Rhode Island Greening, George V. Fletcher 3 00 

Second, H. A. Wheeler 2 00 

Third, F. J. Boyden 1 00 



214 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Roxbury Russet, George V. Fletcher 

Second, Warren Fenno 

Third, F. J. Boyden . 
Tolman's Sweet, A. E. Underwood 
Tompkins King, John W. Clark 

Second, George C. Rice 

Third, Walter E. Overend . 
Any other variety, A. E. Underwood, Yellow 

Second, O. R. Miller, Ben Davis 

Third, F. J. Boyden, Palmer 
Pears. — Angouleme, A. T. Brown 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Third, Warren Fenno 

Fourth, Mrs. Emmons 
Anjou, George V. Fletcher 

Second, William O'Connell 

Third, Mrs. S. Klaus . 

Fourth, William Milman 
Clairgeau, Warren Fenno 

Second, W. S. Janvrin 

Third, William T. Hall 
Cornice, A. T. Brown 

Second, Mrs. Emmons 

Third, Frederick W. Damon 

Fourth, Walter E. Overend 
Dana's Hovey, A. T. Brown . 

Second, Frederick W. Damon 

Third, George V. Fletcher 

Fourth, Warren Fenno 
Diel, Mrs. Emmons 

Second, Mrs. Whitney 

Third, A. T. Brown . 
Glout Morceau, E. A. Hall 

Second, W. H. Chipman 

Third, Clifford R. Weld 
Josephine of Malines, Warren Fenno 

Second, Walter E. Overend 

Third, John L. Bird . 
Langelier, Mrs. S. Klaus 

Second, Clifford R. Weld 

Third, T. M. Davis . 
Lawrence, W. S. Janvrin 

Second, A. T. Brown . 

Third, Rufus T. Tobey 
Vicar, Mrs. Jones . 

Second, A. T. Brown . 

Third, F. H. Gilson . 



Bellflower 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



215 



Winter Nelis, Mrs. Emmons ...... 

Second, A. T. Brown ....... 

Third, T. M. Davis 

Any other variety, William Milman, Mount Vernon 

Second, A. T. Brown, Bosc ..... 

Third, Frederick W. Damon, Sheldon 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, George 
William, Alicante ....... 

Second, George Mc William, Lady Downes 

Third, George McWilliam, Mrs. Pearson . 

Gratuity : — 
George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, Seedling Grape, Campbell's Early, 
First Class Certificate of Merit. 



Mc 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



By CHARLES N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 



The past season has been an unusually trying one to the growers 
of vegetables. Owing to the too frequent rains, followed by cold 
cloudy weather during the growing season, many crops suffered 
severely, while some of the leading ones proved almost entire 
failures. It follows as a natural consequence that some of our 
exhibitions were to a greater or less extent affected from this 
cause. Yet, notwithstanding all the drawbacks and discourage- 
ments with which our contributors had to contend, the exhibits 
have on the whole been more satisfactory than we were led to 
expect. 

Good cultivation, it is true* enters largely into our success as 
tillers of the soil, but it does not follow that he who tills best shall 
always have the largest yield. It matters not how fertile the soil 
when climatic influences are adverse. So much depends on 
atmospheric conditions during certain periods of plant growth that, 
although all other requisites are complete, total failures are some- 
times the inevitable result, some sections being blest with abundant 
crops, while those of others are poor and imperfect. The culti- 
vator, of all men, must continually feel himself at the mercy of 
the elements ; he can never count with safety upon a crop until it 
is harvested. 

During the winter months forced vegetables have been shown in 
about the usual quantit}' and variet}', most of the prizes having 
been competed for and awarded. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 217 

On nearly every Saturday from the 2d of January to the 27th 
of November creditable exhibits of vegetables (forced or other) 
have been made in greater or less quantity, many of them of great 
excellence. 

The weekly summer shows, while not presenting any extraor- 
dinary features, have generally been good, each week bringing 
many exhibitors and quite a throng of interested visitors, who 
seemed always ready to express their appreciation of the variety 
of objects placed upon the tables for their inspection. 

As a complete list of contributors and the awards made to each 
constitutes a part of this report, we shall not attempt to describe, 
in detail, the exhibits made, but will only mention such as appear 
to be deserving of special notice, either as new or out of the 
ordinary line of exhibits. 

The first of this kind which claimed our attention were some 
extraordinarily fine and well-grown specimens of Mushrooms (Aga- 
ricus campestris) shown by A. W. Crockford, February 6, and later, 
on several occasions, by James Comley, whose specimens have 
rarely, if ever, been excelled. May 15 P. G. Hanson showed 
remarkably large and well-grown Asparagus — four bunches, con- 
taining twelve stalks each, which weighed 10 lbs. 

A new Pea was exhibited June 26 and July 3 by G-eorge D. 
Moore, under the name of Henderson's 1897, receiving the first 
prize on both occasions. The pods were large and well filled with 
peas of excellent quality, as we can testify from trial. We con- 
sider it a decided acquisition and worthy of trial. 

We must not fail to mention the splendid specimens of Green- 
flesh Melons shown by Edward Russell, August 7. We think they 
were the finest ever seen in the Hall. A single specimen tipped 
the scales at 25 J lbs. They were certainly highly creditable to 
the skill of the grower, and formed the centre of attraction at this 
show. 

By way of comparison with other seasons, it may be of interest 
to note the date of some of the first exhibits of a few of our most 
important vegetables. 

The first Asparagus of the season was shown May 1, William 
H. Hunt receiving the first prize. Peas were exhibited for the 
first time June 19, Isaac E. Coburn showing two varieties. The 
first early Potatoes came from the Joseph S. Fay estate, July 3, and 



218 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

were good enough to take all three of the prizes. The "varieties 
were the Hebron, Rose, and Savoy. June 19, from the same 
place, came excellent specimens of Cauliflowers and three varieties 
of remarkably well-grown Lettuce, all of which were ample evi- 
dence of the skill of the gardener, M. H. Walsh. Tomatoes of 
outdoor growth were seen on our tables for the first time July 10, 
Sumner Coolidge and A. W. Blake being the exhibitors. The 
variety shown was Atlantic. This crop was among those which 
were badly injured by too much rain, and, although some fine speci- 
mens were on exhibition from time to time during the season, they 
were not shown in such large quantities and perfection as in 
previous seasons. 

As usual, the closing weekly exhibition, September 11, was one 
of the most noteworthy of the season, and called forth a close 
competition from a large number of growers. There was a great 
variety, and most of the objects shown were at their best. 

The Annual Exhibition, September 30 and October 1, was good, 
creditably sustaining this department of the Society's exhibitions. 
The large array of vegetables, comprising every seasonable variety, 
completely filled the Lower Hall and attracted much attention from 
the visiting public. 

In speaking of the objects presented to the Committee for their 
examination on this occasion, we have only to say that the great 
and important feature of the exhibition was the total absence of ill- 
cultivated specimens. There were various degrees of excellence, 
it is true, but everything was excellent in its way. We may even 
add that sx>me of the poorest specimens exhibited at this show 
would have carried away the first prizes less than twenty-five years 
ago. 

The Potato and Tomato exhibits were much less in quantity 
than usual, both these crops having been more or less injured by 
unfavorable weather. The first prize for the best four varieties of 
Potatoes was awarded to F. J. Kinney, and B. S. Nickerson 
received the first for the best three varieties of Tomatoes. 

There was also a very fine show of Celery on this occasion, the 
principal exhibitors being Messrs. Heustis, Bruce, Coolidge, and 
Hartshorn. 

William N. Craig's collection of six varieties of remarkably 
well-grown Onions was deserving of special mention, he taking the 
first and second prizes in three different classes. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 219 

The interest manifested in our Native Mushrooms, noticed in 
our report last year, still continues without abatement, attracting a 
throng of interested persons at each and every exhibit that has 
been made throughout the season. All the prizes offered in the 
Schedule have been awarded. 

Before closing this report we would call the attention of con- 
tributors to important changes and alterations in the Schedule for 
the coming year. The four prizes for the best collections of 
vegetables covering fifty square feet, arranged for effect, at the 
Annual Exhibition, which have been in the Schedule for the past 
two years, have been dropped, it being the unanimous opinion of the 
Committee that the amount devoted to this purpose could be more 
advantageously employed in furthering the interests of the Society 
in a different direction. 

The amount appropriated for Vegetables for 1897 was $1,200 00 
The Committee have awarded in prizes and gratuities, 1,157 00 



Leaving an unexpended balance of . . . $43 00 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Committee, 

C. N. Brackett, Chairman. 



220 



MASSACHUSETTS HOKTI CULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR 
VEGETABLES. 

1897. 

Januart 2. 

Gratuities : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery . . . . . . , . . $1 00 

James Comley, " 1 00 

Norris R. Comley, Rhubarb . . . 1 00 

January 9. 

Radishes. — Four bunches of any variety, Arthur F. Coolidge 
Cucumbers. — Pair of any variety, Francis Blake . 

Second, Nathaniel T. Kidder 

Third, E. B. Smith . . . 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Teele 
Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Second, E. B. Smith 

Third, B. S. Nickerson 

Parsley. — Two quarts, W. N. Craig .... 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, William C. Winter, Stone 

Second, William C. Winter, Livingston's . 

Third, Francis Blake, Essex ..... 



Gratuities : — 
Hon. Aaron Low, Spinach 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mushrooms 



3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



Gratuities : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery 
Norris R. Comley, Rhubarb 



January 16. 



1 00 
1 00 



Gratuities : — 
Hon. Aaron Low, Spinach 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mushrooms 
George D. Moore, Lettuce 



January 23. 



February 6. 

Radishes. — Four bunches of any variety, Arthur F. Coolidge 
Second, Joshua C. Stone 

Cucumbers. — Pair of any variety, Francis Blake . 
Second, H. J. Lund 



1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



221 



Dandelions. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son . . . . . . $3 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, George D. Moore . . 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge 1 00 

Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, A. W. Crockford . . 3 00 

Rhubarb.— Twelve stalks, C. F. Smith . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, George Sanderson ....... 2 00 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Charles H. Hovey, South. Pasa- 
dena, Cal 3 00 

Second, Francis Blake 2 00 

Third, William C. Winter . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Celery . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " . 1 00 

Hon. Aaron Low, Spinach ........ 1 00 

A. W. Crockford, Mushrooms . . . . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " . 1 00 

February 13. 

Gratuity : — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions . . . . . . 1 00 

February 20. 

Gratuities : — 

George D. Moore, Radishes 1 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions . . . . . . . 1 00 

February 27. 

Gratuities : — 

George D. Moore, Radishes . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Hon. Aaron Low, Spinach ■ . . . . . . . 1 00 

Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection . . . , . . . 2 00 

March 6. 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mushrooms . . 1 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions 1 00 

March 13. 

Gratuities : — 

E. B. Smith, Cucumbers 1 00 

Hon. Aaron Low, Spinach . . . . . . . . 1 00 

A. W. Crockford, Radishes 1 00 

Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection 2 00 

March 20. 

Gratuities ; — 

E. B. Smith, Cucumbers 1 00 

George D. Moore, Collection 2 00 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " . . . " 1 00 



222 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 23, 24, 25, and 26. 
Prizes from the William J. Walker Fund. 
Radishes. — Four bunches of Turnip Rooted, H. R. Kinney 

Second, George D. Moore .... 

Four bunches of Long Scarlet, H. R. Kinney 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, George D. Moore 

Second, E. B. Smith 

Celery. — Four roots, the third prize to H. R. Kinney 
Dandelions. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ..... 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge . . . . 

Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, George D. Moore 

Second, D. L. Tappan ..... 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge .... 

Water Cress. — Two quarts, Benjamin P. Ware . 
Parsley. — Two quarts, W. N. Craig 

Second, H. R. Kinney ..... 

Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, A. W. Crockford 

Second, H. R. Kinney ..... 

Third, E. S. Converse 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, George Sanderson 

Second, Joshua C. Stone ..... 

Third, James Comley ...... 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Francis Blake 

Second, W. N. Craig, May's Favorite 

Third, W. N. Craig, Eclipse .... 



Gratuities : — 
Benjamin P. Ware, Brussels Sprouts 
Warren Heustis & Son, Parsley 
Hon. Aaron Low, Collection 
George D. Moore, " 



$2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

1 00 
3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

1 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 



March 27. 
Gratuity : — 

George D. Moore, Lettuce and Cucumbers 



1 00 



April 3. 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Varnum Frost 

Second, George D. Moore 

Third, E. B. Smith . 



Gratuities : — 
W. N. Craig, Tomatoes . 
Hon. Aaron Low, Dandelions 
George D. Moore, Collection 



00 
00 
00 

00 
00 
00 



PEIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 223 



April 10. 
Gratuity ; — 

James Comley, Collection . $2 00 

April 17. 
Gratuities : — 

James Comley, Mushrooms and Lettuce . . . . . . 2 00 

Mrs. E. M.Gill, Mushrooms 1 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions 1 00 

April 24. 

Gratuities ; — 

James Comley, Mushrooms ........ 1 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions . . . . . . . 1 00 

Hon. Aaron Low, Collection ........ 1 00 

MAY EXHIBITION. 

May 1. 

Prizes from the William J. Walker Fund. 

Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each, WilliamiH. Hunt, 3 00 

Second, Varnum Frost 2 00 

Third, P. G. Hanson . 1 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Varnum Frost . . . 3 00 

Second, George D. Moore . 2 00 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge . 1 00 

Spinach. — Peck, Joshua C. Stone . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 2 00 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Dandelions. — Peck, George D. Moore 2 00 

Second, Varnum Frost ........ 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads, Arthur.F. Coolidge . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joshua C. Stone ........ 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 1 00 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, Hon. Aaron Low . . . . . 2 CO 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, Cauliflowers 1 00 

H. R. Kinney, Radishes ......... 1 00 

William Nicholson, Tomatoes ........ 1 00 

W. C. Winter, » 1 00 

James Comley, Mushrooms ........ 2 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Dandelions . . . ... . . 1 00 

W.N.Craig, Collection 3 00 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " 2 00 

Hon. Aaron Low, " 1 00 



224 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



May 8. 



Gratuities ; — 
P. G. Hanson, Asparagus . 
Warren Heustis & Son, Rhubarb 
Varnum Frost, Cucumbers 
Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection . 



il 00 
1 00 
1 00 
3 00 



May 15. 
Gratuities : — 
P. G. Hanson, Asparagus (weight of four bunches, ten pounds) 
William H. Hunt, Asparagus . 
James Comley, Mushrooms 
Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection 
Warren Heustis & Son, " 
Hon. Aaron Low, " 





May 22. 




Gratuities : — 






P. G. Hanson, Asparagus . 




1 00 


W. H. Hunt, 


. 


1 00 


James Comley, Mushrooms 


. 


1 00 


George D. Moore, Collection 


2 00 


Hon. Aaron Low, 


< i 


. . . 1 00 


Warren Heustis & Son, 


i i 


1 00 



May 29 



Gratuity : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 



1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



1 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 3 and 4. 

Prizes from the Theodore Lyman Fund. 

Beets. — Twelve specimens, any variety, H. R. Kinney . . 3 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . • 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son . . . ■ . . . . 1 00 

Carrots. — Twelve Short Scarlet, W. N. Craig . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 2 00 

Radishes. — Four bunches of Turnip Rooted, Warren Heustis & Son, 2 00 

Second, George D. Moore ........ 1 00 

Four bunches of Long Scarlet, George D. Moore . . . 2 00 

Second, H. R. Kinney 1 00 

Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each, P. G. Hanson . 3 00 

Second, William H. Hunt . . 2 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair, George D. Moore . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, H. R. Kinney 2 00 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



225 



Lettuce. — Four heads, George D. Moore 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . . 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son .... 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, George D. Moore 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son .... 

Third, W. N. Craig . . . . 
Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, H. R. Kinney 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, William C. Winter, Livingston 

Second, William C. Winter, Stone 

Third, M. S. Stevens, May's Favorite 

Gratuities : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
George D. Moore, " 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " 

John Jeffries, " 

Hon. Aaron Low, " 

June 12. 

Gratuities : — 

Hon. Joseph S. Fay, Cauliflowers and four varieties of Lettuce 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mushrooms 

George D. Moore, Collection 

Hon. Aaron Low, " 

W. N. Craig, 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 

June 19. 
Gratuities : — 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Cauliflowers and Lettuce 

I. E. Coburn, two varieties of Peas . 



$3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



3 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



2 00 
1 00 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY SHOW. 

June 22 and 23. 

Beets. — Twelve Summer Turnip Rooted, H. R. Kinney 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge . 
Onions. — Twelve specimens, W. N. Craig 

Second, George D. Moore . 

Third, E. C. Lewis .... 
Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, George D 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Third, H. R. Kinney .... 
Any other variety, George D. Moore, Eureka 
Cabbages. — Three of any variety, trimmed, George D. Moore 
Early Spring 

Second, George D. Moore, Wakefield .... 



Moore 



3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



1 00 
3 00 

3 00 

2 00 



226 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Lettuce. — Four heads of any variety, George D. Moore 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ...... 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, E. C. Lewis, Nott's Excelsior 
Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, American Wonder 
Third, Elliott Moore, " " . 



$2 00 

1 00 
3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



Gratuities : — 
Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Cauliflowers 
W. N. Craig, 

Warren Heustis & Son, Tomatoes 
William C. Winter, 
George D. Moore, Collection 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 



June 26. 

Onions. — Twelve specimens, George D. Moore . . . 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . . . 
Squashes. — Four Long Warted, Sumner Coolidge . . 

Four Scalloped, Sumner Coolidge ...... 

Cabbages. — Three of any variety, trimmed, George D. Moore, 
Early Spring .......... 

Second, George D. Moore, Wakefield . 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 

Peas. — Half-peck of American Wonder, Estate of Joseph S. Fay . 
Second, Hon. Aaron Low - . . . . . . 

Third, H. R. Kinney 

Half-peck of any other variety, George D. Moore, Henderson's 

1897 . 

Second, John L. Gardner, Nott's Excelsior .... 

Third, E. C. Lewis, " " . 



Gratuities ; — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
John Jeffries, " 

E. C. Lewis, " 

George D. Moore, " 

Hon. Aaron Low, " 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



July 3. 
Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Hebron 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Savoy 

Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Rose 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, George D. Moore, Henderson's 

1897 . 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, American Wonder .... 
Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Advancer 



3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



PHIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



227 



Gratuities : — 
William C. Winter, Tomatoes . 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
Hon. Aaron Low, " 

George D. Moore, " 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " 



1 00 
1 00 
1 CO 
1 00 
1 00 



July 10. 

Prizes from the Levi Whitcomb Fund. 

Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, trimmed, George D. Moore, Bruns- 
wick ........... 

Second, George D. Moore, Stone Mason ..... 

Beans. — Half-peck of Cranberry, Joshua C. Stone 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn ........ 

Tomatoes. — Open culture, twelve specimens, Sumner Coolidge, 
Atlantic ..... . . . 

Second, A. W. Blake 

Gratuities : — 
Hon. Aaron Low, Collection of Peas 
I. E. Coburn, " " " 

Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection of Beans 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
E. C. Lewis, 

George D. Moore, " 

W. N. Craig, " 

July 17. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Hebron 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, Fortune . . . . . 

Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Rose .... 

Lettuce. — Four heads of any variety, John Jeffries 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay ..... 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Sumner Coolidge, Hybrid 

Second, Sumner Coolidge, Cory ..... 

Third, Joshua C. Stone, " 

Tomatoes. — Open culture, twelve specimens, Sumner Coolidge 
Atlantic .......... 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge, May's Favorite 

Third, A. W. Blake, Atlantic 

Gratuities : — 
Nathaniel T. Kidder, Tomatoes 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
George D. Moore, " 

Hon. Aaron Low, " 

Estate of Joseph S. Fay, " 



00 
00 
00 

00 

00 
00 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



3 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



228 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



July 24. 

Potatoes. — Any variety, twelve specimens, Estate of Joseph S 
Fay, Hebron ........ 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Savoy . 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low, Early Essex 
Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, Hon. Aaron Low, New Life 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, Heroine .... 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears of Crosby, Sumner Coolidge 

Second, John C. Stone . . 
Twelve ears of any other variety, Sumner Coolidge, Hybrid 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Cory .... 

Third, Sumner Coolidge, Cory . . . 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Sumner Coolidge, Atlantic 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn, Comrade . . ... 

Third, Sumner Coolidge, Seedling .... 
Native Mushrooms. — Named collection of not less than five edible 
varieties, Miss Ellen W. Rumrill .... 

Second, Mrs. Kate E. Parker ..... 

Third, Miss Constance Alexander and Miss Annie Scorgie 

Gratuity : — 
Miss Helen M. Noyes, Collection of Mushrooms 



S3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


8 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 00 



2 00 



July 31. 

Beans. — Two quarts of Goddard, shelled, Warren Heustis & Son 
Half-peck of Horticultural, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ....... 

Third, Joshua C. Stone . ' . . . . 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens of Comrade, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ....... 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 

Twelve specimens of any other variety, Sumner Coolidge, Atlantic 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge, Atlantic . . ■ '. • . 

Third, Joshua C. Stone, Boston Market .... 
Egg Plant. — Four specimens of Pound Purple, Sumner Coolidge, 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge ...... 

Gratuities : — 

Joshua C. Stone, Melons 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 

Arthur F. Coolidge, " 

Hon. Aaron Low, " ..... 



3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



August 7. 
Greenflesh Melons.— Four specimens, Edward Russell (weight 

of largest specimen, 25^ lbs.) 

Second, Joshua C. Stone .... 



3 00 
2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



229 



Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Joshua C. Stone . . . $3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, Quincy Market . . . . 2 00 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low, Crosby . . . . . . 1 00 

Egg Plant. — Four specimens of Round Purple, Sumner Coolidge, 2 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . . 1 00 



August 14. 
Potatoes. — Twelve specimens of any variety, Estate of Joseph S 
Fay, Hebron . . . . . . . 

Second, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Queen .... 

Third, Estate of Joseph S. Fay, Rose .... 
Onions. — Twelve specimens, W. N. Craig .... 

Second, George D. Moore ....... 

Third, "Warren Heustis & Son ...... 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Joshua C. Stone 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge ...... 

Celery. — Four roots of any variety, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ...... 

Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Second, Sumner Coolidge ....... 

Two quarts of Goddard, shelled, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ...... 

Third, Rev. Calvin Terry ....... 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears of Potter's Excelsior, Joshua C. Stone 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . . 
Twelve ears of any other variety, P. G. Hanson, Crosby's Improved 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Burr's ..... 

Third, Joshua C. Stone, Quincy Market . . 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens of Squash, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Second, George W. Jameson ...... 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low ....... 

Any other variety, Hon. Aaron Low, Spanish Monstrous 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, Elephant's Trunk 



3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


CO 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00. 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 



August 21. 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Joshua C. Stone 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . . . . . . 

Salmon Flesh Melons. — Four specimens, the third prize to 
Joshua C. Stone ......... 

Watermelons. — Pair, Joshua C. Stone ...... 

Cabbages. — Three of any variety, trimmed, Hon. Aaron Low 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son ....... 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Celery. — Four roots, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 



3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



230 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Warren Heustis & Son . $3 00 

Second, Sumner Coolidge 

Two quarts of Dwarf Lima, Warren Heustis & Son . . 
Maktynias. — Twelve specimens, Hon. Aaron Low 
Native Mushrooms. — Named collection of not less than five edible 
varieties, Miss Ellen W. Rumrill . . 
Second, Mrs. Sarah L. Woodward . 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, Tomatoes 

E. C. Lewis, Collection ... ... ... 

Arthur F. Coolidge, Collection 



2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 



September 4. 
Gratuity : — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Paris Golden Celery . . . . . 1 00 

September 11. 

Turnips. — Twelve Flat, F. J. Kinney 3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ........ 2 00 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn ........ 1 00 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Samuel Hartwell . . 3 00 

' Second, E. C. Lewis 2 00 

Third, E. C. Lewis 1 00 

Salmon Flesh Melons. — Four specimens, Joshua C. Stone . 3 00 

Second, E. C. Lewis 2 00 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 1 00 

Watermelons. — Two specimens, Joshua C. Stone . . . 3 00 

Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, De Souza Brothers . . . 3 00 

Second, William H. Teele . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Elliott Moore 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads of any variety, Arthur F. Coolidge . . 3 00 

Second, Sumner Coolidge . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, E. C. Lewis 1 00 

Celery. — Four roots of any variety, Warren Heustis & Son . . 3 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 2 00 

Third, George D. Moore . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Parsley. — Two quarts, Arthur F. Coolidge 2 00 

Second, John Jeffries 1 00 

Beans. — Large Lima, two quarts, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 2 00 

Third, E. C. Lewis 1 00 

Corn. — Sweet, twelve ears of Potter's Excelsior, Rev. Calvin 

Terry . . ■ . . . 3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ........ 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



231 



Arthur F 



Any other Sweet variety, C. L. Hartshorn 
Second, O. R. Robbins 
Third, Hon. Aaron Low, Champion . 
Egg Plant. — Four specimens of Round Purple, Sumner Coolidge 
Second, George D. Moore ..... 

Third, E. C. Lewis 

Tomatoes. — Three varieties, twelve specimens each, 
Coolidge ........ 

Second, Isaac E. Coburn ..... 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low . 
Twelve Aristocrat, Varnum Frost 
Second, Hon. Aaron Low ..... 

. Third, E. C. Lewis . . . . 

Twelve Comrade, Isaac E. Coburn ... 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low ..... 

Third, Joshua C. Stone ..... 

Twelve May's Favorite, Varnum Frost . 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard .... 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low ..... 

Twelve of any other variety, Varnum Frost, Stone 
Second, Isaac E. Coburn, Stone . . . 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn, Ignotum . • 
Martynias. — Twelve specimens, Hon. Aaron Low 

Second, George W. Jameson 
Okra. — Twelve specimens, E. C. Lewis . 
Peppers. — Twelve specimens of Squash, Hon 
Second, George Lincoln 
Any other variety, E. C. Lewis, Ruby King 
Second, C. L. Hartshorn, Bull Nose . 
Native Mushrooms. — Named collection, not 
varieties. Miss Helen M. Noyes 
Second, Miss Ellen W. Rumrill . 



Aaron Low 



less than 



five edible 



$3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

5 00 

4 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 



3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 

3 00 

2 00 



Gratuities : — 
W. N. Craig, three varieties of Onions 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery . 
George D. Moore, Collection 



2 00 

1 00 

2 00 



September 18. 
Gratuities : — 
William Doran & Son, Tomatoes 
Warren Heustis & Sons, Celery 
Rev. Calvin Terry, Collection . 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



Gratuity : — 
John Jeffries, Collection 



September 25 



1 00 



232 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

September 30 and October 1. 
Regular Prizes. 
Beets. — Twelve Turnip Rooted, Varnum Frost 

Second, P. G. Hanson 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 
Carrots. —Twelve Long Orange, H. R. Kinney 

Second, Joseph Thorp 

Third, E. C. Lewis .... 
Twelve Intermediate, H. R. Kinney 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 
Parsnips. — Twelve Long, George D. Moore 

Second, H. R. Kinney 

Third, E. C. Lewis . . 
Potatoes. — Four varieties, twelve specimens each, F. J. Kinney 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 

Third, C. H. Thomas . 
Twelve Carman No. 1, Elliott Moore 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low . 

Third, C. H. Thomas . 
Twelve Clark, F. J. Kinney . 

Second, C. H. Thomas 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 
Twelve Hebron, F. J. Kinney 

Second, E. C. Lewis . 

Third, Henry E. Rich 
Twelve Rose, H. R. Kinney 

Second, Henry E. Rich 

Third, C. H. Thomas . 
Twelve of any other variety, F. J. Kinney, New Queen 

Second, Henry E. Rich, American Wonder 

Third, E. M. Bruce, New Queen 
Salsify. — Twelve specimens, J. J. Lyons 

Second, George D. Moore . 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 
Turnips. — Twelve Flat, F. J. Kinney 

Second, C. H. Thomas 

Third, Elliott Moore . 
Twelve Swedish, F. J. Kinney 

Second, Joseph Thorp 
Onions. — Twelve Danvers, W. N. Craig 

Second, W. N. Craig, Yellow Globe 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn 
Twelve Red, W. N. Craig, Red Globe 

Second, W. N. Craig, Wethersfield 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn 



3 


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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



233 



Twelve White, C. L. Hartshorn 

Second, E. C. Lewis ; 

Any other variety, W. N. Craig, Ailsa Craig 

Second, W. N. Craig, Prizetaker 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn, " 
Squashes. — Three Bay State, Warren Heustis & Son 

Second, E. C. Lewis . . • 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low 
Three Hubbard, P. G. Hanson 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn 
Three Hybrid Turban, P. G. Hanson 

Second, C. L. Hartshorn . 

Third, E. C. Lewis . . . . . 
Three Marblehead, P. G. Hanson 

Second, E. C. Lewis .... 
Three Marrow, Varnum Frost 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge 
Any other variety, C. L. Hartshorn 

Second, Benjamin K. Bliss, Pride of the Amazon 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low, Plymouth Rock 
Watermelons. — Two specimens, B. S. Nickerson 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low . 

Third, Elliott Moore .... 
Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck, John Jeffries 

Second, H. R. Kinney 

Third, E. C. Lewis . . 
Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, trimmed, Hon. Aaron Low 

Second, E. C. Lewis .... 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 
Three Red, trimmed, Hon. Aaron Low 

Second, Samuel Hartwell . 

Third, H. R. Kinney . . . 

Three Savoy, trimmed, Samuel Hartwell 

Second, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard 

Third, H. R. Kinney .... 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Tee 

Second, De Souza Brothers 

Third, John McCarthy 
Celery. — Four roots of Paris Golden, best kept during the E 
tion, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn 

Fourth, E. M. Bruce 
Any other variety, E. M. Bruce, Perle le Grande 

Second, E. M. Bruce, New Queen 



hibi 



$2 00 



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234 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Third, Arthur Nixon $3(0 

Fourth, H. R. Kinney . . . . . ... . 2 00 

Endive. — Four specimens, H. R. Kinney 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Haller . 2 00 

Third, E. C. Lewis ' . . . . . 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads, C. L. Hartshorn 3 00 

Second, George D. Moore . 2 00 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge ....... 1 00 

Parsley. — Two quarts, John Jeffries 2 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge . . . . . . . 1 00 

Horseradish. — Six roots, H. R. Kinney 2 00 

Second, George D. Moore 1 00 

Corn. — Yellow or Field, twenty-five ears, traced, Elliott Moore, 3 00 

Second, Henry E. Rich 2 00 

Third, Henry E. Rich . 1 00 

Sweet, twelve ears, Isaac E. Coburn, Potter's Excelsior . . 3 CO 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Bourne's Favorite . . . . 2 00 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low ........ I 00 

Egg Plant. — Four specimens of Round Purple, Sumner Coolidge, 3 00 

Second, H. R. Kinney . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, George D. Moore . 1 00 

Tomatoes. — Three varieties, twelve specimens, B. S. Nickerson . 5 00 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 4 00 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low 3 00 

Twelve Aristocrat, Joseph Thorp 3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low . .. ". . . . . 2 00 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn 1 00 

Twelve Comrade, Isaac E. Coburn . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low 2 00 

Third, Joshua C. Stone 1 00 

Twelve May's Favorite, Hon. Aaron Low 3 00 

Twelve of any other variety, I. E. Coburn, Stone . . . 3 00 

Second, W. Warburton, Stone . 2 00 

Third, Joseph Thorp, Stone . 1 00 

Peppers. — Twelve specimens of Squash, Hon. Aaron Low . . 3 00 

Second, P. G. Hanson 2 00 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn 1 00 

Twelve of any other variety, Hon. Aaron Low, Ruby King . . 3 00 

Second, Hon. Aaron Low, Bull Nose 2 00 

Third, C. L. Hartshorn, Bull Nose 1 00 

Culinary Herbs. — Collection, named, W. N. Craig . . . 5 00 

Collection of Vegetables. — Covering fifty square feet, arranged 

for effect, H. R. Kinney ' 15 00 

Second, E. C. Lewis . . 12 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 10 00 

Fourth, C. L. Hartshorn 8 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



235 



Gratuities : — 
Elliott Moore, White Egg Turnips . 

" " Golden Hubbard Squashes . 

M. B. Faxon, Collection of Squashes 

E. C. Lewis, Peas 

Hon. James J. H. Gregory, Peas 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Lima Beans . 

Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, Collection of Beans 

W. N. Craig, Collection .... 

George D. Moore, " .... 

John Jeffries, " ...... 

October 9. 
Gratuity : — 
Warren Heustis & Son, Cucumbers and Celery 



$1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 



October 16. 

Gratuities : — 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Lima Beans ... 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery and Cucumbers 



00 
00 



October 23. 

Gratuities : — 

George D. Moore, Parsnips and Lettuce . 
Hon. Aaron Low, Salsify and Turnips 



00 
00 



October 30. 

Gratuities : — 

George D. Moore, Celery and Salsify 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery and Cucumbers 



00 
00 



Gratuities : — 
John Jeffries, Parsley 
Warren Heustis & Son, Celery 



November 6. 



1 00 
1 00 



EXHIBITION OF WINTER FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



November 20. 

Cucumbers. — Pair, Francis Blake .... 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son .... 

Third, C. A. Learned 

Cabbages. — Three, Red, trimmed, Hon. Aaron Low 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son .... 

Third, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard .... 
Three Savoy, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard . 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, William H. Teele 

Second, B. A. De Souza 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 00 



236 



MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck, John Jeffries, Giant 

Second, John Jeffries, Dwarf French 

Third, Hon. Aaron Low 
Celery. — Four roots, E. C. Lewis . 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son . 

Third, Arthur F. Coolidge . 
Lettuce. — Four heads, George D. Moore 

Second, Arthur F. Coolidge 

Third, C. A. Learned .... 
Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, grown under 
Stone . . . 

Second, W. C. Winter, May's Favorite 

Third, W. C. Winter, Chemin . 



glass 



W. 



C. Winter, 



$3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 



Gratuities : — 
William Warburton, Parsnips . 
E. C. Lewis, Collection 
Warren Heustis & Son, Collection 
John Jeffries, " 



1 00 
3 00 
1 00 
1 00 



REPORT 



Committee on School Gardens and Children's Herbariums 



« 

FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



By HENRY LINCOLN CLAPP, Chairman, 



GEORGE PUTNAM SCHOOL GARDEN, ROXRURY. 

The following named plants were set out in the garden during 
the season of 1897 : 

Arenaria lateriflora, Oeum rivale, 

Cr/pripedfum arietinum, Viola lanceolata, 

" pubescens, " rostmta. 

u ' spectabile, 

The garden has been used as in previous years, but more exten- 
sively. Whole classes have visited it repeatedly to observe the 
plants, and plant material has been taken from it to be studied in 
the class room. Ferns and composite flowers have received the 
most attention. Already the pupils of the ninth grade have ber 
come quite familiar with fourteen species of ferns, which have 
been studied in the customary manner, — by means of lantern- 
slides, pressed specimens, and the ferns growing in the fernery. 

Each member of the class has a notebook carefully kept, and 
containing pinnae or fronds of every fern studied. Miss L. D. 
Ellis, a member of the class in 1896, won Mr. Davenport's first 
prize of fifty choice ferns, at the Herbarium Exhibition in Novem- 
ber, 1897. 

Excellent opportunities have been found for making lantern- 
slides from the fern crosiers in different stages of growth as seen 
in the fernery. 



238 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

On account of the wetness of the season the plants as a whole 
have made exceptionally fine growths, especially the asters and 
golden-rods. 

REPORT OF THE MEDFORD SCHOOL GARDENS. 

Having once more become associated with the schools of Med- 
ford, I have during the past year made an effort to improve the 
Swan School Garden, and have added a large number of native 
plants to its flora. 

Through the generosity of the Maiden Park Commissioners I 
have been able to enrich the garden, especially the fern beds, with 
some twenty-five loads of peat mould from Fellsmere, and over 
two hundred fern roots, interspersed with asters and golden-rods, 
of different species, have been massed in the beds along the shady 
side of the fences. The rockery has been restocked with hepaticas, 
blood-roots, columbines, herb Robert, and other rock-loving plants, 
with polypodiums, woodsias, marginal shield fern and Christmas 
fern, and several choice native shrubs have been added to the 
garden. As, however, I intend adding others in the spring, and 
contemplate making still further efforts to establish the garden on 
a permanent basis of usefulness for nature study in the school, I 
shall not submit a special report for this year. 

I wish, however, to call the attention of the Committee to the 
Curtis School Garden, which is beginning to assume proportions 
that entitle it to the highest consideration of this Committee. 

Under the able supervision of Miss Amy Jones, the principal of 
the school, and her assistant, Miss Laura Davenport (one of the 
pioneers of nature work in the Medford schools), the garden has 
developed from a very modest beginning into a strong competitor 
for one of the prizes offered by this Committee, and bids fair to 
become a still more formidable one in the near future. 

A large portion of the garden has been devoted to the usual gar- 
den flowers for the pleasure of the children, — a practice which I 
believe to be a wise one where only young children of the first, 
second, and third grades are concerned,- — but some twelve native 
trees and shrubs and upward of fifty species of native flowering 
plants and ferns have been grown and made use of in the nature 
work in the school. Some of the nature work done from studies 
of these native plants by some of the youngest pupils in the school 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SCHOOL GARDENS, ETC. 239 

has beeu of unusual excellence, and reflected great credit on the 
teachers and children. 

Among the choice native shrubs are a seedling catalpa from the 
Swan School Garden, and a fine plant each of Kalmia latifolia 
(mountain laurel) and Rhododendron maximum, the gift of Miss 
Davenport, who resigned her position as teacher in the school in 
September, in order to assume other duties elsewhere. 

The school is fortunate in having for its garden so earnest a 
worker as Miss Jones, who is striving to improve it in every way 
that she can ; so helpful a sub-committee as Mr. Charles M. Jones ; 
and so appreciative a friend as Superintendent Morss, who holds 
this work at its true value and encourages it all that he can. 

The garden has been put into first-class condition for the winter ; 
new beds have been made for next season's planting ; the old beds 
have been thoroughly fertilized with rich mould, and a number of 
extra plants already bedded in. 

It is Miss Jones's intention to make the garden more useful than 
ever another year, and she hopes to have some photographs made 
showing some of the beds and the children at their work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George E. Davenport. 

OTHER SCHOOL GARDENS. 

The school garden is being recognized in a few places, besides 
those already mentioned, as a valuable educational adjunct. In 
the spring one will be started in Stoneham and another in East 
Braintree. The Superintendent of Schools in the latter place has 
invited some member of the School Garden Committee to give a 
talk on the subject in that place. 

The Robert G. Shaw Garden will take a new lease of life in the 
spring, now that the city of Boston finds itself in such a finan- 
cial condition, after a wearisome period, as to warrant the grading 
of the grounds. 

A letter on the subject of school gardens was received from a 
very enthusiastic principal living in one of the Gulf States. In 
some way he came across a copy of the Transactions of this So- 
ciety, and therein saw an account of a school garden, which kin- 
dled his enthusiasm to a high pitch. He solicited advice in regard 
to laying out a garden an acre in extent. As that was a little 



240 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ahead of anything the Committee had contemplated, only a mod- 
erate amount of advice could be transmitted to him. 

Several school gardens have been established in Trenton, N.J. 
At various times our reports have been sent to Professor B. C. 
Gregory, the Superintendent of Schools in that place, and he has 
sent several letters concerning what has been done in gardening 
there, and has promised to send a printed report giving addi- 
tional details of the work. 

Two sample letters to him are herewith submitted. From the 
simple beginnings indicated therein great things may grow ; and 
it is with some pride that we see the influence of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society extending in this particular line to 
distant places. 

Trenton Public Schools, 
School No. 8, December 15, 1897. 
Professor B. C. Gregory : 

Dear Sir : Last Arbor Day the children prepared three 
flower beds — two circular ones and one along the back fence. 
They dug out the clay and poor soil, and filled up with good soil 
brought from quite a distance. They then sowed seed and set 
out plants, which grew and were carefully looked after by the 
pupils. They enjoyed the flowers and took great pride in caring 
for them. There are three fine rose bushes, which will survive 
the winter, I think. 

Respectfully, 

M. M. Wright. 

Trenton Public Schools, 
School No. 15, Girard, December 17, 1897. 
Professor B. C. Gregory: 

Dear Sir : We started a garden, on either side of our school 
building, last spring, in which the children took a great deal of 
pride, and the plants were very much admired by all the neigh- 
borhood. We were a little afraid that our flowers would be inter- 
fered with during the summer, but, instead, the people in the 
neighborhood were careful that they should not be molested. We 
intend to extend the work in the spring again. 

I am yours very respectfully, 

Elizabeth Hughes. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SCHOOL GARDENS, ETC. 241 



CHILDREN'S HERBARIUMS. 

It can be truly said that the children's herbariums exhibited 
November 26 and 27, 1897, considering the number and quality 
of the specimens, were the best ever placed on exhibition in 
Horticultural Hall. 

More classes of plants were exhibited than at any previous 
exhibition, flowering plants leading with one thousand and twenty- 
nine specimens, and ferns coming next with two hundred and 
eleven specimens. These two classes were the largest ever seen 
here. Grasses, sedges, rushes, and mosses swelled the whole 
number to thirteen hundred and sixty-six specimens. For the ex- 
hibition of these mounts nearly all the table space in both halls 
was required. 

The Nahant school collection was the most remarkable, both in 
point of numbers and the quality of the mounting. When the 
specimen was small by nature, many plants of the same species 
were artistically arranged on the sheet, so that different forms were 
shown and the sheet was well covered. A specimen two or three 
inches long looks lonesome on a sheet eleven by sixteen inches. 

Among the collections that call for special mention were those 
of Lucy D. Ellis, Genevieve Doran, Vanessa Denton, William P. 
Bates, Marion C. Go ward, Roscoe G. Knight, Arthur E. French, 
and Arthur C. Faxon. The last two exhibitors have shown nearly 
every common native plant, and many rare ones, during the five 
or six years they have exhibited. 

Mr. Davenport's first prize of fifty native ferns, and the 
second of twenty-five, attracted marked attention. The former 
was won by Lucy D. Ellis, and the latter by Arthur E. French. 
Most fortunately, these two beautiful collections came into the 
possession of appreciative young botanists. 

The attendance was much larger than at any previous exhibi- 
tion, and in every way satisfactory. 

It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the distribution of thou- 
sands of circulars and prize lists of the exhibition every year, 
advertising in three prominent Boston papers, and calling atten- 
tion to the exhibition at teachers' conventions, so many people, 
teachers included, stumble as it were into the exhibition, declaring 
that they never knew anything about the matter before catching a 
glimpse of a seven-foot poster on each side of the outer door of 
this Hall. 



242 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR SCHOOL 
GARDENS AND CHILDREN'S HERBARIUMS. 

SCHOOL GARDENS. 

George Putnam School, Roxbury, first prize . . $15 00 
Curtis School, Medford, second prize . . . 10 00 

Swan School, Medford, gratuity . . . . 15 00 

CHILDREN'S HERBARIUMS. 

Flowering Plants. — For one hundred and twenty- 
five specimens, first prize, Roscoe G. Knight . 5 00 
Second, Genevieve Doran . . . . . 4 00 

For one hundred specimens, first prize, Franklin 

Lewis ........ 4 00 

For seventy-five specimens, first prize, Carl M. True, 3 00 

For fifty specimens, first prize, William P. Bates . 2 00 

Also first, Vanessa Denton ..... 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

Nahant School, for school collection of one hun- 
dred and eighty-four specimens ... 6 00 

Marion C. Goward, for one hundred and twenty- 
five specimens . . . . . . 

Arthur, C. Faxon ', for ninety-five specimens 

Olive E. French, for fifty specimens . 

Arthur E. French, for forty-four additions . 

Ferns. — For twenty-five specimens, first prize, Marion 
C. Goward ....... 

For fifteen specimens, first prize, Roscoe G. Knight, 
For ten specimens, first prize, Ada K. Wood . 

Second, Olive E. French . . . 

For five specimens, first prize, Clara Hathaway 

Grasses. 

Gratuities : — 
Arthur E, French, for eight additions . . 2 00 

Arthur C. Faxon, for two additions ... 50 



4 


00 


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75 



PHIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR SCHOOL GARDENS, ETC. 243 

Sedges. 

Gratuities : — 
Arthur E. French, for two additions . . . $2 00 

Arthur C. Faxon, for five additions ... 1 00 

Rushes. 

Gratuity : — 
Arthur C. Faxon, for eight specimens . 2 00 

Leaf Sprays.- — For thirty-six sheets, first prize, J. 

Stanley Webb . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Katharine A. Dwyer . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 
Arthur C. Faxon, for ten additions ... 1 00 

Philip G. Clapp, for ten sheets .... 50 



Total for Herbariums and Gardens 


. 


$104 25 


The amount of money appropriated by 


the Society for 




the use of this Committee was 


. 


$250 00 


Awarded for School Gardens . 




$40 00 




Awarded for Herbariums . 




64 25 




Suffolk Engraving Company (cuts) . 




10 05 




Printing ...... 




42 62 




Advertising 




19 60 




Paper ...... 




6 21 




Expressage, posters, stamping, etc. . 




8 50 






. 


191 23 


Balance unexpended . 


$58 77 



Henry L. Clapp, Roxbury, \ 

Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott, DedhamJ 

George E. Davenport, Medford,/ 

Miss Katharine W. Huston, Roxbury 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, West Medford 
William P. Rich, * Chelsea 

W. E. C. Rich, Secretary, 

99 Moreland st., Roxbury, Mass., 



Committee on 

School Gardens 

and 

Children's 

Herbariums. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE OE ARRANGEMENTS 



FOB THE YEAR 1897. 



The year just about closing has been, as usual, quite gratifying 
to your Committee, for the reasons that the exhibitions all through 
the season have been very full, and an unusual interest has been 
manifested by a large number of new exhibitors. This is greatly 
to be commended, for the constant addition of new life to any 
working institution is desirable, since by these additions we come 
in contact with new and improved modes of cultivation, which are 
sometimes great improvements over the old methods, and add 
to our exhibitions an interest which they would not have had 
except by this new life which is constantly being added by the ini- 
tiation of new members. 

We are also pleased to note the unflagging interest of the 
gardeners in our shows, for without their hearty cooperation our 
shows would be utter failures. We are under great obligations to 
them for their industry and zeal, and we try to repay them, in part, 
by expending a portion of our appropriation for their comfort and 
enjoyment. 

It is also pleasant to record the great success of the Mycologi- 
cal Club, an auxiliary to our Society, and the enthusiasm mani- 
fested by the members in making their shows of wild fungi as 
large and complete as possible. Their exhibitions have added 
very largely to the knowledge of the edible species of this class of 
vegetables, much to the gratification of the lovers of mushrooms. 

Taking the Schedule of Prizes as the basis for our action, the 
halls, tables, etc., have been so arranged as best to bring into 
view the various collections at each exhibition, and the exhibitors 
have cooperated so well with your Committee that there has not 
been any friction or adverse comment on the allotment of space. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 245 

This is very gratifying when we take into consideration the very 
crowded and limited accommodations we have at some of our 
shows. 

We are under still another obligation to our friend Jerome 
Jones, Esq., for the loan of three very large and elegant china 
vases for the display of chrysanthemums in November, thus giving 
us eight large vases to meet all the entries made for these particular 
prizes. 

The exhibitions this year have been quite as numerous as during 
any former year, and yet at only two of them, the Spring and 
Chrysanthemum Shows, has any admittance fee been charged. At 
the end of this report will be found an account of the receipts 
derived from these exhibitions. These are not as much as your 
Committee would desire, and surely not nearly as much as it 
would expect with better accommodations. We are under obliga- 
tions to the newspapers for copious reports of our shows, but we 
should be under much greater obligations if they would tell the 
public what to expect before the shows take place, thereby giving 
the people an inkling of what is to come off before the shows are 
all over. 

The arrangements of plants and flowers at the different shows 
have been varied so as to produce the most pleasing effect as a 
whole, taking into consideration that none of your Committee 
knows what will be sent in till the contributions reach the hall. 

The chairmen of other committees will tell you about the prog- 
ress we are making in our noble art, and we trust their reports 
will be read with interest, pleasure, and profit by all our members. 

Receipts at Spring Exhibition ..... $319 75 
Receipts at Chrysanthemum Show .... 654 50 



$974 25 
all of which is in the Treasury of the Society. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Jos. H. Woodford, 

Chairman, 



REPORT OF THE DELEGATE 



TO THE 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



It was stated in a previous report that the work of the State 
Board of Agriculture was divided among sub- committees of the 
members. The work of the Committee on Gypsy Moth, Insects, 
and Birds would seem to have special interest for this Society. 
The present facilities for travel and transportation enable collectors 
to visit every habitable part of the globe in search for new species 
and varieties of fruits, flowers, vegetables, ornamental trees and 
shrubs, with the constant danger of bringing their insect enemies 
with them. Foreign countries have found it necessary to pass 
stringent laws requiring all nursery stock to be inspected before 
being planted or distributed. 

Two insects which have proved most destructive in foreign 
countries have recently been introduced into this State, — the Gypsy 
Moth and the Brown-tailed Moth. The former was brought here 
by a Frenchman who, having some knowledge of entomology, 
thought that by cross-breeding he could produce a more hardy silk- 
worm than the common species. While carrying on his experi- 
ments some of the caterpillars escaped and soon became a serious 
pest in the neighborhood. He resided in the southern portion of 
Medford ; his neighbors had small places with gardens of limited 
area containing the usual garden fruits. In 1889 the caterpillars 
appeared in such quantities as to defy all attempts to destroy them 
by individual effort. The shade trees in the streets were stripped 
of their foliage and the fences and the sides and roofs of the houses 
were covered with the caterpillars. They entered the houses, 
secreting themselves in the closets and in the beds. The citizens 
called a special town meeting and appropriated three hundred 



REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 247 

dollars, aud instructed the Road Commissioners to protect the 
shade trees. Without experience or the facilities for prosecuting 
the work, they made little progress. The residents of the infested 
and adjacent territory decided to petition the Legislature to assist 
in controlling and, if possible, exterminating this destructive pest. 
The Governor of the State resided in the infested territory, and in 
his annual message, January, 1890, calle,d the attention of the 
Legislature to the matter. Petitions from the Selectmen of Med- 
ford and the adjoining towns, Arlington, Everett, Winchester, 
Stoneham, and Wakefield, from the city officials of Maiden and 
Somerville, the State Board of Agriculture, and the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, were presented to the Legislature in Janu- 
ary, 1890. The matter was referred to the Committee on Agri- 
culture. The Committee visited the infested locality and reported 
that they saw walls of buildings and almost every tree covered 
with the egg clusters or nests. 

The Legislature of 1890 enacted a law providing for the appoint- 
ment of a commission to take charge of the work u to provide and 
carry into execution all possible measures to prevent the spread and 
secure the extermination of the Ocnaria dispar or Gypsy Moth in 
this Commonwealth." The Legislature appropriated twenty-five 
thousand dollars, and the Governor appointed a commission con- 
sisting of three men, all residents of the infested territory. They 
commenced work immediately and killed large quantities of the 
caterpillars, paying special attention to the trees by the roadsides 
to prevent their being distributed by passing carriages. The 
Commission soon found that the money appropriated would not 
complete the work over the known infested territory, which was 
supposed to be about a mile and a half long and two-thirds of a mile 
wide, and the Legislature appropriated twenty-five thousand dollars 
more. The work of spraying was continued as long as the insect 
continued in the caterpillar state, and afterwards the eggs were 
destroyed. 

In the spring of 1891 the Governor discharged the Commission 
and the Legislature passed an act placing the work of attempting 
" to prevent the spreading and to secure the extermination of the 
Gypsy Moth " in the hands of the State Board of Agriculture, and 
appropriated fifty thousand dollars to carry on the work. 

The efforts of the Committee the first year were directed to de- 
stroying as man}* as possible of the insects where they were liable 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to do the most injury ; to cleaning the trees bordering the high- 
ways, and scouting to ascertain the outside limits of the area 
infested. During the year scattered colonies were found in thirty- 
one different towns and cities, bounded as follows : South by Bos- 
ton and all the towns bordering on Massachusetts Bay to Beverly ; 
on the east by Beverly, Danvers, and Reading; on the north by 
Bedford, Lexington, and Waltham, and on the west by Waltham 
and Watertown. 

It was then determined that a line drawn on the outside limits 
of the above towns enclosed the infested territory, and from 
that time to the present only three colonies have been found out- 
side the above-named limits. Two colonies have been found in 
Brookline and one in Lincoln. 

It will not be understood that all the above territory was in- 
fested, but scattered colonies were found, diminishing in number 
in proportion to the facilities for transportation and the distance 
from the centre at Medford. 

The plan of work pursued from the beginning has been to work 
from the outside towards the centre for extermination, and reduce 
the infested area, and, as far as means allowed, to reduce the 
numbers in the central portions, and to clean trees bordering high- 
ways and railroads. 

The Committee have each year at the close of the season made 
a careful survey of the work done and to be done, and if the work 
was to be continued asked for the least amount of money to do 
the work absolutely necessary when viewed from an economic 
standpoint. These estimates have been reduced by the Legisla- 
ture from one-third to one-half, thus causing a change of plans 
by which portions of the territory must be neglected ; and so rap- 
idly does this insect increase, that small colonies become large 
ones, and others that were greatly reduced, not only regain their 
former number and extent of ground occupied, but add largely to 
both. 

As an illustration of the fecundity of this insect, I will mention 
one instance. While making an examination of one of the wood- 
land colonies the past season, an oak tree ten inches in diameter, 
and from forty to fifty feet in height, was noticed as being thickly 
covered with nests, and the workmen were requested to count 
these nests as they destroyed them, and report the number. They 
reported two thousand and seventy. It has been found by the 



REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 249 

examination of these nests that they contain on the average be- 
tween five and six hundred eggs. This single tree was carrying 
through the winter a prospective increase of one million and thirty- 
five thousand caterpillars in one year. It has been found that 
ten full-grown caterpillars weigh an ounce, but allowing twenty 
to the ounce, the above number would weigh more than one and 
one- half tons. They are omnivorous, eating the foliage from every 
known tree, plant, and vegetable. They commence hatching about 
the twentieth of April, and continue until the middle of June, and 
feed until the last of July. 

Strong colonies, if undisturbed, will kill most deciduous trees in 
two years, and evergreen trees in one year. They not only destroy 
the first foliage, but continue as the trees put forth new foliage to 
devour it until the last of July. 

The difficulty, if not the impossibility, of controlling this insect 
by ordinary methods has been illustrated in many instances. Gen- 
eral Lawrence, of Medford, stated before a committee of the Legis- 
lature that he spent more than three thousand dollars in a single 
season in his efforts to protect his own premises, but failed, and 
was obliged to call on the State employees for assistance. 

Congress, at its last session, passed an act requiring the United 
States Department of Agriculture to make an investigation of the 
gypsy moth in Massachusetts. In accordance with that act, L. O. 
Howard, the head of the Entomological Division, has spent several 
weeks in making a thorough examination of the whole territory 
and the methods of work employed by the Committee for the ex- 
termination of this insect. His report is now in the publisher's 
hands, and will soon be issued, and may be relied upon as the 
judgment of one of the most expert economic entomologists in the 
country. 

This war on the gypsy moth is not for the protection of Massa- 
chusetts alone, for if the work is discontinued, and they are allowed 
to increase along the highways and railroads, they must inevitably 
be carried into other States ; and, judging from our experience in 
Massachusetts, we shall have the most dangerous and destructive 
national insect pest ever introduced into this country. 

E. W. Wood, 

Delegate. 



REPORT 



TO THE 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 

FOB, THE YEAR 1897. 



Bv GEORGE CRUICKSHANKS, of Fitchburg. 



In 1829 the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was organized 
to encourage the science and art of horticulture. How well it has 
fulfilled its mission may be seen at the exhibitions that are held 
at its beautiful hall on Tremont Street almost every Saturday 
during the year. Besides the Annual Spring, Rhododendron, 
Rose and Strawberry, Plant and Flower, Fruit and Vegetable, 
and Chrysanthemum Shows, prizes are offered every week during 
the summer and autumn months for the choicest products of the 
gardener's skill. The amount appropriated this year for premiums 
and gratuities was $8,100. 

The year began with a course of Lectures and Discussions on 
the following subjects : 

January 9. Tropical Horticulture, with Illustrations of the 
Principal Economic Plants of Hot Climates, by Professor George 
L. Goodale, Cambridge. 

January 16. The Structure and Classification of Mushrooms, 
by Hollis Webster, Cambridge. 

January 23. The Chrysanthemum ; its Past, Present, and 
Future, by Edmund M. Wood, Wellesley. 

January 30. Plant Beauty, by Henry T. Bailey, North Scituate. 

February 13. Sweet Peas, by Rev. W. T. Hutchins, Indian 
Orchard. 

February 20. Market Gardening, by T. Greiner, La Salle, 
N.Y. 



REPORT TO STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 251 

February 27. Good Food from the Garden, by Miss Anna 
Barrows, Boston. 

March 13. Horticulture in Canada, by Professor William 
Saunders, Ottawa, Canada. 

March 20. Soils and Potting, by T. D. Hatfield, Wellesley. 

March 27. The Spread of Plant Diseases^ a consideration of 
some of the ways in which Parasitic Organisms are disseminated, 
by Dr. Erwin F. Smith, Washington, D.C. 

The lectures and discussions are published in full in the Transac- 
tions of the Society, which are free to all the members of the 
Society. 

The Spring Exhibition opened March 23 and continued four 
days. The Lower Hall contained a fine show of early vegetables 
and winter apples and pears. In the centre of the hall was a rich 
display of spring flowering greenhouse plants. In the Upper Hall 
were choice collections of spring flowering bulbs, which included 
the fragrant hyacinth, tulips, jonquils, narcissuses, and poly- 
anthuses. There were excellent exhibits of perennials, cinera- 
rias, cyclamens, and pansies, and a fine show of orchids. 

The Rhododendron Show opened June 3 for two days. The 
rhododendrons and azaleas were very fine. Fine exhibits were 
made of carnations, foxgloves, oriental poppies, etc. There were 
large collections of native plants and an excellent display of 
orchids. One table was filled with a choice collection of vege- 
tables. A tomato plant grafted on a potato and bearing potato 
tubers at the bottom and a tomato at the top attracted much 
attention. 

The Rose and Strawberry Show was held June 22 and 23. The 
exceedingly cold and rainy spring was not favorable to the growth 
of the best quality of either fruit or flowers ; consequently the dis- 
play was not large and the quality was not as good as in some 
former years. In strawberries the Marshall took the lead in size 
and quality. Beautiful collections of orchids were shown ; also a 
very fine specimen (trained) of Bougainvillea, large collections 
of rhododendrons, and an exhibit of seventy-two varieties of 
paeonies. 

The Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers was held Septem- 
ber 1 and 2. All lovers of flowers look forward to this annual 
plant and flower show. The Upper Hall was devoted to pot plants. 
Much credit is due the Committee of Arrangements for the taste 



252 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

shown in arranging the pot plants in groups on the floor of the 
hall. All the stove, greenhouse, and foliage plants were in the 
best possible condition. The tanks of water plants near 
the entrance to the Upper Hall were very much admired. The 
Lower Hall was devoted to a splendid display of cut flowers. 
There was a very large show of dahlias on the tables and a solid 
bank on the platform at the end of the hall. Large collections of 
zinnias, marigolds, dianthuses, French cannas, native flowers, 
etc., were shown. The annual plant and flower show of 1897 was 
one of the best held by the Society. 

The Annual Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables began Septem- 
ber 30, to hold two days. The show of apples was not as large 
as that of some years, but many fine specimens were on the tables, 
the Roxbury Russet, Washington Strawberry, and Mcintosh Red 
being worthy of special mention. The show of pears was very 
fine, and many of the varieties were fully up to the high standard 
held by this Society. Peaches were excellent- Native grapes 
were good, notwithstanding the cold and rainy season. A novelty 
in the exhibition was a collection of seventeen varieties of edible 
nuts. The display of vegetables was abundant and of excellent 
quality. One long table was devoted to the squash family ; another 
to potatoes, beets, onions, parsnips, and carrots. There was an 
interesting collection of culinary herbs, comprising twenty vari- 
eties, many of which are seldom seen at our exhibitions. 

The Chrysanthemum Show began November 2, to continue four 
days. The Upper Hall was given up to the display of pot plants 
placed in groups on the floor. Here the gardener had a chance to 
show his taste in arranging for effect, each being allowed one 
hundred square feet. The plants were all well grown, and good 
taste was shown in the arrangement. The Lower Hall was devoted 
to the cut flowers on tables and in vases, every available space 
being rilled with the finest display of the chrysanthemum ever 
shown in Horticultural Hall. Besides the chrysanthemums there 
was a fine show of orchids and carnations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geo. Cruickshanks, 

Inspector. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



As usual, we find little to say about the affairs of the Library ; 
the same report would suffice year after year with the alteration 
of a few words. The sums of money which we have received from 
the Society and from the income of the Stickney Fund have been 
expended in the usual way, and the increase of the Library by 
purchase has been about the same as in previous years. The 
Librarian's list will contain all the titles, and it is not necessary, 
therefore, to make especial mention of many. The most important 
of the works which we have been receiving part by part, Sargent's 
" Silva of North America," is now complete with the exception of 
two volumes, one of which will probably be at hand by the end of 
the year. 

The books and pamphlets which we have obtained otherwise 
than by purchase have been as numerous as those we have bought ; 
£tnd we would make especial mention of a beautiful book presented 
by Mr. James Herbert Veitch, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., of the firm 
of James Veitch & Sons, descriptive of his journeys in the East 
and in Australia and New Zealand. The work is very valuable, 
not only for its text, but its illustrations, and is, moreover, a book 
which we could not easily have come by, since it was printed for 
private circulation only and not for distribution by the trade. 

A year ago we stated that the regular force of the Library 
would probably be able to do the needful work upon the card 
catalogue of plates in the future. This expectation seems to 
have been well founded, and much of this work has been done in 
the past year. We regard this catalogue as a possession as valu- 
able as it is unique ; when we look at this great array of drawers 



254 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

filled with cards, many of which contain three or four references, 
and remember that not one of these hundreds of thousands is 
included in Pritzel's Index, we see at a glance one proof of the 
completeness of our library and its accompanying key, which fully 
doubles its value. One thing more is lacking, which we hope may 
some day be supplied ; namely, a similar index to subjects. 

In regard to the suggestion made during the present year ' ' that 
the Committee on the Library shall make a rule limiting the time 
during which books can be kept from the Library room," we wish to 
say that Regulations for the Library were adopted on the 13th of 
March, 1830; which regulations were revised in 1846 and again 
in 1861. In every case they included a rule fixing the time during 
which books taken from the Library might be kept. These rules 
provide that a copy shall be affixed to every book, and that this 
is done may be seen by any one who will take the trouble to 
examine. 

For the Committee, 

W. E. Endicott, 

Chairman. 



REPORT 



SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



In attempting to write a report of the work in this department 
during the year now closing, I am confronted with the same diffi- 
culty which has been encountered in former years — the fact that 
the work of one year is so similar to that of another, though never 
precisely the same in its details, that the report of one year must 
necessarily bear a strong general resemblance to that of another. 

The Schedule of Prizes was, as I hoped when I presented my 
last report that it would be, ready and sent by mail with other 
documents to every member some days before the close of the 
year, and I trust that we may be able to do the same with the 
Schedule for 1898. 

The publication, since my last report, of the List of Library Ac- 
cessions in a separate pamphlet, as Part III. of the Transactions 
for 1895, affords a better opportunity than ever before to judge of 
the rapidity with which the Library is growing. The first publica- 
tion of the full list of additions to the Library was in 1860, when 
it filled about two pages ; in 1895 it filled sixty pages. Since my last 
report Part II. of the Transactions for 1896 has also been completed 
and published. As soon as I could see my way through these two 
publications, that of Part I. for 1897 was taken in hand. Four 
of the lecturers in the winter course having taken their papers home 
for revision, the first thing to be done was to recall these, and this 
was attempted early in June. One was received quite promptly ; 
another, after three written requests, came to hand about the first 
of August, and a third a little later ; but the fourth, notwithstand- 
ing many and urgent requests, was received only yesterday. Being 
one of the earliest in the course, it blocked the printing of all 



256 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the others ; but the beginning of that part of the Transactions is 
now in the printer's hands and it will be completed as speedily as 
possible. 

In my report as Librarian for 189*5 I remarked that the work of 
binding the Agricultural Newspapers, which for the previous five 
years had been preserved as permanent additions to the Library, 
should not be much longer delayed. I am glad to be able now 
to report that during the present year sixty-two volumes of this 
class have been bound. Although this is not a great number, 
and though the cheapest bindings consistent with strength and 
durability were selected, the books were of so large size that the 
expense absorbed a considerable part of the library appropriation. 
The next heavy work in the way of binding is our large collection 
of Experiment Station Reports ; this will be done as soon as time 
and funds permit. 

The great interest in mushrooms the last two or three years 
induced the Library Committee to add to those already in the 
Library a selection of works on that subject, some of which are 
illustrated with colored plates. These books have afforded much 
gratification to members of the Society and others who are study- 
ing that class of plants. 

Among other additions to the Library is a volume containing the 
anniversary addresses and other publications of the Society from 
its beginning in 1829 to 1887 inclusive. Although the Society 
already possessed copies of all these publications, interest is added 
to this volume by the fact that the pamphlets containing them 
were collected by the first President, General Dearborn, and that 
the volume has a title page, preface, and table of contents in his 
handwriting, the preface being signed by him and giving an account 
of the inception of the Society and the establishment by it of 
Mount Auburn Cemetery. There is also a copy of two circulars 
sent out to call the meetings which resulted in the formation of 
the Society, and a copy of the Order of Exercises at the Conse- 
cration of Mount Auburn. This unique volume was the gift of 
Edward C. R. Walker, whose lamented death on the 11th of 
October last has added to its value. 

The work of completing imperfect sets has been steadily pursued. 
Our set of the Farmer's Magazine in ninety-three volumes, London, 
1834-1881, has been completed by the fortunate purchase of the 
first nine volumes. In years past we have printed in connection 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 257 

with the List of Library Accessions a list of books, etc., wanted, 
the last having been in 1883. It has every year since then been 
ray desire to print another, but it has been omitted because the 
time required to prepare it would delay the publication of the 
Transactions. But with the publication of the Library Accessions 
in a separate pamphlet this objection no longer existed, and 
accordingly such a list was included in that pamphlet, and many of 
the books in it have already been procured, especially the publica- 
tions of the United States Department of Agriculture, making our 
set of those publications complete with very few exceptions. 

The extension of the usefulness of the Library among members 
of the Society and others has been kept constantly in mind, and 
a circular, intended to promote this object, signed by the Presi- 
dent, was sent to every member of the Society and a large num- 
ber of its correspondents, and still wider circulation was given to 
it by some of the leading horticultural and daily newspapers. 

No special appropriation for the work on the Card Catalogue of 
Plates was made this year, but it has been carried on as far as 
possible by those regularly employed here. 

One of the most vital portions of the Library, which makes us 
sharers in the horticultural progress of the day, is the periodicals 
supplied by the Society's appropriation, and by exchange for our 
own publications. These, which are ever growing in number, not 
only keep us informed as to the latest discoveries in horticulture, 
but when bound form a valuable, and not inconsiderable, perma- 
nent part of the annual accessions ; indeed, with other publications 
received by donation and exchange, they constitute the bulk of 
these annual additions. Another most valuable class of books is 
supplied by the Stickney Fund, but the interest of the Society in 
this fund expires with the present year, and it is much to be hoped 
that among the members and friends of the Society there may be 
found one possessing the means and disposition to establish a fund 
for the increase of the Library, which shall take the place of the 
Stickney Fund, and shall be a perpetual possession. 

The fact that only three weeks after the organization of the 
Society a Committee on the Library was established to collect 
books, drawings, engravings, etc., relating to horticulture, shows 
the estimate attached by the founders of the Society to the 
importance of a library. After a time, however, the interest 
in the Library seemed to flag, but later, owing to the diligent 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

labors of the Library Committee and the gift of Mr. Stickney, it 
was revived, and the Library may now claim to be of fully equal 
importance with any department of the Society ; indeed, as an 
educational influence, it may justly claim greater importance than 
any other department. The Library and the annual courses of 
lectures, only, can give the Society any claim to be considered a 
scientific institution. No more beautiful sight is afforded any- 
where, or at any time, than the specimens of plants, flowers, 
fruits, and vegetables contributed in such perfection to the 
various exhibitions of this Society ; but though they may excite in 
the beholders a desire to go and do likewise, in themselves they 
afford no information how to do it. The money spent in prizes 
and gratuities for these beautiful productions is doubtless pro- 
ductive of much good, but its permanent benefit, both to individ- 
uals and to the Society, is but small compared with that derived 
from a well stocked and carefully selected libra^, for that benefit 
is permanent and continually increasing. 

The Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, at Kew, is thought 
to be the best botanical library in the world, and there can be no 
better judge of such a library, both from a practical and scientific 
point of view, than Mr. George Nicholson, the Curator of the 
Gardens, author of the " Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening," 
and a Corresponding Member of this Society. When looking over 
our Library a few years ago, he exclaimed, " It is wonderful — it 
is wonderful — it is something that not only the State, but the 
whole nation, should be proud of!" 

Robert Manning, 

Secretary and Librarian. 
December 18, 1897. 



TREASURER'S REPORT 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society i?i account current to December 31. 
1897, with Charles E. Richardson, Treasurer. 



Dr. 

To amount paid on account of Library in 1897 : 
For books, periodicals, and binding . 
From income of Stickney Fund for 

books $733 54 

Less amount received from sale of du- 
plicate books . . . . . 50 00 



$400 00 



683 54 



To amounts paid Interest on Funds for Prizes 
credited opposite ....... 

To amounts paid Interest on Loans .... 

To Prizes awarded in 1896 paid in 1897 as follows : 
For Plants . . 

" Flowers . '. . . 

" Fruits . . . ' . 

it Vegetables . 

" Gardens and Greenhouses 

" Hunnewell Prizes for Rhododendrons 

To amount paid Committee on School Gardens and 
Children's Herbariums . 
" " Salaries, Secretary, Assistants, and 
Treasurer . 
Salaries of Committees 
Services on Transactions . 
Committee of Arrangements 
Insurance . . 
Repairs . 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware 
Heating .... 
Lighting .... 
Water Rates 

Amounts carried forward .... 



£1,963 53 

2,528 19 

1,476 00 

1,071 00 

480 00 

105 00 



$4,200 00 
1,351 00 
107 00 
400 00 
1,004 70 
248 76 
657 34 
968 62 
591 38 
354 00 



$1,083 54 

1,892 72 
928 50 



7,623 72 
191 23 



► ,882 80 $11,719 71 



260 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Amounts brought forward .... 
To amount paid Publication and Discussion 

" 'V Stationery, Printing, and Postage 

" Taxes ....*. 

" " Legal Services .... 
" " Incidentals .... 

" " Labor, including Janitor's Salary 
" " Annual Exhibitions, Expenses . 
" " H. H. Hunnewell 
" advanced to A. P. Loring, Executor . 



Balance of Cash, December 31, 1897 . 



$9,882 80 

280 00 

1,370 30 

2,756 00 

1,170 00 

679 73 

2,678 97 

462 57 

1,000 00 

15,000 00 



,719 71 



35,280 37 

$47,000 08 
6,664 89 



$53,664 97 



TREASURERS REPORT. 



261 



Cr. 

By Balance of account rendered December 31, 1896 
Received from Building in 1897, viz. : 

Rents of Stores .... $15,931 67 
" Halls . . . . 2,050 00 



Received Income from Mount Auburn . 
" Massachusetts State Bounty . 

" Admissions and Assessments . 

" Annual Exhibitions, Gross Receipts 



$17,981 67 

4,682 64 

600 00 

1,132 00 

974 25 



Interest on Bonds . . $1,075 00 

" Bank Balance . 44 58 

" other sources . 110 00 

from sales of Transactions 

" H. H. Hunnewell, prizes for 1896 . 

" Heating . . . 

" Water Rates 

Interest credited following Funds charged 

opposite : 
Samuel Appleton Fund . . $50 00 
John A. Lowell Fund . 50 00 

Theodore Lyman Fund . . 550 00 
Josiah Bradlee Fund . 50 00 

Benjamin V. French Fund . 25 00 
H. H. Hunnewell Fund . . 200 00 
W. J. Walker Fund . . 117 72 

Levi Whitcomb Fund . . 25 00 
Benjamin B. Davis Fund . 25 00 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund . 50 00 

John Lewis Russell Fund . 50 00 

Josiah Stickney Fund, as agreed 700 00 



Notes Payable 



1,229 58 

2 00 

32 00 

338 50 

199 00 



1,892 72 
18,000 00 



1,600 61 



47,06-t 36 



Approved : 

H. H. Hunnewell, 
A. Hemenway, 
Francis H. Appleton, 



$53,664 97 

CHAS. E. RICHARDSON, 

Treasurer. 

Finance 
Committee. 



262 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF THE MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

December 31, 1897. 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate . $250,000 00 

Stereotype Plates and copies of History . . 257 00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. Bonds . . 1,000 00 

Sinking Fund . . ~ . . . . . 23,872 50 

Kansas City, Clinton & Springfield R.R. Bonds . 1,980 00 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware .... 7,650 75 

A. P. Loring, Executor 22,500 00 

Library . . . . . . . . 36,980 73 

Due from Tenants . . . . . . - . 2,641 79 

Cash " . 6,664 89 

$353,547 66 



LIABILITIES. 

Mortgage . $1,000 00 

Notes Payable 18,000 00 

Josiah Stickney Fund, payable to Harvard Col- 
lege in 1899 12,000 00 

Unexpended balance of Josiah Stickney Fund . 32 74 

Prize Funds invested in Building, viz. : 
Samuel Appleton Fund, $1,000 00 



John A. Lowell 
Theodore Lyman - 
Josiah Bradlee 
Benjamin V. French 
William J. Walker 
Levi Whitcomb 
Benjamin B. Davis 
H. H. Hunnewell 



1,000 00 

11,000 00 

1,000 00 

500 00 
2,354 43 

500 00 

500 00 
3,000 00 
$20,854 43 



Prize Funds invested in Bonds : 

H. H. Hunnewell Fund, $1,000 00 
Marshall P. Wilder " 1,000 00 

John Lewis Russell " 1,000 00 



3,000 00 



23,854 43 
Prizes for 1897, payable in 1898 . . . . 8,100 00 



62,987 17 
Surplus . 290,560 49 



$353,54 7 66 



CHAS. E, RICHARDSON, 

Treasurer . 



treasurer's report. 263 

Membership Account of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, December 31, 1897. 

Life Members per last report 554 

Added in 1897 15 

Commuted from Annual ...... 6 

575 

Deceased 26 

549 

Annual Members per last report 212 

Added in 1897 19 

231 

Commuted to Life . . ..... 6 

Deceased ......... 2 

Resigned ......... 5 

Dropped for non-payment, two years .... 6 

19 

212 
Present Membership 761 

INCOME FROM MEMBERSHIP. 

15 new Life Members @ $30 . $450 00 

19 new Annual Members @ $10 190 00 

6 commuted to Life @ |20 . 120 00 

Annual Assessments . . . . . . . . . 372 00 

$1,132 00 

CHAS. E. RICHARDSON, 

Treasurer. 



264 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



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treasurer's report. 265 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society 

To tine Proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, Br. 
For one-fourth part of the following expenditures for grading new lands 
for sale during the year 1 897 : 

Vinca Path and Maple Avenue. 

34 days, men $76 50 

104 days, man and horse 390 00 

$466 50 

Yew and Fountain Avenues. 

198i days, men $446 06 

421| days, man and horse 1,581 56 

2,027 62 

$2,494 12 

One-fourth of $2,494.12 is . $623 53 

Signed, JAMES C. SCORGIE, 

Superintendent Mount Auburn Cemetery. 
December 31, 1897. 

I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of improvements for the year 1897 
rendered by the Superintendent. 

H. B. MACKINTOSH, 

Treasurer. 



liassatljti^tts iortitnlfurai ^ori% 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 

1898. 



President. 
FRANCIS H. APPLETON, of Peabodt. 

Vice-Presidents. 
CHARLES, H. B. BRECK, op Brighton. BENJAMIN P. WARE, or Clifton. 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Wellesley. SAMUEL HARTWELL, of Lincoln. 

Treasurer and Superintendent of the Building. 
CHARLES E. RICHARDSON, of Cambridge. 

Secretary and Librarian. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem.* 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology. 
BENJAMIN M. WATSON, of Jamaica Plain. 

Professor of Entomology. 
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, of Cambridge. 

Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. 
E. W. WOOD, of West Newton. 



1 Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should he addressed 
to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES. 267 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



Executive. 

The President, FRANCIS H. APPLETON, Chairman. 

The Chairman of the Finance Committee, H. H. HUNNEWELL, Ex officio. 

WILLIAM C. STRONG-. BENJAMIN C. CLARK. 

WILLIAM H. SPOONER. WALTER HUNNEWELL. 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER. CHARLES W. PARKER. 

CHARLES F. CURTIS. 

Finance. 

H. HOLLIS HUNNEWELL, or Boston, Chairman. 
FRANCIS H. APPLETON. AUGUSTUS HEMENWAY. 



Lectures and Publication. 

BENJAMIN M. WATSON, of Jamaica Plain, Chairman. 
JAMES H. BOWDITCH. AARON LOW. 

Library. 

WILLIAM E. ENDICOTT, oe Canton, Chairman. 
GEORGE W. HUMPHREY. GEORGE E. DAVENPORT. 

WALTER S. PARKER. CHARLES W. SWAN. 



Plants. 

AZELL C. BOWDITCH, of Somerville, Chairman. 
JAMES COMLEY. WILLIAM J. MARTIN. 

JAMES WHEELER. ARTHUR H. FEWKES. 



Flowers. 

J. WOODWARD MANNING, of Reading, Chairman. 
MICHAEL H. NORTON. FREDERICK S. DAVIS. 

KENNETH FINLAYSON. GEORGE E. DAVENPORT. 



Fruits. 

E. W. WOOD, of West Newton, Chairman. 
CHARLES F. CURTIS. WARREN FENNO. J. WILLARD HILL. 

O. B. HADWEN. SAMUEL HARTWELL. SUMNER COOLIDGE. 



Vegetables. 

CHARLES N. BRACKETT, of Watertown, Chairman. 
CEPHAS H. BRACKETT. VARNUM FROST. WALTER RUSSELL. 

P. G. HANSON. WARREN H. HEUSTIS. AARON LOW. 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gardens. 

PATRICK NORTON, or Dorchester, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF THE COMMITTEES ON PLANTS, FLOWERS, FRUITS, VEGE- 
TABLES, AND ARRANGEMENTS, Ex offlciis. 
HENRY W. WILSON. JACKSON DAWSON. 



For Establishing Prizes. 

WILLIAM J. STEWART, or Winchester, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF THE COMMITTEES ON PLANTS, FLOWERS, FRUITS, VEGE- 
TABLES, AND GARDENS, Ex offlciis. 
MRS. P. D. RICHARDS. 



Committee of Arrangements. 

JOSEPH H. WOODFORD, of Boston, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF THE COMMITTEES ON PLA.NTS, FLOWERS, FRUITS, VEGE- 
TABLES, AND GARDENS, Ex offlciis. 
ROBERT FARQUHAR. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



Members of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, 
changes in residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list 
is incorrect in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly communi- 
cating to the Secretary any needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to members 
whose names are marked thus f. 



Adams, Luther, Newton. 

Alger, Rev. R. F., Becket. 

Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell. 

Ames, Frank M., Canton. 

Ames, George, Boston. 

Ames, Oakes, 2d, North Easton. 

Ames, Preston Adams, Boston. 

Amory, Charles, Boston. 

Amory, Frederick, Boston. 

Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 

Andrews, Frank W., Washington, 

D.C. 
Andros, Milton, San Francisco, Cal. 
Appleton, Edward, Wakefield. 
Appleton, Francis H., Peabody. 
Appleton, William S., Boston. 
Ash, John, Pomfret Centre, Conn. 
Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 

Bailey, Jason S., West Roxbury. 
Bancroft, John C, Boston. 
Banfield, Francis L., M.D., Worces- 
ter. 
Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 
Barnard, James M., Boston. 
Barnard, Robert M., Everett. 
Barnes, Walter S., Somerville. 
t Barney, Levi C, Boston. 
Barratt, James, Ballard Vale. 
Barrett, Edwin S., Concord. 
Barry, John Marshall, Boston. 



Barry, William C, Rochester, N.Y. 
Bartlett, Edmund, Newburyport. 
Beal, Leander, Boston. 
Becker, Frederick C, Cambridge. 
Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Beebe, E. Pierson, Boston. 
Beebe, Franklin H., Boston. 
Beebe, J. Arthur, Boston. 
Berry, James, Brookline. 
Blake, Francis, Weston. 
Blake, Frederick A., Rochdale. 
Blakemore, John E., Roslindale. 
Blanchard, John W., Dorchester. 
Blinn, Richard D., Chicago, 111. 
Bliss, William, Boston. 
Boardman, Samuel M., Hyde Park. 
Bocher, Prof. Ferdinand, Cambridge. 
Bockus, Charles E., Dorchester. 
Bosler, Frank C, Carlisle, Penn. 
Bowditch, Azell C, Somerville. 
Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica Plain. 
Bowditch, Ernest W., Milton. 
Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 
Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Framingham. 
Bowditch, William E., Roxbury. 
Bowker, William H., Boston. 
Brackett, Cephas H., Brighton. 
Brackett, Charles N., Watertown. 
Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt. 
Brewer, Francis W., Hingham. 



270 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



Briggs, William S., Lincoln. 
Brigham, William T., Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
Brooks, J. Henry, Milton. 
Brown, Alfred S., Jamaica Plain. 
Brown, Charles E., Yarmouth, N.S. 
Brown, Edward J., Weston. 
Brown, George Barnard, Brookline. 
Brown, John T., Newbury port. 
Bullard, John R., Dedham. 
Burlen, William H., Boston. 
Burnett, Harry, Southborough. 
Burr, Matthew H., Hingham. 
Buswell, Frank E., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Butler, Aaron, Wakefield. 
Butler, Edward K., Jamaica Plain. 

Cabot, Edward C, Brookline. 

fCadness, John, Flushing, N.Y. 

Cains, William, South Boston. 

Calder, Augustus P., Boston. 

Cameron, Robert, Cambridge. 

Campbell, Francis, Cambridge. 

Capen, John, Boston. 

Carlton, Samuel A., Boston. 

Carr, Hon. John, Roxbury. 

Carter, Charles N., Boston. 

Carter, Miss Maria E., Woburn. 

Cartwright, George, Dedham. 

Chadbourne, Marshall W., Mount 
Auburn. 

Chaffin, John C, Newton. 

Chamberlain, Chauncy W., Boston. 

Chase, Andrew J., Lynn. 

Chase, Daniel E., Somerville. 

Chase, George B., Dedham. 

Chase, William M., Dorchester. 

Cheney, Amos P., Natick. 

Cheney, Mrs. Elizabeth S., Welles- 
ley. 

Childs, Nathaniel R., Boston. 

Choate, Charles F., Southborough. 

Christie, William, Newton. 

Claflin, Hon. William, Newtonville. 

Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 

Clapp, James H., Dorchester. 
Clapp, William C, Dorchester. 



Clark, Benjamin C, Boston. 
Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset. 
Clark, Miss Eleanor J., Pomfret. 

Centre, Conn. 
Clark, J. Warren, Rockville. 
Clarke, Miss Cora H., Boston. 
Cleary, Lawrence, West Roxbury. 
Clough, Micajah Pratt, Lynn. 
Cobb, Albert A., Brookline. 
Cobb, John C, Milton. 
Coburn, Isaac E., Everett. 
Codman, James M., Brookline. 
Codman, Ogden, South Lincoln. 
Collamore, Miss Helen, Boston. 
Converse, Elisha S., Maiden. 
Converse, Parker L., Woburn. 
Coolidge, Joshua, Mount Auburn. 
Cottle, Henry C, Boston. 
Cowing, Walter H., West Roxbury. 
Cox, Thomas A., Dorchester. 
Coy, Samuel I., Boston. 
Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Roxbury. 
Crocker, Miss S. H., Boston. 
Crosby, George E., West Medford. 
fCrowell, Randall H., Chelsea. 
Cummings, Hon. John, Woburn. 
Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 
Cushing, Livingston, Weston. 
Cushing, Robert M., Boston. 

f Daggett, Henry C, Boston. 
Dana, Charles B., Wellesley. 
Davenport, Albert M., Watertown. 
Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 
Davenport, George E., Medford. 
Davenport, Henry, New York. 
Davis, John, Lowell. 
Dawson, Jackson, Jamaica Plain. 
Day, William F., Roxbury. 
Dee, Thomas W., Mount Auburn. 
Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
Denton, Eben, Dorchester. 
Dewson, Francis A., Newtonville. 
Dexter, F. Gordon, Boston. 
Dickerman, George H., Somerville. 
Dike, Charles C, Stoneham. 
Doliber, Thomas, Brookline. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



271 



Donald, William, West Roxbury. 
Dorr, George, Dorchester. 
Dove, George W. W., Andover. 
Dowse, William B. H., West Newton. 
Draper, Hon. Eben S., Hopedale. 
Dreer, William F., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut Hill. 
Dunlap, James H., Nashua, N.H. 
Durant, William, Boston. 
Durfee, George B., Fall River. 
Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale. 

Eaton, Horace, Cambridge. 
Edgar, William W., Waverly. 
Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 
fEldridge, E. H., Roxbury. 
Ellicott, Joseph P., Boston. 
Elliot, Mrs. John W., Boston. 
Elliott, William H., Brighton. 
Endicott, William, Jr., Boston. 
Endicott, William E., Canton. 
Estabrook, Arthur F., Boston. 
Everett, William, Dorchester. 
Ewell, Warren, Dorchester. 

Fairchild, Charles, Boston. 
Falconer, William, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Farlow, Lewis H., Newton. 
Farnsworth, Mrs. William, Dedham. 
Farquhar, James F. M., Roslindale. 
Farquhar, John K. M. L., Roxbury. 
Farquhar, Robert, Boston. 
Faxon, John, Quincy. 
Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton High- 
lands. 
Finlayson, Kenneth, Brookline. 
Fisher, James, Roxbury. 
Flagg, Augustus, Boston. 
Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 
Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 
Fletcher, John W., Chelsea. 
Flint, David B., Boston. 
Foster, Francis C, Cambridge. 
Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 
Fowle, George W., Jamaica Plain. 
Fowle, William B., Auburndale. 
French, J. D. Williams, Boston. 



French, Jonathan, Boston. 
French, S. Waldo, Jamaica Plain. 
French, W. Clifford, Newton. 
Frohock, Roscoe R., Maiden. 

Galloupe, Charles W., Swampscott. 

Galvin, John, Boston. 

Gardner, George A., Boston. 

Gardner, George P., Boston. 

fGardner, Henry N., Mount Auburn. 

Gardner, John L., Brookline. 

Gibbs, Wolcott, M.D., Newport, R.I. 

Gill, George B., Medford. 

Gillard, William, Harrison Square, 
Dorchester. 

Gilmore, E. W., North Easton. 

Gilson, F. Howard, Reading. 

Glover, Joseph B., Boston. 

Goddard, A. Warren, Brookline. 

Goddard, Joseph, Sharon. 

Goddard, Mrs. Mary T., Newton. 

Goodell, L. W., Dwight. 

Gorham, James L., Jamaica Plain. 

fGould, Samuel, Boston. 

Gowing, Mrs. Clara E., Kendall 
Green. 

Gray, James, Wellesley. 

Gregory, Hon. James J. H., Marble- 
head. 

Greig, George, Toronto, Ontario. 

Grey, Benjamin, Maiden. 

Guild, J. Anson, Brookline. 

Hadwen, Obadiah B., Worcester. 
Hale, James O., Byfield. 
Hall, Edwin A., Cambridgeport. 
Hall, George A., Chelsea. 
Hall, George R., M.D., Warren, R.I. 
Hall, Osborn B., Maiden. 
Hall, William F., Brookline. 
Halliday, William H., South Boston. 
Hammond, Gardiner G., New Lon- 
don, Conn. 
Hammond, George W., Boston. 
Hanson, P. G., Woburn. 
fHarding, George W., Arlington. 
Harding, Louis B., Stamford, Conn. 



272 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport. 

Harris, Charles, Cambridge. 

Harris, Thaddeus William, A.M., 
Keene, N H. 

Harwood, George Fred, Newton. 

Haskell, John C, Lynn. 

Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 

Hatch, Mrs. C. S., North Cambridge. 

Hatch, Edward, Boston. 

Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 

Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Rockland, 
Me. 

fHazeltine, Hazen, Boston. 

Hemenway, Augustus, Canton. 

Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 

Hews, Albert H., North Cambridge. 

Hilbourn, A. J., Boston. 

Hill, John, Stoneham. 

Hittinger, Jacob, Mount Auburn. 

Hoar, Samuel, Concord. 

Hodgkins, John E., Portsmouth, 

N.H. 
Hoitt, Hon. Charles W., Nashua, 

N.H. 
Hollingsworth, Amor L., Milton. 
Hollis, George W., Grantville. 
Holmes, Edward J., Boston. 
Holt, Mrs. Stephen A., Winchester. 
Horner, Mrs. Charlotte N. S., George- 
town. 
Horsford, Miss Kate, Cambridge. 
Hovey, Charles H., South Pasadena, 

Cal. 
Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 
Howard, Joseph W., Somerville. 
Hubbard, Charles T., Weston. 
Hubbard, Charles Wells, Weston. 
Hubbard, James C, Everett. 
Humphrey, George W., Dedham. 
Hunnewell, Arthur, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, Welles- 
ley. 
Hunnewell, H. Hollis, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 
Hunt, Dudley F., Reading. 
Hunt, Francis W., Melrose. 
fHunt, Franklin, Boston. 



Hunt, William H., Concord. 
Hyde, James F. C, Newton High- 
lands. 

Jack, John George, Jamaica Plain. 
Jackson, Charles L., Cambridge. 
Jackson, Robert T., Dorchester. 
Janvrin, William S., Revere. 
Jenks, Charles W., Bedford. 
Johnson, J. Frank, Boston. 
Jones, Jerome, Brookline. 
Jose, Edwin H., Cambridgeport. 
Joyce, Mrs. E. S., Medford. 

Kakas, Edward, West Medford. 
Kellen, William V., Marion. 
Kelly, George B., Jamaica Plain. 
Kendall, D. S., Woodstock, Ont. 
Kendall, Edward, Cambridgeport. 
fKendall, Joseph R., San Francisco, 

Cal. 
Kendall, Dr. Walter G., Atlantic. 
Kendrick, Mrs. H. P., Allston. 
Kennedy, George G., M.D., Roxbury. 
Kent, John, Brookline. 
fKeyes, E. W., Denver, Col. 
Keyes, John M., Concord. 
Kidder, Charles A., Southborough. 
Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton. 
fKimball, A. P., Boston. 
King, Franklin, Dorchester. 
Kingman, Abner A , Brookline. 
Kingman, C. D., Middleborough. 
Knapp, Walter H., Newtonville. 

Lancaster, Charles B., Newton. 
Lawrence, Amory A., Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos A., Boston. 
Lawrence, James, Groton. 
Lawrence, John, Groton. 
Learned, Charles A., Arlington. 
Lee, Charles J., Dorchester. 
Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain. 
Lee, Francis H., Salem. 
Lee, Henry, Boston. 
Leeson, Hon. Joseph R., Newton 

Centre. 
Lemme, Frederick, Charlestown. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



273 



Leuchars, Robert B., Brookline. 
Lewis, William G. , Framingham. 
Lincoln, George, Hingham. 
Lincoln, Col. Solomon, Boston. 
Little, James L., Brookline. 
Lockwood, Rhodes, Boston. 
Lodge, Richard W., Swampscott. 
Loftus, John P., Dorchester. 
Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford. 
Lothrop, William S. H., Boston. 
fLowder, John, Watertown. 
Lowell, Augustus, Boston. 
Luke, Elijah JL, Cambridgeport. 
Lumb, William, Boston. 
Lunt, William W., Hingham. 
Lyman, George H., Wareham. 
Lyon, Henry, M.D., Charlestown. 

fMahoney, John, Boston. 
Mallet, E. B., Jr., Freeport, Maine. 
Mann, James F., Ipswich. 
Manning, Jacob W., Reading. 
Manning, J. Woodward, Reading. 
Manning, Mrs. Lydia B., Reading. 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manning, Warren H., Brookline. 
Marshall, Frederick F., Chelsea. 
Mason, Col. Frederick, Taunton. 
Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 
May, F. W. G., Boston. 
McCarty, Timothy, Providence, R.I. 
McClure, John, Revere. 
McWilliam, George, Whitinsville. 
Melvin, James C, West Newton. 
Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 
Merriam, M. H., Lexington. 
Merrill, Hon. Moody, Roxbury. 
Metivier, James, Cambridge. 
Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Washington, 

D.C. 
Minton, James, Boston. 
Mitton, Edward J., Brookline. 
Mixter, George, Boston. 
Monteith, David, Dedham. 
Montgomery, Alexander, Natick. 
Moore, John H., Concord. 
Morgan, George H., New York, N.Y. 



fMorse, Samuel F., Boston. 
Moseley, Charles H., Dorchester. 
Mudge, George A., Portsmouth, 

N.H. 
Murphy, William Bowen, Boston. 

Nevins, David, Framingham. 
Newman, John R., Winchester. 
Newton, Rev. William W., Pittsfield. 
Nickerson, George A., Dedham. 
Norton, Charles W., Allston. 
Norton, Edward E., Boston. 

Oakman, Hiram A., North Marsh- 
field. 
Olmsted, John Charles, Brookline. 

Packer, Charles H., Boston. 
Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan. 
Palmer, Julius A., Jr., Boston. 
Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Parker, Charles W., Boston. 
Partridge, Horace, North Cambridge. 
Patten, Marcellus A., Tewksbury. 
Paul, Alfred W., Dighton. 
Peabody, Francis H., Boston. 
Peabody, John E., Boston. 
Peck, O. H., Denver, Col. 
Peck, William G., Arlington. 
Peirce, Silas, Boston. 
Perkins, Edward N., Jamaica Plain. 
fPerry, George W., Maiden. 
Philbrick, William D., Newton 

Centre. 
Pierce, Dean, Brookline. 
Pierce, George Francis, Dorchester. 
Poor, John R., Boston. 
Porter, James C, Wollaston. 
Potter, Joseph S., Fredericksburg, 

Va. 
Prang, Louis, Roxbury. 
Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 
Pratt, Lucius G., West Newton. 
Pratt, Robert M., Boston. 
Pray, Dr. Mark W., Boston. 
Prescott, Eben C, New York. 
Pringle, Cyrus G., Charlotte, Vt. 



274 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Prouty, Gardner, Littleton. 
Putnam, Joshua H., Newton Centre. 

Quinby, Hosea M., M.D., Worcester. 

Raddin, Everett W., North Cam- 
bridge. 

Rand, Miss Elizabeth L., Newton 
Highlands. 

Rand, Harry S., North Cambridge. 

Rand, Oliver J., Cambridgeport. 

Rawson, Warren W., Arlington. 

Ray, James F., Franklin. 

Ray, Hon. Joseph G., Franklin. 

Raymond, Walter, Boston. 

Read, Charles A., Manchester. 

Reardon, John B., Boston. 

Reed, George W., Boston. 

Rice, George C, Worcester. 

Richards, John J., Boston. 

Richardson, Charles E., Cambridge. 

Rinn, J. Ph., Boston. 

Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 

Ripley, Ebed L., Hingham Centre. 

Robbins, I. Gilbert, Melrose High- 
lands. 

Robinson, John, Salem. 

Robinson, Joseph B., Dorchester. 

Robinson, Warren J., Somerville. 

Ross, Henry, Newtonville. 

Ross, Waldo O., Boston. 

Ruddick, William H., M.D., South 
Boston. 

Russell, George, Woburn. 

Russell, Hon. John E., Leicester. 

Russell, Walter, Arlington. 

Salisbury, William C. G., Boston. 
Sanford, Oliver S., Hyde Park. 
Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 
Sawtelle, Eli A., Boston. 
Sawyer, Timothy T., Boston. 
Scorgie, James C, Cambridge. 
fScott, Charles, Newton. 
Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston. 
Sears, J. Montgomery, Boston. 
Shaw, Christopher C, Milford, N.H. 



Shorey, John L., Lynn. 
Shuman, Hon. A., Roxbury. 
Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle, 

N.Y. 
Simpkins, Hon. John, Yarmouthport. 
Skinner, Francis, Boston. 
Smith, Benjamin G., Cambridge. 
Smith, Calvin W., Wellesley Hills. 
Smith, Charles H., Jamaica Plain. 
Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 
Smith, Edward N., San Francisco, 

Cal. 
Smith, George O., Boston. • 
Smith, Thomas Page, Waltham. 
Snow, Eugene A., Melrose. 
Souther, Charles H., Jamaica Plain. 
Spaulding, Edward, West Newton. 
Speare, Alden, Newton Centre. 
Spooner, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
Sprague, Hon. Charles F., Brookline. 
Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hills. 
Springall, George, Maiden. 
Stearns, Frank W., Newton. 
Stedman, Henry R., M.D., Roslin- 

dale. 
Stewart, William J., Winchester. 
Stone, Charles W., Boston. 
Stone, Prof. George E., Amherst. 
Stone, George F., Chestnut Hill. 
Strater, Herman, Roxbury. 
Strong, William C, Waban. 
Sturgis, Russell, Manchester. 
Sturtevant, E. Lewis, M.D., South 

Framingham. 
Swain, Charles E., Roxbury. 
Sweet, Everell F., Maiden. 

Taft, John B., Cambridge. 
Talbot, Mrs. I. Tisdale, Boston. 
Tarbell, George G., M.D., Boston. 
Taylor, Horace B., Portland, Me. 
Temple, Felker L., Boston. 
Tenney, C. H., Methuen. 
Thompson, Leonard, Woburn. 
Thurlow, Thomas C, West New- 
bury. 
Tilton, Stephen W., Roxbury. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



275 



Todd, John, Hingham. 
Tolman, Benjamin, Concord. 
Toppan, Roland W., Maiden. 
Torrey, Everett, Charlestown. 
Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove, L.I., 

N.Y. 
fTurner, John M., Dorchester. 
Turner, Roswell W., Boston. 

Vander-Woerd, Charles, Waltham. 
Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somerville. 

Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 
Walcott, Henry P., M.D., Cambridge. 
Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica Plain. 
Wales, George O., Braintree. 
Walker, Miss Mary S., Waltham. 
Walley, Mrs. W. P., Boston. 
Walton, Daniel G., Wakefield. 
Ward, Francis Jackson, Roxbury. 
Ward, John, Newton Centre. 
Ware, Benjamin P., Clifton. 
Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 
Washburn, Andrew, Hyde Park. 
Watson, Benjamin M., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Watson, Thomas A., East Braintree. 
Watts, Isaac, Waverly. 
Webber, Aaron D., Boston. 
Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 
Weld, Christopher Minot, Jamaica 

Plain. 



Weld, George W., Newport, R.I. 
Weld, Richard H., Boston. 
West, Mrs. Maria L., Neponset. 
Weston, Seth, Revere. 
Wheeler, Frank, Concord. 
Wheeler, Wilfred, Concord. 
Wheelwright, A. C, Bro.okline. 
Whitcomb, William B., Medford. 
White, Francis A., Brookline. 
White, Joseph H., Brookline. 
Whitney, Arthur E., Winchester. 
Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton. 
Whittier, Hon. Charles, Roxbury. 
Whittier, George E., Groton. 
Wilbur, George B., West Newton. 
Wilder, Edward Baker, Dorchester. 
Wilder, Henry A., Maiden. 
Willard, E. W., Newport, R.I. 
Willcutt, Levi L., West Roxbury. 
Williams, Aaron D., Boston. 
Williams, Benjamin B., Boston. 
Williams, Philander, Taunton. 
Willis, George W., Chelsea. 
Willis, Joshua C, Roxbury. 
Wilson, Col. Henry W., Boston. 
Wilson, William Power, Boston. 
Winthrop, Robert C, Jr., Boston. 
Wood, William K., West Newton. 
Woods, Henry, Boston. 
Wright, George C, West Acton. 
Wright, John G., Brookline. 
Wyman, Oliver B., Shrewsbury. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



Members of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, 
changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list 
is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly communi- 
cating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



Adams, Henry Saxton, Dorchester. 
Allen, Charles L., Floral Park, N.Y. 
Alles, William H., Hyde Park. 
Anderson, George M., Milton. 
Arnold, Mrs. Anna E., Roxbury. 
Arnold, Miss Sarah L., Newton 

Centre. 
Atkinson, Edward, Brookline. 

Badlam, William H., Dorchester. 

Barker, John G., Melrose. 

Benedict, Washington G., Boston. 

Bigelow, Arthur J., Eastlake, Worces- 
ter. 

Bigelow, Mrs. Nancy J., South- 
borough. 

Bird, John L., Dorchester. 

Blake, Edward D., Boston. 

Bliss, Benjamin K., East Bridge- 
water. 

Blomberg, Carl, North Easton. 

Bock, William A., North Cambridge. 

Bolles, Matthew, Boston. 

Bolles, William P., M.D., Roxbury. 

Bouve, Lander M., Brookline. 

Boyden, Clarence F., Taunton. 

Braman, George H., Newton. 

Breck, Charles H., Newton. 

Breck, Charles H. B., Brighton. 

Brooks, George, Brookline. 

Brown, David H., West Medford. 

Butler, Edward, Wellesley. 

Carpenter, Frank O., West Roxbury. 
Carroll, James T., Chelsea. 



Carter, Mrs. Sarah D. J., Wilming- 
ton. 
Cary, Miss Alice B., Lexington. 
Chase, Joseph S., Maiden. 
Chase, Leverett M., Roxbury. 
Chase, Philip A., Lynn. 
Chubbuck, Isaac Y., Roxbury. 
Clapp, Henry L., Roxbury. 
Clark, John Spencer, Boston. 
Clark, John W., North Hadley. 
Clark, Joseph, Manchester. 
Clark, Theodore M., Newtonville. 
Clarke, Frederick E., Lawrence. 
Collins, Frank S., Maiden. 
Comley, James, Lexington. 
Coolidge, David H., Jr., Boston. 
Coolidge, Sumner, Mount Auburn. 
Cotter, Lawrence, Dorchester. 
Cotting, Charles IT., Boston. 
Councilman, Prof. W. T., Boston. 
Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 
Curtis, Louville, Tyngsborough. 

Damon, Frederick W., Arlington. 
Davis, Frederick, Boston. 
Davis, Frederick S., West Roxbury. 
Davis, Thomas M., Cambridgeport. 
Dawson, Charles Jackson, Jamaica 

Plain. 
Dimick, Orlendo W., Watertown. 
Dolbear, Mrs. Alice J., College Hill. 
Doran, Enoch E., Brookline. 
Dorr, George B., Boston. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



277 



Doyle, William E., East Cambridge. 
Duffley, Daniel, Brookline. 

Eaton, Warren E., Reading. 
Endicott, Miss Charlotte M., Canton. 
Ewell, Marshall F., Marshfield Hills. 

Faxon, Edwin, Jamaica Plain. 
Felton, Arthur W., West Newton. 
Fenno, Warren, Revere. 
Fisher, Sewall, Framingham. 
Fitzgerald, Desmond, Brookline. 
Fletcher, Fred W., Auburndale. 
Forbes, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
French, Charles G., Utica, N.Y. 
Frost, Artemas, Belmont. 
Frost, George, West Newton. 
Frost, Varnum, Arlington. 
Fuller, T. Otis, Needham. 

Gibbon, Mrs. James A., Brookline. 
Gill, Mrs. E. M., Medford. 
Gilman, Hon. Virgil C, Nashua, 

N.H. 
Grant, Charles E., Concord. 
Grew, Henry Sturgis, Boston. 
Grey, Thomas J., Chelsea. 

Hall, Charles H., M.D., Boston. 

Hall, Stacy, Boston. 

Hall, William T., Revere. 

Hallstram, Charles W., Boston. 

Hargraves, William J., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Harris, Frederick L., Wellesley. 

Harrison, Thomas, Melrose High- 
lands. 

Hartwell, Samuel, Lincoln. 

Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. 

Henshaw, Samuel, West Brighton, 
N.Y. 

Hersey, Alfred H., Hingham. 

Hersey, Edmund, Hingham. 

Heustis, Warren H., Belmont. 

Hewett, Miss Mary C, Canton. 

Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 

Hobbs, George M., Boston. 

Hollis, George, South Weymouth. 



Horton, Herbert A., Brookline. 
Houghton, George S., West Newton. 
Hubbard, F. Tracey, Cambridge. 
Huston, Miss Katherine W., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Ireland, Robert D., Winthrop. 

James, Robert Kent, Dorchester. 
Jameson, G. W., East Lexington. 
Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 

Keith, Miss Mary R., Washington, 

D.C. 
Kemp, William S., Brookline. 
Kenrick, Miss Anna C, Newton. 

Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Roxbury. 
Lawrence, Henry S., Roxbury. 
Lee, William W., Northampton. 
Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Medford. 
Lomax, George H., Somerville. 
Lombard, Richard T., Wayland. 
Loring, Charles G., Boston. 
Loring, John A., North Andover. 
Loring, William C, Beverly. 
Lothrop, Thornton K., Boston. 
Low, Hon. Aaron, Hingham. 
Lowell, John, Newton. 

Manda, W. A., South Orange, N.J. 
Manning, A. Chandler, Reading. 
Martin, William J., Milton. 
Masten, Cornelius E., Roxbury. 
McDowell, Mrs. Mary, Cambridge. 
McLaren, Anthony, Wesiwood. 
McMullen, Edgar, Boston. 
Meriam, Horatio C, D.M.D., Salem. 
Merrill, John J., Roxbury. 
Milman, William, Roxbury. 
Moody, Abner J., Boston. 
Moore, George D., Arlington. 
Moseley, Frederick Strong, West 

Newbury. 
Munson, Prof. W. M., Orono, Me. 
Mutch, John, Brookline. 

Newton, John F., Roxbury. 
Nicholson, William, Framingham. 



278 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Norton, Michael H., Boston. 
Norton, Patrick, Boston. 

Olmsted, Frederick Law, Brookline. 

Park, William D., Boston. 
Park, William P., West Boxford. 
Parker, John, Newtonville. 
Parker, Walter S., Reading. 
Patterson, William, Quincy. 
Peirce, George H., Concord Junction. 
Petremant, Robert, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Pickman, Dudley L., Boston. 
Pigott, Thomas E., Winthrop. 
Plimpton, Willard P., West Newton. 
Power, Charles J., South Framing- 
ham. 
Prichard, Joseph V., Boston. 
Purdie, George A., Weliesley Hills. 

Rea, Charles H., Norwood. 
Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 
Rich, Miss Ruth G., Dorchester. 
Rich, William E. C, Roxbury. 
Rich, William P., Chelsea. 
Richards, Mrs. P. D., West Med- 

ford. 
Robbins, Oliver R., Weston. 
Robinson, Walter A., Arlington. 
Ross, Charles W., Newtonville. 
Ross, Henry Wilson, Newtonville. 
Rothwell, James E., Brookline. 

Sander, Charles, Brookline. 

Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 

Sawtelle, J. M., Fitchburg. 

Scott, Augustus E., Lexington. 

Scudder, Samuel H., Cambridge. 

Searles, E. F., Methuen. 

Seaver, Edwin P., LL.D., Waban. 

Sharpies, Stephen P., Cambridge. 

Shaw, Hon. Edward P., Newbury- 
port. 

Sheppard, Edwin, Lowell. 

Smith, Archibald, Somerville. 

Southworth, Edward, Quincy. 

Squire, Miss Pother A., North Cam- 
bridge. 



Stearns, Mrs. Charles A., East 

Watertown. 
Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 
Stevens, Mrs. Mary L., Cambridge. 
Stevens, Miss Mary 0., North An- 

dover. 
Stone, Joshua C, Watertown. 
Storer, Charles, Providence, R.I. 
Story, Miss Sarah W., Brighton. 
Swan, Charles W., M.D., Brookline. 

Tailby, Joseph, Weliesley. 
Teele, William H., West Acton. 
Terry, Rev. Calvin, North Wey- 
mouth. 
Toby, Rufus T., Roxbury. 
Travis, Charles B., Brighton. 
Tyndale, Theodore H., Brookline. 

Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

Walsh, Michael H„ Wood's Holl. 
Warren, Samuel H., Weston. 
Welch, Patrick, Dorchester. 
Wells, Benjamin T., Newtonville. 
Westwood, Thomas H., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Wheeler, Henry A., Newtonville. 
Wheeler, James, Brookline. 
White, Maurice P., Roxbury. 
White, W. Henry, Lowell. 
Whitney, Joseph, Cambridgeport. 
Whiton, Hon. Starkes, Hingham 

Centre. 
Wilkie, Edward A., Newtonville. 
Winter, William C, Mansfield. 
Wolcott, Mrs. H. L. T., Dedham. 
Wood, Mrs. Anna D., West Newton. 
Wood, Elijah A., West Newton. 
Wood, E. W., West Newton. 
Woodford, Joseph H., Boston. 
Woods, Henry F., Boston. 
Worthington, Roland, Roxbury. 

Young, Arthur W., Hingham. 
Young, Charles S., Newton Centre. 
Young, E. Bentley, Boston. 

Zirngiebel, Denys, Needham. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 279 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



SECTION XXII. 

Life Members. 

The payment of thirty dollars shall constitute a Life Membership and 
exempt the member from all future assessments, and any Annual Member, 
having paid all dues, may become a Life Member by the payment of twenty 
dollars in addition thereto. 

Annual Membership. . 

Every Annual Member, before he receives his diploma or exercises the 
privileges of a member, shall pay the sum of ten dollars as an admission fee, 
and shall be subject afterwards to an annual assessment of two dollars. 

SECTION XXIII. 

Withdrawal or Discontinuance of Membership. 

Any member may withdraw from the Society, on giving notice to the 
Treasurer and paying the amount due from him. Any member who shall 
neglect for the space of two years to pay his annual assessment, after due 
notice from the Treasurer, shall cease to be a member. The Treasurer 
shall give notice of such withdrawals or discontinuances to the Secretary, 
who shall erase such members' names from the list. 

The attention of Annual Members is 'particularly called to Section XXJII. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that 
the following list is inaccurate in any particular, will, confer a favor by 
promptly communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to Joseph 
Maxwell, elected in 1830, and George W. Smith, elected in 1851. 



Hon. George S. Boutwell, Groton. 

H. W. S. Cleveland, Chicago, 111. 

Major L. A. Huguet-Latour, M.P., Montreal, Canada. 

Joseph Jefferson, Buzzard's Bay. 

Joseph Maxwell, Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Donald G. Mitchell, New Haven, Conn. 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Ex-Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C 

Baron R. Von Osten Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany. 

Samuel B. Parsons, Flushing, N.Y. 

George W. Smith, Boston. 

Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing thqj the 
following list is inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly 
reporting to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard tfo Alexander 
Burton, elected in 1829, S. Keynolds, M.D., 1832, and Francis Summerest 
(or Summerer), 1833. 



Edouard Andre, Editor in Chief of the Revue Horticole, Paris, France. 
Professor L. H. Bailey, Horticultural Department, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N.Y. 
Charles Baltet, President de la Societe Horticole, Vigneronne, et Fores- 

tiere de l'Aube, Troyes, France. 
Napoleon Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 
D. W. Beadle, 303 Crawford St., Toronto, Ontario. 
Professor William J. Beal, Agricultural College, Michigan. 
Prosper J. Berckmans, Ex-President of the American Pomological Society, 

Augusta, Ga. 
Charles E. Bessey, Ph.D., Professor of Botany in the Industrial College 

of the University of Nebraska-, Lincoln. 
Dr. Ch.,Bolle, Berlin, Prussia. 

John Croumbie Brown, LL.D., Haddington, Scotland. 
Professor J. L. Budd, Secretary of the Iowa Horticultural Society, Ames. 
William Bull, Chelsea, England. 

Alexander Burton, United States Consul at Cadiz, Spain, Philadelphia. 
Isidor Bush, Bushberg, Jefferson Co., Mo. 
George W. Campbell, Ex-President of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, 

Delaware, O. 
Maxim b Cornu, Director of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, France. 
Benjamin E. Cotting, M.D., Boston. 
Daniel T. Curtis, Dorchester. 

Rev. H. Honywood D'Ombrain, Westwell Vicarage, Ashford, Kent, England. 
Malcolm Dunn, Dalkeith, Scotland. 
W. T. Tiiiselton Dyer, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Kew, England. 
Parker Earle, President of the American Horticultural Society, Roswcll, 

N.M. 



282 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

George Ellavanger, Rochester, N.Y. 

Henry John Elwes, F.L.S., F.Z^S., Colesborn, Andoversford, Gloucester- 
shire, England. 
William G. Farlow, M. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 

University, Cambridge. 
B. E. Fernow, Chief of the Division of Forestry, Department of Agricult- 
ure, Washington, D.C. 
Hon. Robert W. Furnas, Ex-President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 

Society, Brownville. 
Charles A. Goessmann, Ph.D., LL.D., Chemist of the Hatch Experiment 

Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst. 
George L. Goodale, M.D., Professor of Botany, Harvard University, 

Cambridge. 
Obadiah B. Hadwen, President of the Worcester County Horticultural 

Society, Worcester. 
Professor Byron D. Halsted, Botanist and Horticulturist at the New 

Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N.J. 
J. H. Hart, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Trinidad. 
Dr. F. M. Hexamer, Editor American Agriculturist, New York. 
J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S.C. 
J. C. Holding, Ex-Treasurer and Secretary of the Cape of Good Hope 

Agricultural Society, Cape Town, Africa. 
The Very Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, D.D., Dean of Rochester, Rochester, 

England. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., The Camp, Sunningdale, England. 
Josiah Hoopes, West Chester, Pa. 
George Hdsmann, Napa, Cal. 
William J. Johnson, M.D., Fort Gaines, Ga. 
Charles Joly, Vice-President of the Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de 

France, Paris. 
Sir George King, Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
Professor William R. Lazenby, Secretary of the Agricultural Experiment 

Station, Columbus, O. 
Max Leichtlin, Baden-Baden, Germany. 
G. F. B. Leighton, President of the Norfolk Horticultural and Pomological 

Society, Norfolk, Va. 
Victor Lemoine, Nancy, France. 
J. Linden, Ghent, Belgium. 
T. T. Lyon, Honorary President of the Michigan Horticultural Society, 

South Haven. 
Dr. Peter MacOwan, F.L.S., Director of the Botanic Garden, Cape Town, 

Africa. 
Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, Editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle, London. 
George Maw, Benthal, Kinley, Surrey, England. 
T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N.Y. 
Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Pa. 
Dk. Charles Moiir, Mobile, Ala. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 283 

Dr. Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., Assistant Director of 

the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 
Ch. Naudin, Antibes, France. 

George Nicholson, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 
William Paul, Waltham Cross, London, N. 
Professor D. P. Penhallow, Director of the Botanic Garden, Montreal, 

Canada. 
Henry Probasco, Cincinnati, O. 
P. T. Quinn, Newark, N.J. 
Cavaliere Enrico Ragtjsa, Palermo, Sicily. 
D. Redmond, Ocean Springs, Miss. 
S. Reynolds, M.D., Schenectady, N.Y. 
William Robinson, Editor of The Garden, London. 
Edgar Sanders, Chicago, 111. 

William Saunders, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 
William R. Smith, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Washington, D.C. 
Robert W. Starr, Port William, N.S. 
Dr. Joseph Stayman, Leavenworth, Kan. 
Francis Summerest. 
William Sumner, Pomaria, S.C. 

William Trelease, Director of the Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis. 
Dr. Melchior Treub, Director of the Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg, Java. 
H. J.- Veitch, Chelsea, England. 
Henry L. de Vilmorin, Secretary of the Societe Nationale d'Agriculture 

de France, Paris. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Business Meeting, April 3, 1897; Report on Portrait of President Kidder, p. 137; 
Request by Committee on Lectures and Publication, 137; Annual Report of 
Treasurer read, 137; Decease of E. W. Lincoln, Charles Eliot, and Dr. 
Robert Hogg announced, 137, 138; Awards to others than members, 138; 
Seven members elected 138 

Business Meeting, May 22; Request and Call for Special Meeting, pp. 139, 140; 
Committee on School Gardens, etc., 140; Votes concerning bequest of 
Francis B. Hayes, 140, 141; Vote of Thanks 141 

Business Meeting, July 3; Resignation of Chairman of Garden Committee and 
Election of successor, p. 142; Report on awards to others than members, 
142; Memorial of E. W. Lincoln, 142, 143; Memorial of Charles Eliot, 143, 
144 ; Letter concerning meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and Vote thereon, 144, 145; Committee on Nominations, 
145; Letters from Mrs. C Eliot and R. M. Hogg, 145; Decease of Hon. J. S. 
Fay and Robert Douglas announced, 145; Vote concerning payment of Gar- 
den Committee, 145; Five members elected, 146; Election of Honorary and 
Corresponding Members 146 

Business Meeting, September 4; Report of Nominating Committee, p. 146; 
Memorial of Hon. J. S. Fay, 146, 147; Decease of S. R. Payson and E. W. 
Buswell announced 147 

Business Meeting, October 2; Annual Election, pp. 147, 149; Transfer of Appro- 
priation voted, 148; Memorial of Robert Douglas, 148; Letter from J.S. Fay, 
Jr., 148; Vote requiring meetings of Awarding Committees, 149; Committees 
on Memorials to S. R. Payson and E. W. Buswell, 149 ; Ten members elected, 149 

Business Meeting, November 6; Memorial of S. R. Payson, p. 150; Appropria- 
tions for 1S98, 150, 151; Three members elected 151 

Business Meeting, December 4; Memorial of E. W. Buswell, pp. 151, 152; 
Report of Fruit Committee read, 152; Report from Committee on Establish- 
ing Prizes, 152, 153; Thanks for offer of Prizes, 153; Book from J.H. Veitch, 
153; Six members elected 153 

Business Meeting, December 18, 1897; Vote concerning Reports of Committees, 

p. 154; Reports of Committees and of Secretary and Librarian presented . 154 

Report or Committee on Plants; Introduction, p. 155; Saturday Exhibitions, 
155, 150, 157, 158; Spring Exhibition, 156; Rose and Strawberry Exhibition, 
157; Annual Exhibition of Plants and Flowers, 157; Chrysanthemum Exhi- 
bition, 157; Financial Statement, 158; Prizes and Gratuities awarded . . 159-168 



li CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Report of Committee on Flowers; Introduction, pp.169, 170; Saturday Exhi- 
bitions, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175; Spring Exhibition, 171; May Exhibition, 171; 
Rhododendron Show, 171, 172; Pseony Show, 172; Rose and Strawberry 
Exhibition, 172, 173; Aquatic Exhibition, 174, 175; Annual Exhibition of 
Plants and Flowers, 175; Chrysanthemum Show, 176; Financial Statement, 
176 ; Prizes and Gratuities awarded 177-196 

Report or Committee on Fruits, pp. 197, 198; Prizes and Gratuities awarded, 199-215 

Report of Committee on Vegetables, pp. 216-219; Prizes and Gratuities 

awarded 220-236 

Report of Committee on School Gardens and Children's Herbariums; 
George Putnam School Garden, pp. 237, 238; Medford School Gardens, 
238, 239; Other School Gardens, 239, 240; Children's Herbariums, 237-241; 
Prizes and Gratuities awarded 242, 243 

Report of Committee of Arrangements 244,245 

Report of Delegate to State Board of Agriculture 246-249 

Report to the State Board of Agriculture 250-252 

Report of the Committee on the Library 253, 254 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian 255-258 

Report of Treasurer and Finance Committee 259-263 

Mount Auburn Cemetery 264, 265 

Officers and Standing Committees for 1898 266-268 

Members of the Society; Life, pp. 269-275; Annual, 276-278; Honorary, 280 ; 

Corresponding 281-283 

Extracts from the Constitution and By-Laws 279 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORTS WANTED. 



The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is endeavoring to collect complete 
sets of the Bulletins and other publications of all the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations in the United States and Canada. Those named below are 
wanting, and any person having a spare copy will confer a favor by address- 
ing the Librarian of the Society, Horticultural Hall, No. 101 Tremont Street, 
Boston. 

Alabama (Ag. and Mech. College Station) . — Bulletins 4-6 (1884), 7-10 

and 1-4 (1885), 5-9 (1886), and Bulletin 42. 7th Annual Report, for 

1894. 
Alabama (Canebrake Station). — All Annual Reports later than the 3d, 

for 1890. 
Arizona. — 4th Annual Report, for 1893. 
Arkansas. — Bulletin 1. All Annual Reports later than the 4th, for 1891, 

except the 8th, for 1895. 
California. —Bulletins 32, 1878, and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 50, New Series. 
Colorado. — Bulletin 3. 
Connecticut (New Haven Station) . — Bulletins 1 to 67, inclusive. Annual 

Reports for 1877 to 1883, inclusive, except that for 1878. 
Indiana (Purdue Univ. School of Ag.). — Bulletin 1. College Reports 

1 to 14, inclusive. 
Kentucky. — Bulletin 10. 
Michigan. — 6th Annual Report, for 1892-93. (Contained in Report of 

Michigan Board of Agriculture, 1893.) 
Missouri. —Bulletins 9, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 25, 26, and 33 of Old Series. 

All Annual Reports since the 1st, for 1888. 
New Jersey. — Bulletins 1, 4, 5, 15, 27, and 28. 
New York (Cornell).— Annual Report, 1882-83 (Report of Agricultural 

Department of Cornell University) . 
North Carolina. — Bulletins 1 to 56, inclusive, and 69, 2d ed. Meteor- 
ological Division, Bulletin 2 (686), and 2d and 3d Annual Reports, for 

1888 and 1889. Special Bulletins 1 (77a) and 4 (82a) . Weekly Weather 

Crop Bulletins 1-21, 1888; 1-24, 1889; 1-25, 1890; 2 and 4, 1891. 
North Dakota. — 4th Annual Report, for 1893. 
Ohio. — All Bulletins of First Series, except 16, 17, 18, and 19. 
Oklahoma. — Bulletins 26 to 29, inclusive. 
Pennsylvania. — Annual Reports for 1869, 1872, 1879-80, 1881, 1882, 

1883, and 1884. [All issued by the State College.] Annual Report 

for 1895. Bulletin of Information No. 1. 
South Carolina. — All Bulletins of the Old Series (previous to 1888) on 

the work of the Experimental Farm of the South Carolina College. 

3d Annual Report, for 1890, and 6th, for 1893. 
Texas. — College Bulletins 1-5, 1883-1887. 

"West Virginia. — Special Bulletin — Potash and Paying Crops, 1890. 

All Annual Reports later than the 3d, for 1890. 
Wyoming. — Bulletins 1 to 4, 9, and 10. 

Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto.— Bureau of Indus- 
tries. — Agricultural Returns to the Ontario Bureau of Industries, 
Nov. 1882 (5th), Aug. 1883 (7th), and Nov. 1887 (20th). 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



jjjassatjnmits Jnrtkultmral Sbtktg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1897. 



PART III, 



BEING THE LIST OF 



ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 



DURING THE YEAR. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOR THE .SOCIETY. 

1903. 



See last page of cover; also list of Books Wanted, p. 337, 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assacjraseits Juriiataral Steodg, 



FOE THE YEAR 1897. 

PART III, 

BEING THE LIST OF 

ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

DURING THF, YEAE. 




BOSTON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 
1903. 



Library Accessions, 1897. 

In the following list the books purchased from the income of 
the Stickney Fund are marked S. F., and those purchased from 
the Society's Library Appropriation, L. A. All other publica- 
tions were received by donation and exchange, the name of the 
donor being given in every instance when known. 

The size of books is denoted by the terms fol., 4°, 8°, 12°, etc. 
Pamphlets are understood to be 8° unless otherwise stated. 

Abbreviations. 

aim. — annual. Phila. — Philadelphia. 

bul. — bulletin. pi. — plates. 

cl. — cloth. pph. — pamphlet. 

col. — colored. port. — portrait. 

ed. — edition. pres. -*■ president. 

Edinb. — Edinburgh. rep't. — report. 

fol. — folio. San Fran. — San Francisco. 

frontis. — frontispiece. sec'y. — secretary. 

lib'n. — librarian. ser. — series. 

Lond. — London. Strasb. — Strasburg. 

N. Y. — New York. Wash. — Washington. 

GENERAL HORTICULTURE. 

Gardening Year Book and Garden Oracle. 1897. By the Editorof " The 
Gardeners' Magazine." 39th year. 12°. pp.314; col.pl. Lond.: 
(1897.) S. F. 

Horticultural Directory and Year Book for 1897. 38th year. 16°. 
pp. 536. Lond.: (1897.) S. F. 

Stringfellow, H. M. The New Horticulture. 8°. pp. 216; portrait, 
cuts. Galveston: 1896. S. F. 

Hibberd, Shirley. Rustic Adornments for Homes of Taste; containing 
suggestions for the floral embellishment of the home, the garden, 
balcony, window, greenhouse and conservatory ; with hints on the 
formation and management of fresh-water and marine aquariums, 
vivariums, etc. A new edition. Revised by T. W. Sanders. 8°. 
pp. 344; col. frontis., cuts. Lond.: 1895. S. F. 



288 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



GENERAL HORTICULTURE continued. 

Tricker, William. The Water Garden. Embracing the construction of 

ponds, adapting natural streams, planting, etc. 4°. pp. 120; 9 

pi., 18 views, cuts. N. Y.: 1897. S. F. 

Milman, Helen, (Mrs. Caldwell Crofton). In the Garden of Peace. 2nd 

ed. 8 C . pp. 182; frontis., pi., cuts. Lond. & N. Y.: 1896. S. F. 

Dew-Smith, A. M. Confidences of an Amateur Gardener. 8°. pp. 299. 

pi., etc. Lond.: 1897. S. F. 
[Tracts oh Gardening;] containing the following: 

Taylor, Adam. A Treatise on the Ananas or Pine-Apple^tc. 
To which are added, full directions for raising Melons, pp. 62; 
2 col. pi. Devizes : 1769. 

Hints for the Management of Hot-Beds, and directions for the 
culture of early Cucumbers and Melons. To which are added 
brief instructions for pruning Wall and Espalier Trees, pp. 31. 
Bath & Lond. : 1790. 

Fordyce, Sir William. The Great Importance and Proper 
Method of Cultivating and Curing Rhubarb in Britain, for medic- 
inal uses, with an appendix. pp.27. Lond.: 1792. 

A New Treatise on the Art of Grafting and Inoculation, etc. 
To which are, added, Directions for chusing the best Stocks for 
that purpose. Etc. By an Experienced Practitioner in this 
branch of Gardening, pp.52. Salisbury: 1780. 

Raley, William. A Treatise on The Management of Potatoes; or, 
a New Method of Removing and Preventing the Disorder thereof 
called Curl'd Tops, and restoring them to their Primitive State 
and Perfection. Etc. pp.43. York: 1782. 
12°. S. F. 
(Hill, Thomas.) Pseud. D(idymus) M(ountain). The Gardeners Laby- 
rinth, or, A New Art of Gardening : wherein is laid down new and 
rare inventions and secrets of Gardening not heretofore known. 
' Etc. Collected from the best approved Authors, besides forty 
years' experience in the Art of Gardening. By D. M. And now 
newly corrected and enlarged. 12°. pp. 90 ; cuts. Lond. : 1652. 
The Second Part. pp : . 173. Lond. : 1851. S. F. 
O'Mara, Patrick. The Professional Gardener's Mission in Horticulture. 
(L'aper read before the Lenox (Mass.) Horticultural Society, Jan. 
16,1897.) Pph. 8°. pp.7. The Author. 
Herendeen Manufacturing Company, Geneva, N. Y., Publishers. A 
Treatise on Greenhouse Heating in connection with the Furman 
Boiler. Pph. pp.84; cuts. The Publishers. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 289 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNALS. 

Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette for 1858. Fol. pp. 952. 
Lond. : 1858. L. A. 

HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

American. 

American Association of Nurserymen. Rep't. of 22d Ann. Meeting, St. 
Louis, June 9-10, 1897. Pph. pp. 85. J. W. Manning. 

Chicago Horticultural Society. Preliminary List of Premiums for the 
Fall Exhibition, Nov., 1897. Pph. pp. 12. Edgar Sanders. 

Columbus (Ohio) Horticultural Society. Ann. Rep't. for year ending 
Dec. 31, 1896. Containing . Constitution, List of Members, and 
Quarterly Journal. Vol. XI. 8°. pp. 147 ; port., pi. Columbus: 
1897. The Secretary. 

Hampden County Horticultural Society Annual. 1897. 35th year. Pph. 
pp. 48; cuts. Springfield, Mass. : 1897. W. J. Eldred. ... 

Illinois State Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1896. Being Pro- 
ceedings of 41st Ann. Meeting, Springfield, Dec. 29-31, 1896, etc. 
New Ser., Vol. XXX. 8 C . pp. 492; 2 pi., cuts. Springfield: 1897. 
H. M. Dunlap, Secretary. 

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1896, being a report of 
the 36th Ann. • Meeting, Indianapolis, Dec. 1-3, 1896. Together 
with reports of the Summer Meeting, Richmond, June 12 and 13, 
and of Local Societies, Selected papers, etc. 8°. pp. 225. Indian- 
apolis : 1897. The Secretary. 

Kansas State Horticultural Society. 4th Biennial Report, containing 
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings held Dec. 1894 and Dec. 1895. 
Vol. XX. 8°. pp.100. Topeka: 1896. 

Transactions, containing the Proceedings of the summer meeting 
June 1896 and the Annual Meeting, Dec. 1896. Vol. XXI. 8 C . 
pp. 100. Topeka : 1897. Wm. H. Barnes, Secretary. 

Melrose Amateur Gardeners' Society. Schedules of Prizes for exhibitions 
of June 21 and Sept. 6, 1897, with Rules. Pph. pp. (8.). Geo. A. 
Wills, Secretary. 

Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Ann. Rep't. 1896. Embracing 
Transactions of the Society from Dec. 3, 1895 to Dec. 1, 1896, 
including the 12 nos. of "The Minnesota Horticulturist" for 1896. 
Vol. XXIV. 8°. pp. 542 ; pi., port's., cuts, etc. Minneapolis : 
1896. A. W. Latham, Secretary. 

Missouri State Horticultural Society. 39th Ann. Rep't. 1896. 8°. pp. 
404; frontis., pi. Jefferson City: 1897. L. A. Goodman, Secre- 
tary. [20 copies.] 



290 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES, continued. 

Monmouth County (N. J.) Horticultural Society. Premium List of 

Exhibition at Red Bank, N. J., Sept., 1897. Pph. pp. 15. George 

Steele, Secretary. , > 

New Jersey State Horticultural Sociely. Proceedings. 22nd Ann. 

Session, Jan., 1897. Pph. pp.217; port. Mount Holly: 1897. 

H. I. Budd, Secretary. 
New York Horticultural Society. Inaugural Discourse delivered at 

their Anniversary Meeting, 31st August, 1824. By David Hosack, 

M. D., F. L. S., President of the Society, Pph. pp. 46. N. Y. : 

1824. L. A. 
Rhode Island Horticultural Society. Premium List, June Exhibition, 

1897, Providence, R. I. Pph. pp. 8 C. W. Smith, Sec'y. & Treas. 
St. John Horticultural Association's Exhibition of Flowers and Plants, 

Aug. 25-27, and Chrysanthemum Exhibition, Nov. 11-12, 1896. 

Prize List and Rules. Pph. pp. 45 ; f rontis., plans, cut. St. John, 

N. B. : 1896. James Reynolds, Sec'y. 
Western New York Horticultural Society. Proceedings. 24th Ann. 

Meeting, Rochester, Jan. 25-27, 1882. Pph. pp. 156. Rochester : 

1882. Prof. W. J. Beal. 
West Virginia State Horticultural Society. 5th Ann. Meeting, Oct. 12, 

1897. pp. 402-419. (Contained in the West Virginia Farm 

Reporter, No. 12, Dec. 1897. Pph. Charleston: 1897.) L. C. 

Corbett, Sec'y. 
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society. Ann. Rep't. for 1895-96. Vol. 

XXVI. 8°. pp. 279; port., pi., cuts. Madison : 1896. The Sec'y. 
Worcester County Horticultural Society. Transactions. 1896-97. 

Parts I and II. 2 pph's. 8°. pp. 32, 64. Worcester : 1897. 
Schedule of Premiums for 1897. Pph. 8 C . pp. 34. Worcester : 

1897. The Sec'y. 

Foreign. 

Royal Horticultural Society. 

Journal. Vol. XVI, pts. 2 and 3. Jan. 1894. pp. 161-261, 
cxvii-ccxxxviii ; cuts. Vol. XX, pts. 2. and 3. Nov. 1896 and 
March, 1897. pp. 77-296, cxxix-ccxxviii. Vol. XXI, pt. 1. Aug. 
1897. pp. 152, c ; 23 cuts. Lond. : 1894-'97. 

Report of the Council for 1896-'97, with list of'Fellows, Asso- 
ciates and Affiliated Societies, pp. 92. Lond. ; 1897. 
Arrangements for the year 1897. pp. 58. Lond. : 1897. 
Pph's. Rev. W. Wilks, Secretary. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 291 

Amateur World of Horticulture and Record of the Proceedings of the 

National Amateur Gardeners' Association. Vol. I, 1896, Nos. 1-4 ; 

Vol. II, 1897, Nos. 5 and 6. Pph's. pp. 93 and 57. Brentwood, 

Eng. : 1896, '97. Leonard Brown, Secretary. 
Hoyal Caledonian Horticultural Society. Prize List and Rules for 

Spring and Autumn Flower Shows, Edinburgh, Apr. 7 & 8, and 

Sept. 8 & 9, 1897. Pph. pp. 24. The Society. 
Prance, Societe nationale d' Horticulture de. Journal. 3rd Serie, Tome 

XIX, 1897. 8°. pp. 1376. Paris : 1897. 

Liste generale des membres de la Societe. l er Mars 1897. 8°. 

pp. 191. Paris: (1897). 

Congres horticole de 1897. Memoires preliminaires. 8°. pp. 

179. Paris: (1897). Proces-verbal de la Seance. 8°. pp. 22. 

Paris: (1897). The Society. 
Seine-Inferieure, Societe centrale d' Horticulture du Departement de la. 

Bulletin. 2e Serie. Tome I. 1897. 8°. pp.437. Rouen: 1897. 

The Society. 
Sarthe, Societe d'Horticulture de la. Bulletin. Tome XIII. —1897, l er -3 e 

trimestres. 8°. pp. 153-252. Le Mans : 1897. The Society. 
Societe d'Horticulture d'Orleans et du Loiret. Bulletin. 3 e Serie. Tome 

IV. Nos. 1-4, 1897. 8°. pp. 152. Orleans : 1897-'98. 

68 e exposition de Chrysanthemes, etc., 6-10 Nov., 1897. Pph. 

pp. 8. Eugene Delaire, Secretaire-general. 
Cercle Horticole du Nord. Bulletin. 28 me vol. Annee 1897. 12°. pp. 

288. Lille: 1897. The Society. 
Norci-Horticole. Bulletin mensuel d' Arboriculture, de Floriculture et 

de Culture potagere. (Organe de la Societe des Chrysanthemistes 

du Nord de la France, etc.) 2 e annee. 1897. 8°. pp. 348, 10. 

Lille : 1897. The Publishers. 
Oartenflora. Zeitschrift fur Garten- und Blumenkunde. (Begrundet 

von Eduard Regel.) Organ des Vereins zur Beforderung des 

Gartenbaues in den preussischen Staaten. 46. Jahrgang. 1897. 

Herausgegeben von Dr. L. Wittmack. 8°. pp. 670; col. pi. 1434- 

1445, cuts. Berlin : 1897. The Editor. 
Hamburg, Allgemeine Gartenbau-Ausstellung in. Mai-Sept., 1897. Pro- 
grammes, etc. 5 pph's. 12°. 
Wiener Illustrirte Garten-Zeitung. Organ der k. k. Gartenbau-Gesell- 

schaft in Wien. 22. Jahrgang, 1897. 8°. pp. 417 ; 4 col. pi., 

cuts. Wien : 1897. The Vienna Horticultural Society. 
B,. SocietaToscanadi Orticultura. Bullettino. Anno XXII.— 1897. (Vol. 

II della 3*. Serie.) 4°. pp. 288; 12 pi., cuts. Firenze : 1897. 

The Society. 
Geneve, Societe d'Horticulture de. Bulletin. 42 nic annee. 1897. 8°. 

pp.196. Geneve: 1897. The Society. 
Japanese Horticultural Society. Journal. Nos. 77, 78, 80-83. Oct. 1896- 

Nov. 1897. 8°. Tokyo : 1896-'97. 



292 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

FLOWERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

Hillhouse, Lizzie Page. House Plants and how to succeed with them. 
A practical hand-book. 12°. pp. ix, 220 ; cuts. N. Y. : 1897. 
S. F. 

Castle, Lewis. Flower Gardening for Amateurs, in town, suburban, and 
country gardens. With a chapter on the greenhouse. 12°. pp. 
236 ; frontis., cuts. Lond. : 1888. S. F. 

D'Ombrain, Rev. H. Honywood, Editor. The Rosarian's Year-Book for 
1897. 12°. pp. 69; port. Lond .& Derby : n. d. S. F. 

Easlea, Walter. The Hybridization of Roses. The National Rose 
Society's Prize Essay. Pph. 12°. pp. 35. Edinb. : 1896. L. A. 

Baltet, Charles. Etude comparative des differents sujets propres au 
greffage des Rosiers. (Soc. nat. d'Hort. de France.) Pph. pp. 18. 
Paris : 1897. The Author. 

Hansen, Geo. The Orchid Hybrids. Enumeration and Classification of 
all hybrids of Orchids published up to October 15, 1895. (Includ- 
ing First Supplement.) Pph. 8°. pp. 257. Lond. and Berlin: 
1895. Also Second Supplement. Recording knowledge gained 
about Orchid Hybrids in the period from October 15, 1895, to 
April 1, 1897. Pph. pp. 258-334. Berkeley, Cal. : 1897. S. F. 

Linden, J., and Lucien Linden. Lindenia : Iconography of Orchids. 
[English Edition.] Vol. 12, pts. 68-78. Sept. 1896 to July, 1897. 
4°. pp. 13-53 ; col. pi. 533-576. Brussels : 1896, '97. S. F. 

Cogniaux, A., et A. Goossens. Dictionnaire iconographique des- 
Orchidees. Parts 1-6. Col. pi. with descriptive text. (Bruxelles : 
Oct. 1896 to Mar. 1897.) S. F. 

Warner, Robert, F. L. S., F. R. H. S., and Henry Williams, F. L. S., F. R. 
H. S. The Orchid Album, comprising coloured figures and 
descriptions of new, rare and beautiful Orchidaceous Plants. Vol. 
XI, pts. 131 and 132. (Completion of the work.) 4°. Col. pi. 
521-528, with descriptive text. Lond.: (1897?). S. F. 

Grant, Capt. Bartle, Compiler. The Orchids of Burma, (including the 
Andaman Islands,) described. Compiled from the works of various 
authorities. 8°. pp. 424. Rangoon : 1895. S. F. 

Marie, Theodore, et J. Lormoy. Les Orchidees et M. Georges Mantin. 
2 e ed. Pph. pp. 40 ; frontis. Paris : 1894. Georges Mantin. 

Ravenscroft, B. C. Chrysanthemum Culture for Amateurs : containing 
full directions for the successful cultivation of the Chrysanthemum 
for exhibition and the market. 12°. pp. 112; 22 cuts. Lond.: 
n. d. S. F. 

Vilmorin, Henry -L. de. Le Chrysantheme. Histoire, physiologie et cul- 
ture en France et a 1' Stranger. Pph. 4°. pp. 28; 10 cuts. Paris : 
1806. L. A. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 293 

Nord-Horticole. Nuinero special au Chrysantheme. (No. 7, Nov. 1896.) 
Pph. pp. 169-232. Lille : (1896). The Publishers. [2nd copy.] 

Florilegium Harlemense. Colored plates with descriptions of bulbous and 
tuberous rooted plants, published under the auspices of the council 
of the "Algemeene Vereeniging voor Bloembollencultuur," Haar- 
lem. Parts 1-3. Pph's. 4°. 3 col. pi. in each part. Haarlem: 

1896. S. F. 

Dean, Richard, John Ballantyne, Robert Fife, Stephen Jones, aud William 
Cuthbertson. The Dahlia : its History and Cultivation. With 
illustrations of the different types, and a very complete list of the 
varieties in cultivation in 1896. (Dobbie's Horticultural Hand- 
books.) 12°. pp. 81 ; frontis., 8 pi., cut. Lond., N. Y. and Rothe- 
say : 1897. S. F. 

Peacock, Lawrence K. The Dahlia: a practical treatise on its habits, 
characteristics, cultivation and history. Pph. pp. 56 ; frontis. 
cuts. Atco, N. J. : (1896). The Author. 

Sweet Pea Review, by the Sunset Seed and Plant Co. 2nd ed. Pph. pp. 
32 ; 6 pi. San Fran. : 1897. Rev. W. T. Hutchins. 

(Lilies, 45 hand-painted Japanese drawings of. With Japanese names.) 
Fol. Prof. John Robinson. 

FLORICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

American Florists, Society of. Proceedings, 13th Ann. Convention, 
Providence, R. I., Aug. 17-20,1897. Pph., pp.149; port. n. p. : 

1897. William J. Stewart, Sec'y. 

American Chrysanthemum Society. Rep'fc. of Committee on Classifica- 
tion of Chrysanthemums, Washington, Aug., 1892. Pph. pp. 37. 
E. A. Wood. 

Chrysanthemum Society, The National. Ann. Rep't. Financial 
Statement, 1896. Schedule of Prizes, 1897. Pph. pp. 96. (Lon- 
don : 1897.) C. Harman Payne, Foreign Corresponding Secretary. 

St. Louis P'lorists' Club. Premiums, 7th Chrysanthemum Exhibition, 
Nov., 1897. Pph. pp. 24. The Sec'y. 

Milwaukee Florist Club. List of 7th Ann. Flower Show, Nov. 1897. 
Pph. pp. 20. The Sec'y. 

Association pour la Protection des Plantes. Bulletin No. 15, 1897. 
Pph. pp. 23; 2 pi. Geneve: 1897. H. Correvon. 

FRUITS. 

Thomas, John J. The American Fruit Culturist, containing practical 
directions for the propagation and culture of all fruits adapted to 
the United States. 20th ed. Revised and Enlarged by William 
H. S. Wood. 8°. pp. 758; 796 cuts. N. Y. : 1897. S. F. 



294 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



FRUITS, continued. 

Bailey,*L. H. The Principles of Fruit-Growing. (The Rural Science 
Series.) 12 c . pp., 508 ; 114 cuts. N. Y. & Lond. : 1897. S. F. 

Hogg, Robert. The Apple and its varieties. Being a history and descrip- 
tion of the varieties of apples cultivated in the gardens and orchards 
of Great Britain. 8°. pp.306; cuts. Lond.: 1859. S. F. . 

Saunders, William. Past Experience and Future Prospects of Fruit 
Growing in the Canadian Northwest. {From Trans. Roy. Soc. of 
Canada. 2nd Ser. 1896-97. Vol.. II, Section IV.) Pph. pp. 
131-136. Ottawa, Toronto, and London, Eng. : 1896. The Author. 

Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm. Report on the working and results 
since its establishment. 1st rep't., 1897. By the Duke of Bedford 
and Spencer U. Pickering, F. R. S. 8°. pp. 194 ; 17 cuts. Lond. : 
1897. The Duke of Bedford. j 

Charlton, John S., Editor. The Fruit Belt of Mesa County, Western 
Colorado. Pph. pp. 27 ; maps, cuts. The Editor. 

FRUIT GROWERS' SOCIETIES. 

Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association. Rep't. of 3rd Ann. Meeting, 
Worcester, March, 1897. Pph. pp. 58. Worcester: 1897. 

. List of Officers ; Objects and Aims of the Association ; Notices 

of Meetings held. Pph. pp. (4). George Cruickshanks, Pres. 

Maine State Pomological Society. Schedule of Premiums at the Consoli- 
dated State Fair to be held with the Maine State Agricultural 
Society, Lewiston, Aug. 30-Sept. 3, 1897, being the 25th Ann. 
Exhibition of the Maine State Pomological Society. Pph. pp. 16. 
D. H. Knowlton, Sec'y. 

Ohio Pomological Society. 13th Rep't. 1866. Pph. pp. 78. Columbus : 
1866. Geo. W. Campbell. 

Ontario Fruit-Growers' Association. 28th Ann. Rep't. 1896. Pph. pp. 
142 ; 2 port's. Toronto : 1897. L. Woolverton, Sec'y. 

La Pomologie Franchise. Journal de la Societe Pomologique de France. 
1897. 8°. pp. 400. Lyon : 1897. Louis Cusin, Secretaire-gene- 
ral. 

VEGETABLES. 

Bailey, L. H. The Forcing-Book. A Manual of the cultivation of Vege- 
tables in glass houses. (The Garden-Craft Series.) 12°. pp. 266 ; 
88 cuts. N. Y. and Lond. : 1897. S. F. . 

Green, Samuel B. Vegetable Gardening. A manual on the growing of 
Vegetables for home use and marketing. Prepared especially for 
the classes of the School of Agriculture of the University of Minne- 
sota. 12°. pp. 224 ; 118 cuts. St. Paul: 1896. S. F. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 295 

Dreer, Henry A., Incorporated, Publishers. Vegetables under Glass. A 
little handbook telling how to till the soil during twelve months of 
the year. 2nd ed. 12°. pp. 104; frontis., cuts. Phila. : 1896. 
S. F. 

Rolfs, P. H. Vegetable Growing in the South for Northern Markets. 
Etc. 12°. pp. 255; cuts. Richmond: 1896. S. F. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING, ETC. 

Hose, N. Jonsson-. Lawns and Gardens. How to plant and beautify the 
home lot, the pleasure ground and garden. 4°. pp. 414; frontis., 
172 cuts. N. Y. & Lond. : 1897. S. F. 

Van Rennselaer, M. G. A Suburban Country Place. [Holm Lea, the 
home of Prof. C. S. Sargent ] (From Century Magazine, May, 1897.) 
pp. 3-17 ; cuts. J. D. W. French. 

Sturgis, R. Clipston. Suburban Homes. (From The Cosmopolitan, June, 
1896.) pp. 180-190 ; 8 cuts. J. D. W. French. 

St owe : a description of the Magnificent House and Gardens of the Right 
Honorable George Grenville Nugent Temple, Earl Temple, Viscount 
and Baron Cobham. Embellished with a general plan of the Gar- 
dens. Etc. New ed. 8 C . 9 plans. Buckingham : 1783. S. F. 

Elondel, Jacques- Francois. De la Distribution des Maisons de Plaisance, 
et de la decoration des Edifices en general. 2 vols. 4°. (I.) pp. 
198; frontis., 44 pi. Paris: 1737. (II.) pp. 180; 183 pi., 
(numbered 1-99). Paris: 1738. S. F. 

PARKS AND CEMETERIES. 

Metropolitan Park Commissioners. (Ann.) Rep't. Jan. 1897. 8°. pp. 

89; 10 pi., 2 maps. Boston: 1897. The Commission. 
Boston Department of Parks. (22d) Ann. Rep't. of Board of Commis- * 

sioners for year ending Jan. 31, 1897. Pph. pp. 68 ; 6 pi. The 

City of Boston. 
Lynn Park Commissioners. 8th Ann. Rep't. for year ending Dec. 19, 1896. 

Pph. 8°. pp. 12, frontis., 2 pi. Lynn: 1897. Nathan M. Hawkes, 

Sec'y. 
Worcester Parks-Commission. Ann. Rep't. for the year ending Nov. 30, 

1896. Pph. pp. 16; port. 2 pi. Worcester: 1897. James 

Draper, Sec'y. 
Davis, Gherardi. The Establishment of Public Parks in the City of New 

York. (Read before the New York Historical Society, April 6, 1897.) 

Pph. pp. 46. (N. Y. : 1897.) The N. Y. Historical Society. 
Brooklyn Department of Parks. 38th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 8°. pp. 

232; frontis., pi., cuts. Brooklyn: 1897. John E. Smith, Sec'y. 



296 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PARKS AND CEMETERIES, continued. 

Niagara State Reservation. 11th Ann. Rep't. 1898-94. 8°. pp. 86, 

126 ; pi., plans, cuts. Albany : 1895. 

12th Ann. Rep't. 1894-95. Pph. 8°. pp. 61 ; pi. Albany & 

N. Y. : 1896. 

13th Ann. Rep't. Transmitted Eeb. 1, ,1897. Pph. pp. 60; 8 pi. 

Albany and N. Y. : 1897. Andrew H. Green, Pres. Board of Com- 
missioners. 
Brooklyn Tree Planting and Fountain Society. Ann. Rep't. Dec. 1896. 

Pph. pp.104; 2 port's., cuts. Brooklyn: 1897. 

Circulars 16-20. May, 1896- June, 1897. Lewis Collins, Secre- 
, tary. 

Lincoln Park (Chicago). Report of Commissioners. 1896-97. Pph. pp. 

31 ; frontis., cuts. Chicago: 1897. Edgar Sanders. 
South Park (Chicago) Commissioners. Report to the Board of County 

Commissioners of Cook County. Dec. 1, 1895 to Dec. 1, 1896. 

Pph. pp. 42 ; plan. Chicago : 1897. Edgar Sanders. 
Ontario, Provincial Instructor in Road-making. Report, 1896. Pph. 

pp. 80 ; pi. Toronto : 1897. Hon. James Dryden, Minister of 

Agriculture. 
Mount Auburn Cemetery. 65th Ann. Rept. Jan. 1, 1897. Pph. pp. 

16. Boston: 1897. The Trustees. 

TREES. 

Michaux, F. Andrew. The North American Sylva, or a description of 
the Forest Trees of the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia, etc. 
(Translated from the French of F. Andrew Michaux). Vol. I (of 
the 2-vol. edition). 8 C . pp. 385 ; 75 col. pi. Paris : 1819. S. F. 

Michaux, AndreV Histoire des Chenes de 1' Amerique, ou descriptions 
et figures de toutes les especes et vari£t6s de Chenes de 1' Amerique 
Septentrionale, etc. Fol. 36 pi. with descriptive text. Paris : 
An IX.— 1801. S. F. 

Greene, Edward L. Illustrations of American Oaks. From drawings 
by the late Albert Kellogg, M. D., the text by Edward L. Greene. 
Fol. pp. 84 ; 37 pi. San Fran. : 1889. Prof. C. S. Sargent. 

Warren, J. C, M. D. The Great Tree on Boston Common. 8°. pp. 20 ; 
frontis., map. Boston: 1855. S. F. 

Webster, A. D. Hardy Coniferous Trees. Being a concise description 
of each species and variety, with the most recently approved 
nomenclature, list of synonyms and best methods of cultivation, 
etc. 8°. pp. 196. Lond. : 1896. S. F. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 297 

Mouillef ert, P. Traite des Arbres et Arbrisseaux forestiers, industriels 
et d'ornement, cultivees ou exploites en Europe et plus particuliere- 
ment en France, etc. Livraisons 30-32. pp. 929-1040 ; col. pi. 28 2 , 
28 3 , 29 2 , 32 2 , photographic plates 138-144. Paris: (1896?) 
S. F. .. ", . 

Gadeau de Kerville, Henri. Les Vieux Arbres de la Normandie, 
Etude botanico-historique. Fascicules I-III (Ex. Bui. Soc. des 
Amis des Sci. nat. de Rouen, 1890, 1892, 1894.) 3 parts, 8°. pp. 
193-301 ; 111-191 ; 265-411 : pi. 20, 20, and 21. Paris : 1891, 1893, 
and 1895. S. F. 

Pierre, L. Flore forestiere de la Cochinchine. 22 e fascicule. Fol. pL 
337-352, with descriptive text. Paris : July 1, 1896. S. F. 

Tepper, J. G. O., F. L. S. Pruning: its abuse and the effects thereof. 
[Read before the South Australian Gardeners' Society, July 3rd. 
1897.] Pph. pp.10. (Adelaide: 1897-.) Samuel H. Scuddar,-- 

FORESTRY. 

Lyman, Hon. John D. A Paper on Forestry. [Reprinted from Report 

of the N. H. State Board of Agriculture.] Pph. pp. 18; pi. cuts. 

Concord : 1897. The Author. 
Fernow, B. E. Address on Forestry. Delivered in the State House, 

Trenton, (N. J.), Jan. 5, 1897. {Reprint from The Forester.) Pph. 

4°. pp. 8. 
Schenck, C- A. Forest Finance. Pph. 4°. pp. 8. J. D. W. French. 
Cherry, Edgar, & Co., Publishers. Redwood and Lumbering in California 

Forests. 4°. pp. 107 ; 24 photographs. San Fran. : 1884. S. F. 
Biltmore Forest, Guide for^an Excursion through, on September 17th and 

18th, 1897. Presented to. the Members of the American Forestry 

Association, by C. A. Schenck, Ph.D., Forester. Pph. 16°. pp. 

19 ; map. J. D. W. French. 
Salisch, Heinrich von. Forstasthetik. 12°. pp. 248; cuts. Berlin: 

1885. S. F. 
Eaux et Fore ts, Annuaire des : 36 e annee. 1897. 16°. pp. 364, 122 ; 2 

port's. Paris: 1897. Publishers of Revue des Eaux et Forets. 
South Australia. Woods and Forests Department. Annual Progress 

Report upon State Forest Administration in South Australia for 

the year 1891-2. Pph. fol. pp. 20. Adelaide : 1892. J. D. W. 

French. 
(South Australia). The Woods and Forests Act, 1882. (45° et 46° 

Victorise, No. 252.) Pph. 4°. pp.18. Adelaide: (1882). J. D. W. 

French. 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



FORESTRY ASSOCIATIONS, ETC. 

American Forestry Association. Proceedings. 

Vol. XI, (Pts. II and III). 13th and 14th Ann. Meetings, Dec. 
1894 and Jan. 1896, at Washington, and Summer Meetings at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and Springfield, Mass. pp. 65-199. Washington : 

1896, 1897. 

Vol. XII, (Part I.) 15th Ann. Meeting, Washington, Feb. 5, 1897. 
pp. 68. Washington : 1897. (Part II.) Special Meetings at Ashe- 
ville, N. C, and Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 1897, together with an 
address on the Forests and Deserts of Arizona, by B. E. Fernow, 
before a joint meeting of the American Forestry Association with 
the National Geographic Society, pp. 69-173. Washington: 1897. 
Pph's. The Association. 

. The Forest Reservation Policy. Pph. pp. 8. 

Maine Forest Commission. 3rd Ann. Rep't. 1896. 8°. pp. 207, 31. 
Augusta: 1896. Chas. E. Oak, Commissioner. 

New Hampshire Forestry Commission. 3rd Rep't. 1896. Vol. I, Part 
III. 8°. pp. 145-174 ; map. Concord : 1897. Arthur L. Chase, 
State Lib'n. 

New York, Commissioners of Fisheries, Game and Forests of the State of. 
1st Ann. Rep't. (Apr. 25-Sept. 30, 1895.) 4°. pp. 376 ; pi., cuts. 
N. Y. and Albany : 1896. Barnet H. Davis, President. 

Forest Leaves. Published by the Pennsylvania Forestry Association. 
Vol. 6, Nos. 1-6. Feb.-Dec, 1897. 4°. pp. 112; pi. Phila. : 

1897. John Birkinbine, Chairman Pub. Comm. 

Porester, The. An Illustrated Monthly Journal of Forestry. Official 

Organ of the New Jersey Forestry Association. Vol. 3, 1897. 4°. 

pp. 144. Camden, N. J. : 1897. John Gifford, Editor. 
Boyal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Transactions. Vol. XV, Pt. I. 

Pph. pp. 79, 27, 19, 19. Edinb. : 1896. Robert Galloway, Sec'y. 
Bulletin d'Arboriculture, de Floriculture et de Culture potagere. (Organe 

du Cercle d'Arboriculture de Belgique.) 7 e serie. Vol. 1, 1897. 

8°. pp. 328; col. pi., cuts. Gand: 1897. The Editors. 

GENERAL AGRICULTURE. 

B(lyth), J. The Epitome of the Art of Husbandry. Comprising all 
necessary directions for the improvement of it, viz. : Plowing, 
Sowing, Grafting, Gardening, etc. 16°. pp. 246, 136, (16) ; frontis- 
pieces. Lond. : 1675. S. F. 

Home, Henry. The Gentleman Farmer. Being an attempt to improve 
agriculture by subjecting it to the test of rational principles. 2nd 
ed. 8°. pp. 438. Edinb. : 1779. J. D. W. French. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 299 

American Farmer, The. A Hand-Book of Agriculture for the Farm and 
Garden. Etc. 14th ed. Re-edited and revised by F. W. O'Neill 
and H. L. Williams. 8°. pp. 724 ; frontis., pi., cuts. Chicago : 
1881. S. F. 

Munroe, F. L., editor and compiler. The Practical Home Farmer, a popu- 
lar guide for the farm and fireside, etc. 4°. pp. 1115 ; cuts. 
Chicago : 1890. S. F. 

Olmsted, Fred. Law. Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in Eng- 
land. In the years 1850-51. 2 vols. 12°. pp. 246, 192. N. Y.: 
1852. J. D. W. French. 

Bedford, The Duke of. A Great Agricultural Estate ; being the story of 
the origin and administration of Woburn and Thorney. 2nd ed. 
12°. pp. 254. Lond. : 1897. Waldo O. Ross. 

Gilbert, Sir J. Henry, F. R. S. Memoranda of the Origin, Plan and 
Results of the Field and other Experiments conducted on the Farm 
and in the Laboratory of Sir John Bennet Lawes, at Rothamsted, 
Herts. Being a report to the Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee. 
Fifty-third year of the Experiments. 1896. Pph. 4°. pp. 105. 
Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert. 

Lawes, Sir John Bennet, and Sir J. Henry Gilbert. The Depression of 
Corn Prices and the Production of Wheat in some of the chief 
exporting countries of the world. [From Jour. Royal Ag'l. Soc. 
Eng., 3rd Ser., Vol. VII, pt. IV, 1896.] Pph. pp. 17. Lond.: 
1897. Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert. 

Amos, William. Minutes in Agriculture and Planting. . . . Illustrated 
with specimens of eight sorts of the best, and two sorts of the worst 
Natural Grasses, etc., etc. 2d ed. 4°. pp. 92 ; 9 pi. and 10 speci- 
mens of grasses. Boston (Eng.), and Lond. : 1810. S. F. 
Woll, F. W. A Book on Silage. Pph. 12°. pp. 190 ; frontis., 23 cuts. 

Chicago : 1897.. The Publisher. 
Finlayson, John. Practical Instructions to Ploughmen, on the art of 
ploughing ; with a dissertation on the powers and properties of the 
plough. Pph. pp. 60. Edinb. : 1823. J. D. W. French. 
Swift, R. B. Who Invented the Reaper ? An answer to the protest state- 
ment said to have been filed at the Treasury Department. 8°. pp. 
54; port., cuts. (Chicago: 1897.) The McCormick Harvesting 
Machine Co. 

TROPICAL AGRICULTURE. 

Tropical Agriculturist. A Monthly Record of Information for Planters 
of Tea, Cacao, Coffee, Cinchona, Palms, Sugar, Cotton, Tobacco, 
Spices, Camphor, Rubber, Rice, etc., and other products suited for 
cultivation in the Tropics. Edited by J. Ferguson. Vol. XV. 
July, 1895 to June, 1896. 8°. pp. 872. (Also weekly reports on 
sales of tea, coffee, etc.) Colombo, Ceylon : 1896. S. F. 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



TROPICAL AGRICULTURE, continued. 

Semler, Heinrich. Die Tropische Agrikultur. Ein Handbuch fiir 
Pflanzer und Kaufleute. 4 vols. [vol. 1 is 2d. ed.] 8°. pp. 776, 
693, 806 and 880: cuts. Wismar: 1897, 1887, 1888, 1892. S. F. 

Hartwig, Dr. G. The Tropical World : aspects of man and nature in the 
equatorial regions of the globe. New ed. 8°. pp. 556; pi., cuts. 
Lond.: 1873. S. E. 

SOILS, FERTILIZERS, ETC. 

Gifford, John. The Control and Fixation of Shifting Sands. (Reprinted 
from The Engineering Magazine.) Pph. pp. 14; cuts. N. Y., 
Jan., 1898. The Author. 

Dugdale, William. The History of Imbanking and Drayning of divers 
Fenns and Marshes both in foreign parts and in this kingdom ; 
etc. Fol. pp. 424, (2); pi. Lond. : 1662. S. F. 

Roberts, Isaac Phillips. The Fertility of the Land. A summary sketch 
of the relationship of farm-practice to the. maintaining and increas- 
ing of the productivity of the soil. (The Rural Science Series. 
Edited by L. H. Bailey.) 12°. pp. xvii, 415 ; 45 cuts. N. Y. and 
Lond.: 1897. S. F. 

Foote, Asahel. Essay on the Manufacture of Manures, and the applica- 
tion of the same to the different varieties of soils. Read before the 
Berkshire Agricultural Society. Pph. pp. 38. Boston : 1843. 
J. D. W. French. 

Guano. A treatise on the history, economy as a manure and modes of 
applying Peruvian Guano, in the culture of the various crops of 
the farm and garden. Pph. pp. 48. Boston : 1860. Geo. W. 
Humphrey. 

Harris, Joseph. Food for Plants. New ed., with supplement, having 
special reference to crops grown in the southern states. Pph. pp. 
32, 12. S. M. Harris. 

Siemssen, G. Verbrauch an Kalirohsalzen in der Deutschen Landwirt- 
schaft in den Jahren 1890 und 1894. Mit Einleitung und Erlauter- 
ung von Dr. Maercker. Pph. pp. 31; map. Berlin: 1896. The 
German Kali Works. 

Maercker, Dr. . Use of Potash Salts in German Agriculture. For 

the years 1890 and 1894. (From Arbeiten der Deutschen Land- 
wirthschafts-Gesellschaft. Zusammengestellt von G. Siemssen. 
Berlin, 1896.) Published by the German Kali Works, New York. 
Pph. pp. 16. N. Y.: n. d. The Publishers. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 301 

AGRICULTURAL JOURNALS. 

Agricultural Review and Journal of the American. Agricultural Associa- 
tion. Vol. Ill, No. 3, March, 1883 ; No. 5, Dec. 1883. New Series, 
No. 1, Jan. 1884; No. 2, Feb. 1884; No. 3, March, 1884; No. 5, May, 
1884. 6 pphs. Joseph H. Reall. 

Skinner, John S., Editor. The Monthly Journal of Agriculture, etc. Vol. 
I. July, 1845, to June, 1846, inclusive. 8°. pp.612; port., pi., 
cuts. N. Y.: 1846. S. F. 

Moore's Rural New-Yorker. Conducted by D. D. T. Moore. Vols. X- 
XII, 1859-1861. 3 vols., fol. Rochester: 1859-1861. L. A. 

Farmer's Magazine. Vols. 1-8 and Vol. 1, new ser. 8°. pi. Lond.: 
1834-1838. L. A. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC. 

United States. 

S^ 3 All the publications of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, here 
acknowledged, with the exception of a few which are otherwise cred- 
ited, were received from Hon. J. Sterling Morton and Hon. James 
Wilson, Secretaries of Agriculture. 

S^T" Unless otherwise stated these publications are 8°. pamphlets. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Office of the Secretary. 

Patent Office. Ann. Rep't. of Commissioner for 1839. pp. 53. 
Wash.: 1840. L. A. 

Same, for 1842. pp. 173. Wash.: 1843. L. A. 

Report of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1895. [Separate.] pp. 
64. Wash.: 1895. 

Same, 1897. [Separate.] pp. 54. Wash. : 1897. 

Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, [1896, Part I.]; being 
part of the Message and Documents communicated to the two 
Houses of Congress at the beginning of the Second Session of the 
54th Congress. CI. 8°. pp. li, 269. Wash. : 1896. 

Yearbook of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1896. CI. 8°. 
pp. 686; frontis., 6 pi., 162 cuts. Wash. 1897. 

Monthly Reports, for 1874, (except Jan. and Aug.) pp. 545. 
Wash.: 1874. L. A. 

(Special Reports, — unnumbered): — 

Culture and Manufacture of Ramie and Jute in the United States. 
By Emile Lefranc. pp. 19. Wash. : 1873. L. A. 

The Eucalyptus globulus, from a botanic, economic, and medical 
point of view, etc. pp. 20. frontis. Wash. : 1875. L. A. 

The Planter's Guide for Cultivating and Curing Tobacco; with 
information and instructions concerning the Shelton Tobacco- 
Hanger, pp. 24. Wash. : 1876. L. A. 



302 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Office of the Secretary. 
(Special Reports, — unnumbered), continued. 

Communication from the Commissioner of Agriculture, relative 
to the establishment of an "Experiment Station " in the District of 
Columbia, pp. 6. Wash.: 1879. L. A. 

Circular Letter from the Commissioner of Agriculture relative to 
the manufacture of Maize and Sorghum Sugars, pp.21. Wash.: 
1879. L. A. 

Address of Hon. George B. Loring, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
and other proceedings of the Cotton Convention held in Atlanta, 
Ga., Nov. 2, 1881. pp. 35. Wash.: 1881. 

Eertilizers. Co-operative experimenting as a means of studying 
the effects of fertilizers and the feeding capacities of plants. By 
W. 0. Atwater. pp.33. Wash.: 1882. L. A. 

Artesian Wells upon the Great Plains, etc. pp. 38; map. Wash.: 
1882. 

Area and Product of Cereals grown in 1879, as returned by the 
Census of 1880. pp. 97. Wash. : 1883. L. A. 

Report on Jute Culture and the importance of the industry, pp. 
21. Wash.: 1883. 

Culture of the Date. By W. G. Klee. pp. 25. Wash. : 1883. 

Address of Norman J. Colman, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
before the Convention of Agricultural Colleges and Experimental 
Stations, Washington, July 8, 1885. pp. 17. Wash. : 1885. 

Letter from the Commissioner of Agriculture, transmitting the 
report of Prof. Swenson on Sorghum Sugar, pp. 11. Wash. : 
1888. L. A. 

Report on the use of Maize (Indian Corn) in Europe, and on 
the possibilities of its extension, pp. 36. Wash. : 1891. 

Letter from the Secretary of Agriculture transmitting a report 
of the special agent of the Department of Agriculture for making 
experiments in the Production of Rainfall, pp. 59 ; 9 pi. Wash. : 
1892. L. A. 

Special Report on Tea-Raising in South Carolina. By Charles 
U. Shepard. {From Rept, of Sec'y. of Ag., 1892.) pp. 627-640 ; 
3 pi. Wash. : 1893. 

Letter from the Secretary of Agriculture relative to the destruc- 
tion and extermination of the Noxious Plant or Weed known as. 
"Saltwort "or "Russian Thistle." pp.5. Wash.: 1894. L. A. 

Letter from the Secretary of Agriculture transmitting informa- 
tion in relation to investigations and experiments in the planting 
of Native Pine. Seed for the growth of Native Pine in the sand 
hills of the Northwest, pp. 14. Wash. : 1894. L. A. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 303 

Suggestions regarding the Cooking of Food, by Edward Atkinson, 
with introductory statements regarding the nutritive value of com- 
mon food materials, by Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, pp. 31 ; cuts. 
Wash. : 1894. 

Protest against proposed legislation restricting the experiments 
of the Department of Agriculture, pp.8. Wash.: 1897. 

Vivisection in the District of Columbia, pp. 8. 

Proceedings of the National Convention for the Suppression of 
Insect Pests and Plant Diseases by Legislation, held at Washing- 
ton, D. C, Mar. 5 and 6, 1897. pp. 31. Wash. : 1897. 

Circulars : — 

No. 4. Vivisection in the District of Columbia, pp. 3. Wash. : 
1896. 
— . Division of Agrostology. 



Bui. 4. Studies on American Grasses. (Issued Feb. 6, 1897.) 
pp. 43 ; 5 pi. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 5. A Report upon the Grasses and Forage Plants of the 
Rocky Mountain Region. By P. A. Rydberg and C. L. Shear, 
pp. 48 ; 29 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 6. Grasses and Forage Plants of the Dakotas. By Thomas 
A. Williams, pp. 47 ; 11 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 7. American Grasses. By F. Lamson-Scribner. CI. pp. 
331 ; 302 cuts. Wash. : 1897. [2 copies.] 

Bui. 8. Studies on American Grasses. I. New or little known 
Grasses. By F. Lamson-Scribner. II. Leaf Structure of Jouvea 
and of Eragrotis obtusifiora. By Miss E. L. Ogden. pp. 23 ; 9 pi., 
cut. Wash. : May 6, 1897. 

Bui. 9. Notes on the Grasses and Forage Plants of Iowa, 
Nebraska, and Colorado. By L. H. Pammel. pp. 47; 12 cuts. 
Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 4. The Renewing of Worn-out Native Prairie Pastures, 
pp. 4 ; 4 cuts. 
. Bureau of Animal Industry. 



4th and 5th Ann. Rep'ts. 1887 and 1888. CI. pp. 510; pi. 
Wash. : 1889. L. A. 

12th and 13th Ann. Rep'ts. 1895 and 1896. CI. pp. 362 ; pi. 
Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 12. Tapeworms of Poultry. 

Bui. 15. The Cheese Industry of the State of New York. 

Bui. 16. The Dairy Industry in Nebraska, South Dakota and 
North Dakota. 

Bui. 18. The Dairy Industry in Missouri and Kansas. 

Cir. 1. (Revised.) Directions for the Pasteurization of Milk. 

Cir. 3. A Nodular Taeniasis in Fowls. 

Cir. 4. Crossing Improved Breeds of Swine with the Common 
Hogs of Florida. 



304 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal 
Industry, continued. 
Cir. 6. Black Quarter. 
Cir. 7. Actinomycosis, or Lumpy Jaw. 
Cir. 8. Injuries to Cattle from swallowing pointed objects. 
Cir. 16. Correspondence defining "filled cheese." 
Cir. 17. Exports of Animals and their products. 
Cir. 18. List of Officials and Associations connected with the 
Dairy Interests in the United States and Canada for 1897. 
Cir. 19. Factory Cheese and how it is made. 
Cir. 20. Preventive Vaccination against Blackleg. 
Cir. 21. Directions for the use of Blackleg Vaccine. 
Contagious Diseases of Domesticated Animals. Investigations 
by the Department of Agriculture, 1883-1884. 

. Division of Biological Survey. 

North American Fauna No. 13. Revision of the North American 
Bats of the Family Vespertilionidge. 
. Division of Botany. 



Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium. Vol. V. No. 
1. Issued Jan. 25, 1897. General Report on a Botanical Survey 
of the Cceur d' Alene Mountains in Idaho during the summer of 
1895. By John B. Leiberg. pp. 85; 1 pi. Wash.: 1897. No. 2. 
Issued June 9, 1897. Notes on the Plants used by the Klamath 
Indians of Oregon. By Frederick V. Coville. pp. 87-108. Wash.: 
1897. No. 3. Issued Aug. 27, 1897. Studies of Mexican and Cen- 
tral American Plants. By J. N. Rose. pp. 109-144; pi. 2-17,6 
cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 18. The Water Hyacinth, and its relation to navigation in 
Florida. By Herbert J. Webber, pp. 20 ; f rontis., 4 cuts. Wash. : 
1897. 

Cir. 9. Wild Garlic. By Lyster H. DeWey. pp. 8 ; cuts. Wash.: 
1897. 

Cir. 10. Three New Weeds of the Mustard Family, pp. 6 ; cuts. 
Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 11. The Vitality of Seed treated with Carbon bisulphid. 
pp. 5. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 12. The Camphor Tree. pp. 7 ; cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Grass and Forage Experiment Station at Garden City, Kansas, 
by Dr. J. A. Sewall ; (and) Cooperative Branch Stations in the 
South, by S. M. Tracy. (Reprinted from Ann. Rep. of Sec'y. of 
Ag., 1891.) pp.12. (Wash.: 1892.) Dr. Geo. F. Waters. 
. Division of Chemistry. 

Bui. 43. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Convention of the 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 305 

Association of Official Agricultural Chemists held in Washington, 
Aug. 23-25, 1894. pp. 403. Wash. : 1894. 

Bui. 46. Methods of Analysis adopted by the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists, Sept. 5-7, 1895. pp. 84; cuts. 
Wash.: 1895. 

Bui. 47. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Convention of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists held at Washington, 
Sept. 5-7, 1895. pp. 172 ; cuts. Wash. : 1896. 

Bui. 49. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Convention of the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, Nov. 
1896. pp. 127; 5 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 2. Changes in and additions to Methods of Analysis adopted 
at the 13th Annual Meeting of the Association of Official Agri- 
cultural Chemists, pp. 6. Wash.: 1896. 

Cir. 3. Needed Reforms in Fertilizer Inspection, pp.3. Wash.: 
1897. 
. Division of Entomology. 



Bui. 5, new series. Insects affecting Domestic Animals, pp. 302; 
5 pi., 170 cuts. Wash. : 1896. 

Bui. 6. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion of Economic Entomologists, pp. 100. Wash. : 1896. 

Bui. 7. Some Miscellaneous Results of the Division of Entomol- 
ogy, pp. 87 ; 44 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 8. Some little-known Insects affecting Stored Vegetable 
Products, pp.45; cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 9. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Associ- 
ation of Economic Entomologists, pp. 87 ; cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Technical Series No. 4. Some Mexican and Japanese Injurious 
Insects liable to be introduced into the United States, pp. 56 ; 6 
cuts. Wash.: 1896. 

No. 5. A Study in Insect Parasitism : a consider- 
ation of the Parasites of the White-marked Tussock Moth, etc. By 
L. O. Howard, pp. 57 ; 24 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 6. The San Jose Scale and its nearest allies. 

By T. D. A. Cockerell. pp. 31; 15 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 7. Revision of the Tachinidse of America 

north of Mexico. By D. W. Coquillett. pp. 156. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 18, 2nd series. (Revision of No. 14). The Mexican Cotton- 
Boll Weevil. (Anthonomus grandis Boh.) pp.8; cuts. Wash.: 
1897. 

Cir. 19. The Clover Mite. {Bryobia pratensis Garman.) pp. 4. 
Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 20. The Woolly Aphis of the Apple (Schizoneura lanigera 
Hausman). pp.6; cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 21. The Strawberry Weevil. (Anthonomus signatus Say.) 
pp. 7; cuts. Wash.: 1897. 



306 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology, 
continued. 

Cir. 22. The Periodical Cicada in 1897. pp. 4. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 23. The Buffalo Tree- Hopper, pp. 4; cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 24. The Two-lined Chestnut Borer, pp. 8; cut. Wash.:. 
1897. 

Cir. 25. The Ox Warble, pp. 10 ; 10 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir., 26. The Pear Slug. pp. 7; 4 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

General Index to the seven volumes of Insect Life. 1888-1895. 
pp. 145. Wash.: 1897. 

Bibliography of the more important contributions to American 
Economic Entomology. Prepared by Samuel Henshaw. Part V. 
The more important writings of Government and State Entomolo- 
gists, and of other contributors to the literature of American 
Economic Entomology. L. — Z. pp.179. Wash.: 1896. Samuel 
Henshaw. 
. Office of Experiment Stations. 

Bui. 30. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Convention of the 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations, Denver, July 16-18, 1895. pp. 100. Wash.: 1896. 

Bui. 33. The Cotton Plant: its history, botany, chemistry, cul- 
ture, enemies, and uses. pp.433; 4 pi., 32 cuts. Wash.: 1896. 

Bui. 34. The Carbohydrates of Wheat, Maize, Flour and Bread, 
and the action of Enzymic Ferments upon Starches of different, 
origin, pp. 44. Wash.: 1896. 

Bui. 35. Food and Nutrition Investigations in New Jersey in 
1895 and 1896. pp. 40. Wash. : 1896. 

Bui. 36. Notes on Irrigation in Connecticut and New Jersey, 
pp. 64; 7 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 37. Dietary Studies at the Maine State College in 1895. 
pp. 57. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 38. Dietary Studies with reference to the Food of the 
Negro in Alabama in 1895 and 1896. pp. 69 ; 2 pi. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 39. Organization Lists of the Agricultural Experiment 
Stations and Institutions with Courses in Agriculture in the United 
States, pp. 96. Wash.: 1897. 

Bui. 40. Dietary Studies in New Mexico in 1895. pp.23. Wash.: 
1897. 

Bui. 41. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Convention of the 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations, held at Washington, Nov. 10-12, 1896. pp. 120. Wash. : 
1897. 

Bui. 42. Cotton Culture in Europe, pp. 34. Wash. : 1897. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 307 

Bui. 43. Losses in Boiling Vegetables, and the Composition and 
Digestibility of Potatoes and Eggs. pp. 31 ; 7 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 44. Report of Preliminary Investigations on the Metabolism 
of Nitrogen and Carbon in the human organism, etc. pp. 64 : cuts. 
Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 28. Broom Corn. pp. 4. Wash. : 1896. 

Cir. 31. Some Books on Agriculture and Agricultural Science. 
Published 1893-1896. pp.176. Wash.: 1896. 

Cir. 32. Report of Committee on Methods of Teaching Agricul- 
ture, pp. 20. 

Cir. 33. Civil Service in the Department of Agriculture, pp. 
10. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 34. Rules and Apparatus for Seed Testing, pp. 9; cuts. 
Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 35. Statistics of Land-grant Colleges and Agricultural 
Experiment Stations, 1896. pp. 18. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 36. Constitution of the Association of American Agricul- 
tural Colleges and Experiment Stations. pp.4. (Wash.: 1897.) 

Cir. 37. Second Report of the Committee on Methods of Teach- 
ing Agriculture, pp. 4. Wash. : 1897. 

Experiment Station Record. Vol. 9, Nos. 1-4. pp. 400. Wash.: 
1897. 

Agricultural Associations in Belgium. [Reprinted from Experi- 
ment Station Record, Vol. IX, No. 1.] (Wash. : 1897.) 

Report on the Work and Expenditures of the Agricultural Exper- 
iment Stations established under the Act of Congress of March 2, 
1887, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896. (54th Congress, 2nd 
Sess., Doc. 137.) pp. 68. 
. Farmers' Bulletins. 



No. 40. Earm Drainage, pp.24; 6 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

No. 45. Some Insects Injurious to Stored Grain, pp.24; 18 cuts. 
Wash.: 1896. 

No. 46. Irrigation in Humid Climates, pp. 27 ; cuts. Wash. : 
1896. 

No. 47. Insects affecting the Cotton Plant. (Reprinted from Bui. 
33, Office of Experiment Stations.) pp. 32 ; 18 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 48. The Manuring of Cotton. (Condensed from an article in 
Bui. 33, Office of Experiment Stations.) pp. 16. Wash.: 1897. 

No. 49. Sheep Feeding. 

No. 50. Sorghum as a Forage Crop. pp. 20 ; cut. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 51. Standard Varieties of Chickens. 

No. 52. The Sugar Beet : Culture, Seed Development and Statis- 
tics, pp. 48 ; 24 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 53. How to Grow Mushrooms. By William Falconer, pp. 
20; 14 cuts. Wash.-. 1897. [2 copies.] 



308 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletins, con- 
tinued. 

No. 54. Some Common Birds in their relation to Agriculture, 
pp. 40 ; 22 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

No. 55. The Dairy Herd. [Reprinted from Yearbook, 1894.] 

No. 56. Experiment Station Work — I. pp.31,; 10 cuts. Wash.: 
1897. 

No. 57. Butter Making on the Farm. 

No. 58. The Soy Bean as a Forage Crop. With an Appendix on 
Soy Beans as Food for Man. pp. 24 ; 5 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 59. Bee Keeping. 

No. 60. Methods of Curing Tobacco, pp. 16. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 61. Asparagus Culture, pp. 40 ; 17 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

No. 62. Marketing B'arm Produce, pp. 28; 7 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 

No. 63. Care of Milk on the Farm. 

No. 64. Ducks and Geese : Standard Breeds and Management. 
. Fiber Investigations. 

Annual Report for 1891. (From Report of the Secretary of 
Agriculture for 1891.) pp. 417-438 ; 11 cuts. Wash. : 1892. 

Report No. 8. A Report on the Culture of Hemp and Jute in the 
United States, with statements concerning the practice in foreign 
countries in preparation of the fiber for market, and remarks on 
the machine question, pp. 43 ; 3 pi., 4 cuts. Wash.: 1896. 

Report No. 9. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Useful Fiber Plants 
of the world including the structural and economic classifications 
of fibers, pp. 361 ; frontis., 12 pi., 103 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 
. Section of Foreign Markets. 



Bui. 7. The World's Markets for American Products. Norway, 
pp. 68. Wash. : 1896. 

Cir. 11. Agricultural Products imported and exported by the 
United States in the years ended June 30, 1892 to 1896, inclusive, 
pp. 8. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 12. Sources of the Principal Agricultural Imports of the 
United States during the live years ended June 30, 1896. pp. 24. 

Cir. 13. Distribution of the Principal Agricultural Exports of 
the United States during the five years ended June 30, 1896. pp. 24. 
Wash: 1897. 

Cir. 14. Hamburg as a Market for American Products, pp. 10. 
Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 15. Exports of Cotton from Egypt, pp.7. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 16. Our Trade with Cuba from 1887 to 1897. pp. 30. Wash. : 
1897. 

Cir. 17. United States Wheat for Eastern Asia. pp. 8. Wash.: 
1897. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 309 

Cir. 18. Hawaiian Commerce from-1887 to 1897. pp. 37. Wash.: 
1897. 

Cir. 19. Austria-Hungary as a factor in the World's Grain Trade; 
recent use of American Wheat in that country, pp. 23. Wash. : 
1897. 
. Division of Forestry. 



Bui. 14. Nomenclature of the Arborescent Flora of the United 
States. By George B. Sudworth. Issued Jan. 21, 1897. pp. viii, 
419. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 15. Summary of Mechanical Tests of thirty-two species of 
American Woods, pp. 12. 

Cir. 16. Age of Trees and Time of Blazing determined by 
Annual Rings, pp. 11 ; 12 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 17. Recent Legislation on State Forestry Commissions and 
Forest Reserves, pp. 15. Wash. : 1897. 

White Pine Timber Supplies. Letter from the Secretary of 
Agriculture, transmitting a statement prepared by the Chief of the 
Division of Forestry. (Sen. Doc. No. 40, 55th Cong., 1st Sess.) 
pp. 21. (Wash.: 1897.) 
. Library. 



Bui. 14. Accessions to the Department Library. Oct.-Dec, 
1896. pp. 13. 

Bui. 15. Accessions, Jan.-Mar., 1897. pp. 15. 

Bui. 16. References to the Literature of the Sugar Beet, exclusive 
of works in foreign languages, pp. 9. (Wash. : 1897.) 

Bui. 17. Accessions, Apr. -June, 1897. pp. 26. 

Bui. 18. A Bibliography of Poultry. 

Bui. 19. Accessions, July-Sept., 1897. pp. 25. 
. Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy. 



North American Fauna No. 10. Revision of the Shrews of the 
American Genera Blarina and Notiosorex. Etc. 

No. 11. Synopsis of the Weasels of North America. 

No. 12. Genera and Subgenera of Voles and Lemmings. 
. Division of Pomology. 



Report of the Pomologist for 1895. By Samuel B. Heiges. pp. 
64 ; 6 col. pi. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 5. Fig Culture. Edible Figs : their culture and curing. 
By Gustav Eisen. Fig Culture in the Gulf States. By Frank S. 
Earle. pp. 32. Wash. : 1897. [2 copies.] 

Bui. 6. Catalogue of Fruits recommended for Cultivation in the 
various sections of the United States by the American Pomological 
Society, T. T. Lyon, Chairman, pp. 39. Wash. : 1897. [2 copies.] 

Cir. 2. (Revised.) Prune Culture in the Pacific Northwest. 
By E. It. Lake. pp. 7 ; 3 cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 3. (Revised.) Notes on Peach Cull inc. By J. II. Hale, 
pp. 8; 4 cuts. Wash.: 1897. 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 
. Division op Publications. 



Bui. 2. Synoptical Index of the Reports of the Statistician, 1863- 
1894. pp.258. Wash.: 1897. 

Circulars. Monthly Lists of Publications of the Department. 
Dec. 1896 to Nov. 1897, inclusive. 

Cir. 179. (Revised.) Publications of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture for sale by the Superintendent of Documents. Cor- 
rected to Oct. 1, 1897. pp. 28. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 218. The Publication Work of the Department of Agricul- 
ture as affected by the law of Jan. 12, 1895. pp. 4. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 224. Farmers' Bulletins available for distribution, Apr. 1, 
1897. 

Cir. 231. (List of ) Congressional Reprints. 1 p. Wash.: 1897. 

Cir. 232. Farmers 1 Bulletins available for distribution June 1, 
1897. pp. 4. Wash. : 1897. 

Cir. 247. List of Bulletins and Circulars issued by the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture and available for free distribution. 
Corrected to Nov. 1, 1897. pp. 15. Wash. : 1897. 

Monthly Lists of Publications. Dec. 1896-Dec. 1897. Wash- 
ington : 1896-'97. 
. Office of Road Inquiry. 



Bui. 19. Progress of Road Construction in the United States. 

Cir. 24. Highway Repairing. 

Cir. 25. Brick Paving for Country Roads. 

Cir. 26. Going in Debt for Good Roads. 

Cir. 27. Cost of Hauling Farm Products to Market or to Ship- 
ping Points in Eastern Countries. 

Cir. 28. Addresses on Road Improvement in Maine, New York, 
North Carolina and Illinois. 

Cir. 29. The Forces which operate to destroy Roads. 

Circular (enclosing leaflet entitled) National League for Good 
Roads. 
. Division of Soils. 



Bui. 6. An Electrical Method of Determining the Moisture 
Content of Arable Soils, pp. 26 ; cuts. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 7. An Electrical Method of Determining the Temperature 
of Soils, pp. 15. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 8. An Electrical Method of Determining the Soluble Salt 
Content of Soils, etc. pp. 30. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 9. Soil Moisture : a record of the Amount of Water con- 
tained in Soils during the crop season of 1896. pp. 23 ; diagrams. 
Wash. : 1897. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 311 



Division of Statistics. 



Reports of the Statistician. New Series. Nos. 144-154. Wash- 
ington : 1895-'96. 

Miscellaneous Series. Bui. 12. Freight Charges for Ocean Trans- 
portation of the Products of Agriculture. Oct. 1, 1895-Oct. 1, 1896. 
pp. 53. Wash. : 1896. 

Cir. 3. The Farmer's Interest in Finance, pp. 15. 

Cir. 4. The Cotton Crop of 1895. pp. 15. 

Cir. 5. Local Taxation as affecting Farms, pp. 16. 

Cir. 6. Cereal Crops of 1896. pp. 12. 

Cir. 7. The Cotton Crop of 1896. pp. 4. 

Misc. Cir. No. 1. The Castor Oil Plant, pp. 4. 

No. 2. The Mississippi River Flood, pp. 4. 

No. 3. Same, Report No. 2. pp. 4. 
. Division of Vegetable Physiology and 



Pathology. 

Report of the Chief of the Division for 1896. By B. T. Gallo- 
way. {From Rep't. of Sec'y. of Ag.) pp. 13-22. Wash. : 1896. 

Bui. 13. Sooty Mold of the Orange and its Treatment. By 
Herbert J. Webber, pp. 44 ; 5 pi. Wash. : 1897. 

Bui. 14. The Bermuda Lily Disease : a preliminary report of 
investigations. By Albert F. Woods, pp. 15 ; 4 cuts. Wash.: 
1897. 

Diseases of Shade and Ornamental Trees. By B. T. Galloway 
and Albert F. Woods. (Reprinted from Yearbook for 1896.) pp. 
237-254 ; cuts 53-57. 
.. Weather Bureau. 



Bui. 20. Storms, Storm Tracks and Weather Forecasting. 

Bui. D. Rainfall of the United States, with annual, seasonal, 
and other charts. 

Instructions for Voluntary Observers. 

Monthly Weather Review. Vol. 24, Nos. 11 and 12, 1896; Vol. 
25, 1897. Also Annual Summaries for 1896 and 1897. Wash.: 
1896-'97. 

Climate and Crop Bulletin of the Weather Bureau. Nos. 1-32, 
Jan.-Dec. 1897. Wash.: 1897. 

New England Section of the Climate and Crop Service of the 
Weather Bureau. Monthly Reports. Vol. I, Nos. 11 & 12; Vol. 2, 
Nos. 1-11. Boston: 1896-97. Weekly Crop Bulletins. Nos. 1-22. 
Boston: 1897. Annual Summary, 180(5. (Ilepr. Ami. Astronom. 
Observ. Harvard Coll.) Cambridge: 1896. J. W. Smith, Director. 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

American Institute of the City of New York. Journal. A Monthly 

Publication devoted to the Interests of Agriculture, Commerce, 

Manufactures and the Arts. Vols. 1-4. 8°. N. Y.: 1836, '37, 

'38, '40. L. A. 
Annual Eeports. 5th to 18th, for 1846 to 1859-60 {except 16th 

for 1857, see next paragraph,) and rep'ts. for 1860-61 and 1866-67. 

15 vols. 8°. Albany: 1847-1867. The family of the late 

Marshall P. Wilder. 

Same, for the years 1843, 1857, 1861-'62 to 1865-'66, and 1867- 

'68 to 1871-'72. 12 vols. 8°. Albany: (1844)-1872. Dr. F. M. 

Hexamer. 
Berks County Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 42d Ann. Exhibi- 
tion, Sept. 1897. Pph. pp. 56. Reading, Pa.: 1897. Cyrus T. 

Fox, Sec'y. 
Bussey Institution. Bulletin. Vol. II, Part VI. 1897. [Contains] 

Observations on Some of the Chemical Substances in the Trunks 

of Trees. By Prof. F. H. Storer. Pph. pp. 385-408, Cambridge: 

1897. The Institution. 
Colorado State Board of Agriculture. 18th Ann. Rep't., including 9th 

Ann. Rep't. of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 1896. Pph. 

pp. 191; frontis., 5 pi. Denver: 1897. Daniel W. Working, 

Sec'y. 
Illinois State Agricultural Society. Transactions. Vol. II.— 1856-57. 

8°. pp. 684; 14 pi. Springfield: 1857. L. A. 
Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 10th Biennial Rep't., 1895-1896. 

8°. pp. 855; pi., cuts. Topeka: 1896. 

Rep't. for quarter ending Mar., 1897. Pph. pp. 256; cuts. 

Topeka: 1897. 

Rep't. for quarter ending Dec, 1897. Pph. pp. 282; cuts. 

Topeka: (1897.) F. D. Coburn, Sec'y. 
Louisiana Bureau of Agriculture. Rep'ts. Condition and Prospect of 

Crops. Circulars for Dec, 1896 and Nos. 8 and 9, March- Aug., 

1897. Baton Rouge: 1897. The Commissioner. 
Marshfield Agricultural and Horticultural Society. Transactions. 

1896. Pph. pp. 54. Plymouth, Mass.: 1897. Francis Colla- 

more, Sec'y. 
Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture. 44th Ann. Rep't. of the 

Sec'y. 1896. 8°. pp. 599, 254; pi., cuts. Boston: 1897. 

Synoptical and Analytical Index, 1837-1892. By Frederick H. 

Fowler. 8°. pp. 301. Boston: 1893. [2nd copy.] 
Crop Reports, for May-Sept., 1897. Boston: 1897. 
Laws relating to the State Board of Agriculture and Incorpo- 
rated Agricultural Societies, etc. March, 1894. Pph. pp. 39. 

Boston: 1894. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 31 3 

Regulations concerning Farmers' Institutes, with a list of avail- 
able lecturers and their subjects. "Dec. 1, 1897. Pph. pp. 12- 

Boston: 1897. 

Directory of Agricultural and Similar Organizations in the 

State. Feb. 1897. Pph. pp. 489-501. 
Report on the Work of the Extermination of the Gypsy Moth. 

Jan., 1897. Pph. pp. 85; 9 pi. Boston: 1897. 

Hon. Wm. R. Sessions, Sec'y. 
Agricultural Tract No. 1. Culture of the Grasses. An extract 

from the 4th Ann. Rep't. of Charles L. Flint, Sec'y. St. Bd. Ag. 

Pph. 8°. pp. 16; cuts. Boston: 1860. Geo. W. Humphrey. 

Massachusetts State Grange, joint exhibition with the Worcester 

Agricultural Society, at Worcester. August 31 - Sept. 3, 1897. 

Official Schedule of Premiums. Pph. pp. 78. (Worcester r 

1897.) John B. Bowker, Sec'y., Worcester Ag'l. Soc. ■ 
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture. Address, by James- 
Richardson, delivered Oct. 17, 1832. Pph. pp.20. Boston: 1832. 

J. D. W. French. 
New England Agricultural Society. 34th Ann. Exhibition, Aug. 16— 

21, 1897, Portland, Me. Premiums. Pph. pp. 80. Portland: 

1897. 
New York State Board of Agriculture. Memoirs. Vols. I-III. (I.) 

pp. xlviii, 364, 109. (II.) pp. 532. (III.) pp. 558; pi. 3 vols. 

8°. Albany: 1821, 1823, 1826. S. F. 
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Ann. Rept. for 1895. 8°. 

pp. 878; pi. (Harrisburg:) 1896. Thos. J. Edge, Sec'y. 
Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture. Address delivered at 

its Annual Meeting, 15th January, 1822. By Nicholas Biddle.. 

Pph. pp. 39. Phila.: 1822. L. A. 
Rhode Island State Board of Agriculture. 12th Ann. Rep't. 1896. 8°. 

pp. 469, 90 ; port., map, plate, plan. Providence : 1897. George 

A. Stockwell, Sec'y. 
Worcester Agricultural Society, Address delivered before the, October 

7, 1819, being their first Anniversary Cattle Show and Exhibition 

of Manufactures. By Hon. Levi Lincoln, Jun. Pph. pp. 30. 

Worcester : 1819. J. D. W. French. 

Canada. 

(Manitoba Central Farmers' Institute. 1st Ann. Rep't.) = Bui. 35. . . . 

issued by the Department of Agriculture and Immigration. Pph. 

pp. 51. Winnipeg: 1892. S. A. Bedford, Supt. Experimental 

Farm for Manitoba. 
Nova Scotia. Provincial Government Crop Report, 1897. Pph. pp. 61. 

Halifax : 1897. Hon. B. W. Chipman, Sec'y. for Agriculture. 



314 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES, BOARDS, ETC., continued. 

Ontario Department of Agriculture. 

Ontario Live Stock Associations. Ann. Rep'ts., 1896-97. 
Ontario Dairymen's and Creameries Associations. Ann. Rep't., 
1896. 

Special Bulletin, July, 1897. 

The Ontario Department of Agriculture. 
Ontario Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Industries. Ann. Rep'ts. 
11th for 1892, pts. 6 and 7. Toronto : 1893-94. 
14th " 1895, " 4, 5 and 6. " 1896. 

15th " 1896. " 1897. 

Bulletins 61-64. Toronto: 1897. 

Pph's. The Ontario Dept. of Agriculture. 

South America. 

Asociacion Rural del Uruguay. Revista. Vol. 26, 1897. 4°. pp. 615. 

Montevideo : 1896. The Association. 
Sociedad Rural Argentina, Anales de la. Vol. 31. 1897. 4°. pp. 340. 

Buenos Aires : 1897. The Society. 
Timehri : Being the Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial 

Society of British Guiana. Yol. X, pt. 2, Dec. 1896. Vol. XI, 

pt. 1, June, 1897. Pph's. 8°. Demerara : 1896, 1897. S. E. 

Europe. 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal. 3rd ser. Vol. 7, 
pt. IV. No. 28, 31st Dec, 1896. pp. 601-816 ; elxi-clxxxiii ; cuts. 
Lond. : 1896. 

Vol. 8, pts. I-III. Nos. 29-31, Mar., June and Sept., 1897. pp. 
576, clxxxviii; cuts. Lond.: 1897. S. E. 

Australia. 

■Queensland Department of Agriculture, Brisbane. Bui. No. 13, 2nd ser. 
Jan., 1897. Spraying. Pph. pp. 12. Brisbane : 1897. The 
Department. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 
COLLEGES, ETC. 

The'f'ol lowing Bulletins and Reports have been received during the year 
from the respective Stations : 

Alabama. — Bui's. 73-87. 

Arizona.— Bui's. 22-25. (7th and 8th Ann. Rep'ts. = Bui's. 24 
and 25.) 

Arkansas. — Bui's. 43-46. 
California. — Bui's. 113-117. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 315 

Colorado. — Bui's. 35-40. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Connecticut. (New Haven Station). — Bui. 124. 20th Ann. 
Rep't. for 1896. 

(Sturrs Station). — 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Delaware.— Bui's. 34 and 35. 8th Ann. Rep't. for 1895-96. 

Florida.— Bui's. 36-43. Ann. Rep'ts. for 1894, 1895 and 1896. 

Georgia.— Bui's. 33-36. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Idaho. — Bui. 10. 

Illinois. — Bui's. 46-48. 9th and 10th Ann. Rep'ts. for 1895-96 
and 1896-97. 

Indiana. — Bui's. 61-66. Special Bui., 2 editions. 

Iowa.— Bui's. 34 and 35. 

Kansas.— Bui's. 62-70. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Kentucky. — Bui's. 65-69. 

Louisiana.— Bui's. 45-48. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Maine.— Bui's. 26-38. Ann. Rep'ts. for 1895 and 1896. 

Maryland — Bui's. 43-49. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Massachusetts.— Bui's. 43-49. 9th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 
Meteorological Division. — Bui's. 96-107. 

Michigan.— Bui's. 135-148. 

Minnesota.— Bui's. 48-54. Ann. Rep't. for 1895. 

Mississippi. — Bui's. 40 and 41. 9th Ann. Rept. for 1896. 

Missouri.— Bui's. 32-37. 

Montana.— Bui's. 11-13. (3rd Ann. Rep't. for 1895-96=Bul. 12.) 

Nebraska.— Bui's. 45-50. 10th Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Nevada.— Bui's. 32 and 33. 7th and 8th Ann. Rep'ts. for 1894 
and 1895. 

New Hampshire.— Bui's. 40-46. (8th Ann. Rep't., for 1895, = 
Bui. 40.) 

New Jersey.— Bui's. 117-123. 17th Ann. Rep't. of the State 
Station, and 9th Ann. Rep't. of the College Station, for 1896. 

New Mexico.— Bui's. 20-24. 

New York. (State Station.)— Bui's. 109-124. 14th Ann. Rep't. 
for 1895. 

(Cornell University Station). — Bui's. 122-141. 8th Ann. 
Rep't. 1895. 

North Carolina.— Bui's. 132, 133, and 136-144. 18th and 19th 
Ann. Rep'ts. for 1895 and 1896. 
Special Bulletins 39-47. 

North Dakota.— Bui's. 24-29. 6th and 7th Ann. Rep'ts. for 
1895 and 1896. 

Ohio.— Bui's. 73-82 and 85. (14th and 15th Ann. Rep'ts. for 
1895 and 1896, = Bui's. 66 and 74.) 

Oklahoma.— Bui's. 20-25. 

Oregon.— Bui's. 43-47. 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, COLLEGES, 

ETC., continued. 

Pennsylvania. — Bui's. 35-38. Bui. of Information No. 2. 

Rhode Island. — Bui's. 42-46. 

South Carolina. — Bui. 27. 

South Dakota.— Bui's. 49-55. 9th Ann. Rep't., for 1895-96. 

Tennessee.— BuVs. Vol. 9. Nos. 1-4; Vol. 10, Nos. 1 and 2. 8th 
and 9th Ann. Rep'ts., for 1895 and 1896. 

Texas.— Bui's. 40-42. 9th Ann. Rep't., for 1896. 

Utah.— Bui's. 46-50. 7th and 8th Ann. Rep'ts. for 1896 and 
1896-97. 

Vermont.— Bui's. 54-59. 9th and 10th Ann. Rep'ts. for 1895 
and 1896. 

Virginia.— Bui's. 57-60, 63-70. (7th) Ann. Rep't. for 1895-96. 

Washington. — Bui's. 21-27. 

West Virginia. — Bui's. 45-49. Special Bui., August, 1897. 

Wisconsin.— Bui's. 55-62. 13th Ann. Rep't., for 1895-96. 

Wyoming.— Bui's. 30-33. 5th and 6th Ann. Rep'ts. for 1895 
and 1896. 

Canada. — Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Bui's. 26-28. 
[10th] Ann. Rep't. for 1896. 

Ontario Agricultural College Experiment Station, Guelph., 
Bui's. 104 and 105. 22nd Ann. Rep't. for 1896, with 18th Ann. 
Rep't. of the Agricultural and Experimental Union. 



Massachusetts Agricultural College. 34th Ann. Rep't., Jan., 1897. 

Pph. pp. 356; frontis., pi., cuts. Boston: 1897. The College. 
Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanics Arts. 7th Ann. 

Rep't. Part I. Pph. pp. 76; 10 pi. Providence : 1895. C. 0. 

Elagg, Director. 
New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station. Report of the 

Botanical Department, for 1896, by Byron D. Halsted, Sc. D. Pph. 

pp. 289-429; pi., cuts. Trenton: 1897. Prof. Halsted. 
North Dakota Agricultural College. 2nd and 3rd Biennial Rep'ts. 

1893-4 and 1895-6. 2 pph's. pp. 58 and 109. Jamestown: 1894, 

and Bismark: 1896. 
Saunders, William. Agricultural Colleges and Experimental Farm 

Stations. With suggestions relating to Experimental Agriculture 

in Canada. Pph. pp. iv, 111. Ottawa: 1886. The Author. 
Queensland Department of Agriculture. Prospectus of the Queensland 

Agricultural College. Feb., 1897. Pph. pp 18. Brisbane: 1897. 

The Department. 
New South Wales Department of Agriculture, Sydney. Miscellaneous 

Publication 116. Agricultural Experiment Station Work. Pph. 

pp. 29; 49 cuts. Sydney: 1896. The Author. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 317 

'New South Wales Department of Mines and Agriculture, Sydney. 
Hawkesburg Ag'l. College and Experimental Farm, Richmond. 
5th Ann. Rep't. 1895. Pph. pp. 54. Sydney : 1897. The Dep't. 

INSECTS. 

Smith, John B., Sc. D. Economic Entomology for the Farmer and Fruit 
Grower, and for use as a text-book in Agricultural Schools and 
Colleges. 8°. pp. 481; frontis., 483 cuts. Phila.: 1896. S. F. 

.Recommendations as to State and National Legislation, relative to 
Insect Pests and Plant Diseases, adopted by the National Conven- 
tion held at Washington, March, 1897. Pph. pp. 8. 

New York State Entomologist. Rep'ts. for 1883, 1884 and 1885. (From 
37th, 38th and 39th Rep'ts. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) Pph's. 
Albany: 1884-1886. L. A. 

New York, Injurious and other Insects of the State of. 11th Rep't. for 
the year 1895. (From 49th Rep't. N. Y. St. Mus.) By J. A. Lintner, 
State Entomologist. 8°. pp. 87-325; 16 pi. Albany: 1896. 
Prof. Lintner. 

Iiintner, J. A. Entomological Contributions. (From 27th Ann. Rep't. 
of N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) Pph. pp. 137-148. Albany: 1875. 
L. A. 

. Entomological Contributions. Nos. I to IV. (From 23d, 

24th, 26th and 30th Ann. Rept's., N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 4 
pph's. Albany : 1872-78. L. A. (No. I presented by S. B. 
Griswold, State Library, Albany.) 

. The Insects and other animal forms of Caledonia Creek, 

N. Y. (From 32d Ann. Rep't. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) Pph. 
pp. 75-99. Albany • 1879. L. A. 

New York State Museum of Natural History. Vol. 3, No. 13. Apr. 1895. 
The San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus, and some other destruc- 
tive Scale-Insects of the State of New York. By J. A. Lintner, 
State Entomologist. Pph. pp. 265-305; pi. Albany: 1895. S. 
B. Griswold, State Library, Albany. 

Illinois, Noxious and Beneficial Insects. 19th Rep't. 8th Rep't. of S. A. 
Forbes, for the years 1893 and 1894. Pph. pp. 206, 65; frontis., 
13 pi. Springfield : 1895. S. A. Forbes. 

Ormerod, Eleanor A. Reports of Observations of Injurious Insects and 
common farm pests, during the year 189(5, with methods of preven- 
tion and remedy. 20th Rep't. 8°. pp. 160; port., 1 pi., cuts. 
Lond.: 1897. S. F. 

Buckler, William, (the late). The Larvse of the British Butterflies and 
Moths. Vol. VII. Edited by George T. Porritt. (Issued to the 
Subscribers of the Ray Society for the year 1894.) 8°. pp. 176, 
30; col. pi. 106-127. Lond.: 1897. S. F. 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PLANT DISEASES 

Galloway, B. T. Plant Diseases, and the possibility of lessening their 
spread -by legislation. {Extract from Florists' Exchange, Vol. IX, 
No. 22, May 29, 1897.) 1 p. N. Y. : 1897. The Author. 

Tubeuf, Dr. Karl Ereiherr von. Diseases of Plants induced by Crypto- 
gamic Parasites. Introduction to the Study of Pathogenic Eungi, 
Slime-Fungi, Bacteria, and Algae. English edition by William 
G. Smith, B. Sc, Ph. D. 8°. pp. 598; 330 cuts. Lond., N. Y. and 
Bombay : 1897. S. E. 

Prillieux, Ed. Maladies des plantes agricoles et des arbres fruitiers et 
forestiers causees par des parasites vegetaux. Tome II. 8°. pp. 
592; cuts 191-481. Paris: 1897. S. F. 

Smith, Dr. Erwin F. Pseudomonas campestris (Pammel). The cause of 
a Brown Rot in Cruciferous Plants. [Abdruck aus dem Central- 
blatt fur Bakteriologie, etc., II Abteilung. Ill Band, 1897, No. 
11-12, 15-16, 17-18.] Pph. pp. 284-291, 408-415, 478-486; 1 col. 
pi. Jena : 1897. The Author. 

Seymour, A. B., and F. S. Earle, Editors and Publishers. Economic 
Fungi. A Series of Specimens designed chiefly to illustrate the 
Fungus Diseases of Useful and Noxious Plants. Fascicle X. Nos. 
451-500. Chiefly Parasites of Ornamental Herbaceous Plants. 4°. 
Cambridge, Mass.: Oct. 15, 1897. S. F. 

GENERAL BOTANY. 

Engler, A., und K. Prantl, fortgesetzt von A. Engier. Die natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien, etc. Lief. 142-168. Pph's. pi., cuts. Leipzig: 
1896-97. S. F. 

Hill, John. The Vegetable System. Or, the internal structure, and the 
life of plants; etc. With figures of all the plants, designed and 
engraved by the author. Fol. 26 vols., bound in 13. [Vols.T and 
21 are of the 2nd ed.] . colored pi. with text. Lond. : 1772-1775. 
S. F. [To replace copy with uncolored plates.] 

Hooker's Icones Plantarum ; or, Figures, with descriptive characters and 
remarks, of new and rare plants, selected from the Kew Herbarium. 
4th series. Vol. VI.— Part I. Feb., 1897. Edited for the Bent- 
ham Trustees by W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C. M. G., C. I. E., etc., 
Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 8°. Plates 2501-2525 with 
descriptive text. Lond.: 1897. S. F. 

Bailey, L. H. The Survival of the Unlike. A Collection of Evolution 
Essays suggested by the study of Domestic Plants. 12°. pp. 515;. 
cuts. N. Y. & Lond.: 1896. S. F. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 319 

Columbia College, Contributions from the Herbarium of. No. 51. Our 

Conception of "Species " as modified by the Doctrine of Evolution. 

By N. L. Britton. (From Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Vol. XIII, 

Eeb. 12, 1894.) Pph. pp. 132-135. L. A. 
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. The Procession of the Elowers and 

kindred papers. 12 c . pp. 178; frontis. N. Y., Lond., & Bombay: 

1897. S. E. 
Gray, Asa, Editor. Selections from the scientific correspondence of Cad- 

wallader Colden with Gronovius, Linnaeus, Collinson, and other 

naturalists. (From Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts.) Pph. pp. 51. New 

Haven : 1843. The Boston Athenaeum. 
Grisebach, A. Gesammelte Abhandlungen und kleinere Schriften zur 

Pflanzengeographie. 8°. pp. 628; port. Leipzig : 1880. S. F. 
Kabsch, Wilhelm. Das Pflanzenleben der Erde. Ein Pflanzengeographie 

fiir Laien und Naturforscher. Nach dem Tode des Verfassers mit 

einem Vorworte versehen von H. A. Berlepsch. 8°. pp. 642; 

frontis., 58 cuts. HannOver: 1865. S. F. 

ELEMENTARY BOTANY. 

Gray, Asa, M. D. The Botanical Text-Book for colleges, schools, and 
private students. [First Edition.] 12°. pp. 413; 78 cuts. N. Y. 
& Boston : 1842. S. F. 

Willis, J. C, M. A., Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon. A Man- 
ual and Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns. (Cam- 
bridge Natural Science Manuals.) 2 vols. 12°. pp. 224 and 429; 
cuts. Cambridge, (Eng.) : 1897. S. F. 

Scott, Dukinfield Henry. An Introduction to Structural Botany. Part 
II. Flowerless Plants. 12°. pp. 312; 114 cuts. Lond.: 1896. 
S. F. 

Pratt, Anne. The Field, the Garden and the Woodland; or interesting 
facts respecting flowers and plants in general. Designed for the 
young. 2d ed. 24°. pp. 336; col. frontis., cuts. Lond.: 1841. 
S. F. 

Pratt, Anne. The Pictorial Catechism of Botany. 24°. pp. 230; cuts. 
Lond.: 1842. S. F. 

ECONOMIC BOTANY. 

Griffith, William. Report on the Tea Plant of Upper Assam. (Front 
Trans. Ag. and Hort. Soc. of India, Vol. V, 1838.) Pph. pp. 85: 
2 maps, 2 pi. N. Y.: (1838). The Boston AthensBum. 

Sorgho Sucre or Chinese Sugar Cane: Method of Cultivation and Manu- 
facture, and its value as a forage plant. . . . Collected and con- 
densed from authentic sources by a, Massachusetts Farmer. Pph. 
pp.12. Boston: 1857. Geo. W. Humphrey. 



320 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TERRITORIAL BOTANY. 

America. 

Gray, Asa, LL. D., continued and edited by Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, 
Ph. D., with the collaboration of William Trelease, John M. 
Coulter, and Liberty H. Bailey. Synoptical Elora of North 
America. Vol. I, Part I, Fascicle II, Polypetalse from the 
Caryophyllacese to the Polygalacese. Issued June 10, 1897. 4°. 
pp. ix-xv, 207-506. N. Y., Cincinnati & Chicago: 1897. S. F. 

Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Ph.D., and Hon. Addison Brown. An Illus- 
trated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the 
British possessions; from Newfoundland to the parallel of the 
southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean west- 
ward to the 102d Meridian. Vol. II. Portulacaceae to Menyan- 
thaceae. Portulaca to Buckbean. 4°. pp. 643 ; cuts 1426-2892. 
N. Y.: 1897. S. F. 

Creevey, Caroline A. Flowers of Field, Hill and Swamp. 8°. pp. 564; 
cuts. N. Y.: 1897. S. F. 

Newhall, Charles S. The Vines of Northeastern America. 8°. pp.207; 
91 cuts. N. Y. & Lond. : 1897. S. F. 

Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, Contributions from the. New 
Series. — No. X. By B. L. Robinson, and J. M. Greenman. I. 
Revision of the Genus Tridax. II. Synopsis of the Mexican and 
Central American Species of the Genus Mikania. III. Revision 
of the Genus Zinnia. IV. Revision of the Mexican and Central 
American Species of the Genus Calea. V. A Provisional Key to 
the Species of Porophyllum ranging North of the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama. VI. Descriptions of new and little known Phanerogams, 
chiefly from Oaxaca. (Proceedings Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci- 
ences. Vol. XXXII. No. 1, Nov. 1896.). Issued Dec. 2, 1896. 
pp. 51. 

No.- XI. By J. M. Greenman. I. Revision of the Mexican and 
Central American Species of Houstonia. II. Key to the Mexican 
Species of Liabum. III. Descriptions of new or little known 
plants from Mexico. (Proceedings Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences. 
Vol. XXXII, No. 16,— June, 1897.) pp. 281-811. 

No. XII. By M. L. Fernald. I. A Systematic Study of the 
United States and- Mexican Species of Pedis. II. Some Rare and 
Undescribed Plants collected by Dr. Edward Palmer, at Acapulco, 
Mexico. (Proceedings Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences. Vol. 
XXXIII, No. 5.— Oct. 1897.) pp. 55-94. 

Pph's. The Gray Herbarium. 

Columbia College, Contributions from the Herbarium of. (Part of No. 
4.) Contributions to Texan Botany. By N. L. Britton. Addi- 
tions to the List of Plants collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 321 

Diego, Texas. (From Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, May 5, 1890.) 
pp. 181-185. N. L. Britton. 

No. 9. (a.) A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at 
Et. Verde and in the Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, 
Arizona, 1884-1888. By N. L. Britton. (b.) The general Floral 
Characters of the San Francisco and Mogollon Mountains of Ari- 
zona and New Mexico, and the adjacent region. By H. H. Rusby. 
{Eeprinted from Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Yol. VIII, Jan. 21, 
1889.) pp. 61-81. L. A. 

No. 13. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams. II. 
By N. L. Britton. {Reprinted from Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, 
Vol. IX, No. 1, Oct. 1889.) pp. 14. L. A. 

No. 26. A List of Species of the Genera Scirpus and Rhynchos- 
pora occurring in North America. By N. L. Britton. (Eeprinted 
from Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Vol. XI, p. 74, 1892.) pp. 19. 
L. A. 

No. 27. Note on a collection of Tertiary Fossil Plants from 
Potosi, Bolivia. By N. L. Britton. {Reprinted from Trans. Am. 
Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. XXI.) pp. 10. L. A. 

No. 30. Ranunculus repens and its eastern North American 
Allies. By N. L. Britton. (Reprinted from Trans. N.. Y. Acad. 
Sciences, Vol. XII, Nov. 1892.) pp. 4. L. A. 

No. 32. West Virginia Mosses. By Elizabeth G. Britton. 
• (From Millspaugh's Preliminary Catalogue of the Flora of West 

Virginia — 1892.) pp. 484-494 : 2 pi. L. A. 

No. 35. An Enumeration of the Plants collected by Dr. Thomas 
Morong, in Paraguay, 1888-1890. By Thomas Morong and N. L. 
Britton, with the assistance of Miss Anna Murray Vail. (Reprinted 
from Annals N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Vol. VII, Dec, 1892.) pp. 25- 
280. L. A. 

No. 71. An Enumeration of the Plants collected by Dr. Timothy . 
E. Wilcox, U. S. A., and others, in southeastern Arizona during 
the years 1892-1894. By N. L. Britton and T. H. Kearney', Jr. 
(From Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, XIV, Oct. 22, 1894.) pp. 21- 
44. L. A. 

No. 75. An Enumeration of the Plants collected by M. E. 
Penard in Colorado during the summer of 1892. By N. L. Britton 
and Anna Murray Vail. (Reprinted from Bui. de I 1 Ilerbier 
Boissier, Tome, III, No. 5, May, 1895.) pp. 197-221. L. A. 
Robinson, B. L., and II. von Schrenk. Notes upon the Mora, of New- 
foundland., (Eeprinted from, (lie Canadian Kecord of Science, 
Jan. and Apr. 1890.) Pph. pp.31. Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University. 
Plants of Manitoba. 8°. 40 col. pi. in cloth covers, n. p.: n. d. S. F. 



322 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TERRITORIAL BOTANY, continued. 

Kurtz-, Prof. Dr. F. Die Elora des Chilcatgebietes im siidostlichen 
Alaska, nach dem Sammlungen der Gebriider Krause [Expedition 
der Bremer geographischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1882.] (Separat- 
abdruck aus Engler's botanischen Jahrbtichern. XIX Band, 4 
Heft, 1894.) 8°. pp. 327-493. Leipzig : 1894. S. E. 

Bossu, . Travels through that part of North America formerly- 
called Louisiana. Translated from the Erench by John Reinhold 
Eorster, E. A. S. Illustrated with Notes relative chiefly to Natural 
History. To which is added by the translator a Systematic Cata- 
logue of all the known plants of English North America, or, a 
Elora American Septentrionalis. Together with an abstract of the 
most useful and necessary articles contained in Peter Loefling's 
Travels through Spain, and Cumana in South America. 2 vols. 
8°. pp. 407; 432. Lond.: 1771. S. E. 

Bailey, William Whitman. New England Wild Elowers and their Sea- 
sons. 12°. pp. (9), 150. Providence, R. I. : 1897. S. E. 

New York State Botanist. Ann. Rep'ts. 1868 to 1887, inclusive, 1894 
and 1895. {From Ann. Rep'ts. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) Pph's. 
col.pl. Albany & N. Y. : 1869-1896. L. A. (1868, 1894 and 1895 
from S. B. Griswold, State Library, Albany.) 

New York State Museum of -Natural History. Bulletin. Vol. I, No. 2. 
May, 1887. Contributions to the Botany of the State of New York. 
By Charles H. Peck, State Botanist. Pph. pp. 66; 2 pi. Albany: 
1887. S. B. Griswold, State Library, Albany. 

Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Ph. D. A Preliminary Catalogue of the Elora 
of New Jersey. (Geological Survey of New Jersey.) 8°. pp. 233. 
New Brunswick, N. J. : 1881. S. F. 

North Carolina and its Resources. Published by the State Board of 
Agriculture. (Contains articles on the Eorests, Elora, Horticul- 
ture, Agriculture, etc.) 8°. pp. 413; pi., maps. Winston: 1896. 
S. L. Patterson, Commissioner, Dept. Agriculture. 

Minnesota Botanical Studies. Edited by Conway MacMillan, State 
Botanist, Pts. XI and XII. May 31, 1897. (Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey of Minnesota, Bui. 9. [Botanical Series II.]) Pph. pp. 
703-1043; pi. XL-LXXXI. Minneapolis: 1897. Conway Mac- 
Millan. 

Nebraska, Flora of. Edited by the members of the Botanical Seminar 
of the University of Nebraska. Part 1. Introduction,— Proto- 
phyta — Phycophyta. Part 2. Coleochaetaceae, Characeae. 
Issued Aug. 15, 1894. pp. 128; 36 pi. Lincoln: 1894. Part 21. 
Resales. Issued Dec. 20, 1895. pp. 82; 11 pi. Lincoln: 1895. 
Pph's. 4°. Prof. Chas. E. Bessey. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 323 

Nelson, Aven. First Report on the Flora of Wyoming. (2nd copy of 
Bui. 28, Wyoming Experiment Station. May, 1896.) Pph. pp. 
47-218; frontis. A. A. Johnson, Director Exp. Sta. 
Greene, Edward L. Flora Franciscana. An Attempt to classify and 
describe the Vascular Plants of Middle California. Pts. I-III. 2 
pph's. pp.352. San Fran.: 1891-2. The Author. 
Bolander, Henry N. A Catalogue of the Plants growing in the vicinity 

of San Francisco. Pph. 4°. pp. 43. San Fran. : 1870. L. A. 
Field Columbian Museum. Publication 15. Botanical Series, Vol. I, 
No. 3. Contribution II to the Coastal and Plain Flora of Yucatan. 
By Charles Frederick Millspaugh, M. D. Pph. pp. 281-339; pi. 
8-21. Chicago : Dec. 1896. F. J. V. Skiff, Director. 
Martius, Karl Friedrich Philipp von. Flora Brasiliensis, etc. 
Fasc. 117. Orchidaceae II. Exposuit A. Cogniaux. 
" 119. " III. " " " 

" 120. " IV. " " " 

pp. 157-672; pi. 35-133. Lipsiae : 1895, '96. 
Fasc. 118. Bignoniaceae I. Exposuerunt E. Bureau et C. 
Schumann. 

Fasc. 121. Bignoniaceae II. Exposuerunt E. Bureau et C. 
Schumann. 

pp. 452; pi. 69-121. Lipsiae: 1896, '97. 
Fasc. 122. Sapindaceae II. Exposuit L. Radlkofer. 
pp. 345-466 ; pi. 81-99. Lipsiae : 1897. 
6 pts. fol. S. F. 
Philippi, Dr. R. A. Plantas nuevas Chilenas de las familias Cruciferas, 
Bixaceas, Violaceas, Poligaleas. (From Memorias cientificas i 
literarias.) 8°. pp. 65-86, 117-195, 329-347, 489-498. [Santiago: 
1892?] S. F. 

Europe. 

Hill, Johannis, M. D. Flora Britanica : sive Synopsis inetliodica stirpium 

Britanicarum, etc. 8°. pp. 672; pi. 1-24, 1, (5). Londini : 1760. 

S. F. 
Reichenbaeh, L., et H. G. Reichenbach fil. Icones Florae Germanicae 

et Helveticae, etc. Tomus 23, decades 2-6. 4°. pp. 9-36; col. 

pi. 11-60. Lipsiae: (1897.) S. F. 
Weber, J. C. Die Alpen-pflanzen Deutschlands unci der Schweiz in col- 

orirten Abbildungen nach der Natur und in natiirlicher Grosse. 3 

vols, and supplement. 24°. 400col.pl. Miinclien : 1856 & 1868. 

S. F. 
Gaudin, J. Flora Helvetica, sive historia sti rpium hucusque cognitarum 

in Helvetia, etc. 7 vols. 8°. pp. 504, 020, 500, 663, 514, 400, 

607; (28) col. pi. Turici : 1828-183:). S. V. 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TERRITORIAL BOTANY, continued. 

Haller, Albertus von. Icones plantarum Helvetiae, etc. Fol. pp. xxxviii, 
68; 52 pi. Bernse : 1795. S. E. 

Beck von Mannagetta, Dr. Gunther Ritter. Elora von Meder-Osterreich. 
2 vols. 8°. pp. 1396; cuts. Wien: 1890,1893.' S. E. 

Lehmann, Dr. Eduard. Flora von Polnisch-Li viand mit besonderer 
Beriicksicbtigung der Elorengebiete Nordwestrusslands, des Ost- 
balticums, der Gouvernements Pskow und St. Petersburg sowie 
der Verbreitung der Pflanzen durch Eisenbalmen. (Separatab- 
druck aus deni Archiv fiir Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands. 
Zweite Serie. Bd. XI, Lfg. 1.) 8°. pp. 430; 1 map. Jurjew 
(Dorpat): 1895. S. F. 

Kops, Jan; voortgezet door F. W. Van Eeden. Flora Batava. Afbeelding 
en Beschrijving van Nederlandsche Gewassen. (Vol. 20,) pts. 315- 
318. 8°. col. pi. 1576-1595, with descriptive text. Haarlem : 

1896, 1897. S. F. 

Nicotra, Leopoldo. Le Fumariacee Italiane, saggio d' una continuazione 
della Flora Italiana di Filippo Parlatore. Pph. pp. 78. Firenze: 

1897. S. F. 

Mappus, Marcus. Historia plantarum Alsaticarum posthuma, opera et 

studio Johannis Christiani Ehrmanni. 4°. pp. 335, 28; 7 pi. 

Argentorati : 1742. S. F. 
Grisebach, A. Spicilegium Florae Rumelicae et Bithynicae exhibens 

synopsin plantarum quas aest. 1839 legit. Etc. 2 vols, in 1. 8°. 

pp. 548. Brunsvigae : 1843-44. S. F. 
Trelease, William. Botanical Observations on the Azores. {From 8th 

Ann. Rep't. Missouri Bot. Gard.) Issued Sept. 9, 1897. 8°. pp. 

77-220; frontis., pi. 12-66. (St. Louis : 1897.) The Author. 

Asia. 

Drury, Heber. Handbook of the Indian Flora; being a guide to all the 
flowering plants hitherto described as indigenous to the Continent 
of India. 2 vols, bound in 3. 8°. pp. 336; 337-659; 604. Madras: 
1864-1866. S. F. 

Nairne, Alexander Kyd. The Flowering Plants of Western India. 8°. 
pp. 401. Lond. & Bombay : 1894. S. F. 

Swartz, O. Icones plantarum incognitarum quas in India occidentali 
detexit atque delineavit. Fasciculus I. (All published.) Fol. pp. 
8; 13 col. pi. Erlangae: 1794. S. E. 

Africa. 

Welwitsch, Dr. Friedrich, Catalogue of the African Plants collected 
by, in 1853-61. Dicotyledons, Part I. By William Philip Hiern, 
M. A., F. L. S. 8°. pp. 336; port. Lond.': 1896. S. F. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 325 

Ascherson, P., et G. Schweinfmth. Illustration de la Flore d' Egypte. 

(Avec Supplement.) [Extrait du vol. II des Memoires de 1' Insti- 

tut Egyptien.] 4°. pp. 25-260 and 745-821. Le Caire: 1887, 

1889. S. E. 
Boissier, E., et G. F. Reuter. Pugillus plantamm novarum Africse bore- 

alis Hispaniseque australis. 8°. pp. 134. Genevse : 1852. The 

Boston Athenaeum, 

Australia. 

Mueller, Baron Ferd. v. Remarks on the Victorian Flora. {Extract 
from Victoria and its Metropolis : Past and Present.) Pph. 4°. 
pp. 601-607; 3 cuts. (Melbourne: 1870?) S. F. 

Bailey, F. Manson, F. L. S. Contributions to the Flora of Queensland. 
{Extract from The Queensland Agricultural Journal, Vol. 1, Part 
5, Nov. 1897.) Pph. pp. 3; 3 pi. (Brisbane : 1897.) Editor of 
Queensland Agricultural Journal. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY. 

Draper, John William, M. D. A Treatise on the Forces which Produce- 

the Organization of Plants. With an Appendix, containing several 

memoirs on capillary attraction, electricity and the chemical action 

of light. 4°. pp. 108, 216; col. frontis., 3 pi. N. Y. : 1844. S. F. 
Hoppe, Oskar. Beobachtungen der Warme in der Bluthenscheide einer 

Colocasia odora (Arum cordifolium.) [Nova Acta, Band XLI, 

Pars I, Nr. 4.] Pph. 4°. pp.56. Halle: 1879-80. S. F. 
Wetterwald, Xaver. Blatt- und Sprossbildung bei Euphorbien und 

Cacteen. [Nova Acta, Band LIU, Nr. 4.] Pph. 4°. pp. 377- 

440; 5 pi. Halle: 1889. S. F. 
Triebel, R. Ueber Oelbehalter in Wurzeln von Compositen. [Nova Acta. 

BandL,]Nr. 1. Pph. 4°. pp. 44; 7 pi. Halle: 1885. S. F. 
Engler, Dr. Adolf. Vergleichende Untersuchimgen iiber die morpholo- 

gischen Verhaltnisse der Araceae. [Nova Acta, Band XXXIX, 

Nr. 3u. 4.] Pph. 4°. pp. 133-232; 6 pi. Dresden: 1876,1877. 
S. F. 
Columbia University, Contributions from the Department of Botany of. 

No. 119. The Nature and Origin of Stipules. By A. A. Tyler. 

{Reprinted from Annals N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Vol. X, Apr., 1897.) 

Pph. pp.49. 3 pi. N. Y.: 1897. L. A. 
Columbia College, Contributions from the Herbarium of. No. 28. The 

Anatomy of the Stem of Wistaria Sinensis. By Carlton (\ Curtis. 

{Ilcpr. from Jour. N. Y. Microscopical Society, Vol. VIII, 1892.) 

Pph. pp. 12; 3 pi. L. A. 
Gibson, William Hamilton. A Few Native Orchids and their Insect 

Sponsors. [From Harper's Monthly Magazine, May, 1897.] Pph. 

pp. 861-880; cuts. L. A. 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY. 

Ferns. 

Cooke, M. C. A Fern Book for Everybody. Containing all the British 

Ferns. With the foreign species suitable for a Fernery. 16°. pp. 

124; 12 col. pi., cuts. Lond. & N. Y.: n. d. S. F. 
Fern Raiser, The. A Handy Treatise on the Culture of Ferns from Spores. 

By a duly qualified grower. March, 1896. 10°. pp. 23. n. p.: n. d. 

L. A. 
Underwood, Lucien Marcus. Our Native Ferns and their Allies, with 

Synoptical Descriptions of the American Pteridophyta north of 

Mexico. 5th ed., revised. 12°. pp. 156; frontis., 35 cuts. N. Y. : 

1896. S. F. 
Plumier, Charles. Traite des Fougeres de P Amerique. Tractatus de 

Filicibus Americanis. Fol. pp-. 146, (10) ; pi. 170 and A-B. Paris: 

1705. S. F. 
Dodge, Raynal. The Ferns and Fern Allies of New England. 16°. pp. 

51; frontis. Binghamton, N. Y. : 1896. S. F. 
Schkuhr, Christian. Yier und zwanzigste Klasse des Linne'schen Pflanz- 

ensystems oder Kryptogamische Gewachse. Erster Band mit 219 

ausgemalten Kupfertafeln enthalt ausser den sammtlichen Farn- 

krautern Deutschlands noch eine grosse Anzahl andrer aus alien 

Welttheilen, welche noch nicht oder zum Theil unvollkommen, 

auch nur in seltnen Werken abgebildet sind. 8°. 222 col. plates, 

numbered 1-173. Wittenberg: 1809. S. F. 

(Wants title-page, text, and col. pi. of author. This title copied from 

Pritzel's Thesaurus.) 
Davenport, George E. On the Use of the term "frond" as applied to 

Ferns. ( From The Botanical Gazette, Vol. XXII, No. 6, Dec. 1896.) 

1 page. The Author. 
, . Botrychium ternatum Swz., and its varieties. 

{Reprinted from The Fern Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 3. 1897.) Pph. 

pp. (3). The Author. 
< . Botrychium ternatum Swartz, var. lunarioides (Michx.) 

Milde. (Read before the New England Botanical Club, April 2, 

1897.) {From The Botanical Gazette, Vol. 23, No. 4, Apr. 1897.) 

Pph. pp. 282-287. The Author. 
— , . Aspidium simulatum, Davenport. {Reprinted from 

•Garden and Forest, Vol IX.) 1 column text; 1 pi. The Author. 
, • Aspidium cristatum X marginale, Davenport. 

{Reprinted from Garden and Forest, Vol. IX, No. 454.) 1 column 

text; 1 pi. The Author. 
Desvaux, N. A. Description de Fougeres nouvelles. Pph. pp. 266-274; 

1 pi. i). p.: (1815?). L. A. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 327 

. Observations sur quelques nouveaux'genres de Fougeres, et 

sur plusieurs especes nouvelles de la meme famille. Pph. pp. 

16-26; 1 pi. n. p.: 1811. L. A. 
. Description de cinq especes de Fougeres appartenant aux 

genres Darea et Chellanthes. Pph. pp. 42-44; 2 pi. n. p.: 

(1818). L. A. 
. Especes de Eougeres a ajouter au genre Notolsena. Pph. pp. 

91-93. n. p.: (1813?) L. A. 

Mosses and Lichens. 

Braithwaite, R., M. D., F. L. S., etc. The British Moss-Flora. Vol. III. 

Pleurocarpous Mosses and Sphagna. Part XVII. Nov. 1896. Fam. 

XIX.— Hypnacese I. 8°. pp. (4), 36; pi. LXXXV-XC. Lond.: 

1896. S. F. 
Dixon, H. N., M. A., F. L. S. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses. 

With illustrations, and Keys to the Genera and Species, by H. G. 

Jameson. 8°. pp.520; 60 pi. Eastbourne and Lond.: 1896. S. F. 
Cardot, J. Mosses of the Azores and of Madeira. (From 8th Ann. Rep't. 

Missouri Botanical Garden.) Issued Apr. 14, 1897. Pph. pp. 51- 

75; 11 pi. St. Louis : 1897. Prof. William Trelease. 
Columbia University, Contributions from the Herbarium of the. No. 58. 

A Contribution to the History of the Formation of the Lichen 

Thallus. By Carlton C. Curtis. (Reprinted from Jour. N. Y 

Microscopical Soc, Vol. 10, No. 3.) Read March 16th, 1894. 

Pph. pp. 7. 1 pi. L. A. 

Algce. 

Collins, Frank Shipley. Isaac Holden, and William Albert Setchell, 
assisted by others. Phycotheca Boreali-Americana. A collection 
of dried specimens of the Algse of North America. Fasc. VI-VIII. 
3 vols. 4°. 50 species in each fascicle (Nos. 251-400). Maiden, 
Mass.: 1897. S. F. 

Fungi. 

Tavel, Br. F. von. Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze. 8°. pp. 208; 
90 cuts. Jena: 1892. S. F. 

Krombholz, Julius Vincenz von. Naturgetreue Abbildnngen und 
Beschreibungen der essbaren, sehadliehen und verdachtigen 
Schwamme. Fol. pp. (341) ; 76 col. pi. Prag: 1831-1846. S. F. 

Herpell, G. Das Prapariren und Einlegen der Hutpilze fur das Herba- 
rium. Pph. pp. 60; 2 pi. Bonn: 1880. L. A. 

Michael, Edmund. Fiihrerfur Pilzfreunde. Die am haufigsten vorkom- 
menden essbaren, verdachtigen und giftigen Pilze. 2te. Aufl. 
12°. pp. 31; 68 col. cuts with descriptive text. Zwickau i. S.: 
189(5. S. F. 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY, continued. 

Underwood, Lucien M. Edible Eungi: a Wasted Food Product. [2nd 

copy of Bui. 73, Oct. 1896, Alabama Ag. Exp. Station.] Pph. pp. 

337-346; cuts. Montgomery: 1896. W. L. Brown, Director Ag. 

Exp. Station. 
Suggestions to Collectors of Eleshy Eungi. {Reprinted from Bui. 80, 

Apr. 1897, Alabama Ag. Exp. Station — A Preliminary List of 

Alabama Eungi, by L. M. Underwood and F. S. Earle.) Pph. pp. 

14. Cambridge, Mass.: July, 1897. The Cambridge Botanical 

Supply Co., Publishers. 
Peck, Charles H., State Botanist of New York. Mushrooms and their use. 

[Reprinted from Cultivator and Country Gentleman, May 31 - Sept. 

20, 1894.] Pph. pp. 80 ; cuts. Cambridge, Mass.: 1897. Hollis 

Webster. 
Boston Mycological Club. 

Buls. 1-5. Pph's. Cambridge : 1897. 

Directions for sending Mushrooms. 1 sheet. Cambridge, 1897. 

Meeting in Horticultural Hall, Apr. 17, 1897. Mushroom 

Luncheon. — Menu. pp. 3. 

Notice and Application Blank. 

Pphs. Hollis Webster, Sec'y. 
Webster, Hollis. The Boston Mycological Club. {From American 

Kitchen Magazine, Dec. 1896.) Pph. pp. 126-128. The Author. 
■ . Edible Eungi collected and eaten by members of the 

Boston Mycological Club mainly during 1896. Pph. pp. 215-220. 

{From American Kitchen Magazine.) The Author. 
New York State Museum of Natural History. Bulletin No. 8. Sept. 

1889. Boleti of the United States. By Charles H. Peck, State 

Botanist. Pph. pp. 73-166. Albany: 1889. S. B. Griswold, 

State Library, Albany. 
New York State Botanist. Ann. Kep't. for 1894. 2nd ed. 4°. pp. 

241 ; pi. A and 43 col. pi. Albany : 1897. L. A. [2nd copy.] 
Rabenhorst, Dr. L. Kryptogamen-Elora von Deutschland, Oesterreich 

und der Schweiz. 2te. Aufl. Band I. Pilze, von G. Winter, H. 

Rehm, A. 'Fischer und E. Fischer. Abth. I-V. (Lieferungen, 1- 

58.) 8°. pp. 924, 928, 1275, 505 and 131 ; cuts. Leipzig: 1881- 

1897. S. F. 
Gautier, Dr. Lucien-Marie. Les Champignons, consideres dans leurs 

rapports avec la meclecine, Phygiene publique et privee, l'agricul- 

ture et 1'industrie, et description des principales especes comes- 
tibles, suspectes et veneneuses de la France. 8°. pp. 508; 16 col. 

pi., 196 cuts. Paris: (1883). S. F. 
Kalchbrenner, Carolus. Icones selectae Hymenomycetum Hungarise, 

per Stephanum Schulzer et Carolum Kalchbrenner observatorum 

ft delineatorum. Editae sub auspiciis Academiae Scientiarum 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 329 

Hungaricae. Fol. pp. 65 ; 40 col. pi. Pestini : 1873, et Buda- 
pestini : 1874, 1875, 1877. S. F. 

Fries, Elias. Sveriges atliga och giftiga Svampar, etc. [Fungi esculenti 
et venenati Scandinavise.] Fol. pp.48; 93 col. pi. Stockholm: 
1860. S. F. 

Laplanche, Maurice C. de. Dictionnaire iconographique des Cham- 
pignons superieurs (Hymenomycetes) qui croissent en Europe, 
Algerie et Tunisie, etc. 12°. pp. 541. Autun et Paris : 1894. 
S. F. 

BOTANICAL MONOGRAPHS. 

Pfeiflfer, Ludwig. Enumeratio diagnostica Cactearum hucusque cognita- 
rum. Pph. pp. viii, 192. Berolini : 1837. The Boston Athe- 
naeum. 

Klatt, Dr. F. W. Die Compositae des Herbarium Schlagintweit aus 
Hochasien und Sudlichen Indischen Gebieten. Mit einleitenden 
Angaben uber das Auftreten, etc., von Herm. von Schlagintweit- 
Sakunliinski. (Nova Acta, Band 41, Pars II. No. 6). Pph. 4°. 
pp. 75; pi. 35-38. Halle: 1880. S. F. 

Schultz, Benjamin. An Inaugural Botanico-Medical Dissertation on the 
Phytolacca decandra of Linnaeus. Pph. pp. 55; 1 pi. Phila.: 
1795. L. A. 

Columbia College, Memoirs from the Department of Botany of. Vol. I. 
A Monograph of the North American Species of the Genus Polyg- 
onum. By John Kunkel Small. Issued April 23rd, 1895. 4°. 
pp. 183 ; 84 pi. (N. Y.. 1895.) S. F. 

Allen, Dr. Timothy Field. The Characese of America. 

Part I. Containing the Introduction, Morphology and Classifi- 
cation. Pph. pp. 64 ; 54 cuts. N. Y.: 1888. T. 0. Fuller. 
Part II. Fasc. I-III. Pph's. pp.28; pi. S. F. 

Hackel, Eduard. The True Grasses. Translated from Die natilrlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien, by F. Lamson-Scribner and Effie A. Southworth. 
8°. pp. 228 ; frontis., 110 cuts. N. Y.: 1890. S. F. 

Beal, W. J. Grasses of North America. Vol. II. The Grasses classified, 
described, and each genus illustrated, with chapters on their 
geographical distribution and a bibliography. 8°. pp. 706 ; 120 
cuts. N. Y.: 1896. S. F. 

BOTANICAL JOURNALS. 

Annals of Botany. Edited by Isaac Bayley Balfour, Sydney Howard 
Vines, D. H. Scott and William Gilson Farlow, assisted by other 
botanists. Vol. .X, 1896. 8°. pp. 661 ; 28 pi. Lond.: 1896. 
L. A. 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETIES. 

Botanical Society of America. The Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Angio- 
sperms. Address of the retiring President, Charles E. Bessey, 
Ph. D., delivered before the Botanical Society of America at its 
Third Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, August 17, 1897. [From 
Botanical Gazette, Vol. XXIV.] Pph. pp. 34; 3 diagrams. 
Prof. C. E. Bessey. 

Torrey Botanical Club. Memoirs. Vol. VI, No. 2. A Revision of the 
North American Isotheciaceae and Brachythecia: By Abel Joel 
Grout. Issued July 30, 1897. Pph. pp. 131-210. S. E. 

Bulletin. Vol. 24, 1897. 8°. pp. 592 ; pi. 287-320. New York: 
1897. The Club. 

Madison Botanical Congress. Proceedings. Madison, Wis., Aug. 23 and 
24, 1893. Pph. pp. 60. (Madison): June, 1894. L. A. 

Linnean Society of London. Transactions. 2nd Ser. Botany. Vol. V, 
Part 5. On some North American Desmidieae. By William 
West, F. L. S., and G. S. West. Read 20th June, 1895. pp. 229- 
274 ; pi. 12-18. Lond.: Dec. 1896. Part 6. On Polystelic Roots 
of certain Palms. By B. G. Cormack, M. A. Read 6th Feb., 1896. 
pp. 275-286; pi. 19-20. London: Nov., 1896. 4°. S. F. 

. Journal. Botany. Vol. XXXI, Nos. 218 and 219. pp. 461- 

609; pi. 16-22. Lond.: 1896, 1897. Vol. XXXII, Nos. 220-227 
(complete), pp. 570 ; 7 pi. Lond.: 1896. 8°. S. F. 

Edinburgh, Botanical Society of. Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. 
XX, Parts II and III. Pph's. pp. 273-592. Edinb.: 1895, 1896. 
The Society. 

BOTANIC GARDENS. 

Macdougal, L\ T. Botanic Gardens, II. {From Appleton's Popular 
Science Monthly. Vol. L, No. 3, Jan., 1897.) pp. 312-323; cuts. 
J. D. W. French. 

Peck, Prof. W. D. A Catalogue of American and Foreign Plants, culti- 
vated in the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pph. 
pp. iv, 60. Cambridge : 1818. J. P. W. French. 

New York Botanical Garden. Bulletin. Vol. 1, No. 2. Jan. 1, 1897. 
Pph. pp. 22-85 ; map, cut. N. L. Britton, Sec'y. 

Missouri Botanical Garden. 8th Ann. Rep't. 1897. 8°. pp. 220; 
frontis., pi. (0), 66. St. Louis: 1897. Prof. William Trelease, 
Director. 

Jamaica Botanical Department. Bulletin. Edited by William Fawcett, 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations. Vol. IV, 1897. 8°. 
pp. 309, iv. Kingston: 1897. The Director. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 331 

Kew, Royal Gardens. 

Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs grown in Arboretum. Part II. 
Gamopetalse to Monocotyledons. Pph. pp. 308. Lond.: 1896. 
L. A. 

Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. 1896. 8°. pp. 299, 
61 ; 2 pi. Lond.: 1896. W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Director. 
Kew Guild ; an association of Kew Gardeners, past and present. Journal, 
May, 1895. pp. 58; frontis., 1 pi., cut. Lond.: 1895. No. V, 1897. 
pp. 50; port., 2 pi. Lond.: 1897. Pph's. W. Watson. 
Calcutta Royal Botanic Garden. Annals. 

Vol. V. Part I. A Century of Indian Orchids. By Sir J. D. 
Hooker. To which is prefixed a brief memoir of William Rox- 
burgh. By G. D. King. pp. 9, 68; 101 partly col. pi. Calcutta 
and Lond.: 1895. Part II. A Century of new and rare Indian 
Plants. By P. Bruhl and G. King. pp. 71-170; pi. 102-200. 
Calcutta & Lond.: 1896. 

Vol. VI. Part I. 1. The Causes and Fluctuations in Jurges- 
cence in the Motor Organs of Leaves. 2. A New and Parasitic 
Species of Choanephora. By D. D. Cunningham, pp. 174; 9 
partly col. pi. Calcutta and Lond.: 1895. 

Vol. VII. The Bambusese of British India. By J. S. Gamble. 
pp.133; 119 cuts. Calcutta and Lond.: 1896. 

Fol. S. F. 
Buitenzorg, Annales du Jardin Botanique de. Publiees par M. le Dr. 
Melchior Treub. Vol. XIV, 2 e partie. Pph. pp. 241-477, (1); 
pi. 18-27. Leide : 1897. S. F. 

TRAVELS. 

Bartram, John. Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Rivers, 
Productions, Animals and other matters worthy of notice. Made 
.... in his travels from Pensilvania to Onondaga, Oswego and 
the Lake Ontario, in Canada. To which is annex'd, a curious 
account of the Cataracts at Niagara, by Mr. Peter Kalm, a Swedish 
gentleman who travelled there. 8°. pp. 94; plan, pi., map. 
Lond.: 1751. [Reprinted. Rochester, N. Y.: 1895] L. A. 

Humboldt, Alexander de, and Aim6 Bonpland. Personal Narrative of 
Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent during 
the years 1799-1804. Written in French by Alexander de Hum- 
boldt and translated into English by Helen Maria Williams. 8°. 
pp. 432, 1 map. Phila.: Dec. 23, 1815. S. P. 

Veitch, James Herbert, F. L. S. A Traveller's Notes, or Notes of a Tour 
through India, Malaysia, Japan, Corea. the Australian Colonies 
and New Zealand, dining the years 1891-93. 4°. pp. 219; 9 pi. 
map, cuts. Chelsea, Eng.: 1890. The Author. 



332 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TRAVELS, continued. 

Frederickson, A. D. Ad Orientem. (Travels in India, the Indian 
Archipelago, Siam, China, Japan, etc.) [With special regard to 
the fauna and flora.] 8°. pp. 380; 26 col. pi., 2 maps. Lond.: 
1889. S. E. 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES, ETC. 

American Museum of Natural History. 

Ann. Rep't. of President, Act of Incorporation, etc., 1895. Tph. 
pp. 95 ; frontis., 4 pi. . N. Y. : 1896. 

Bulletin. Vol. IV, No. 1. Art. XV. Catalogue of Gall-pro- 
ducing Insects found within fifty miles of New York City, with 
descriptions of their galls and of some new species. Pph. pp. 
245-278; 8 pi. N. Y.: 1892. Vol. V, 1893. Art. XVI. Pph. pp. 
241-310. N. Y.: 1893. The Museum. 

JBoston Society of Natural History. Proceedings. Vol. 27, Nos. 12-14. 
pp. 201-330; pi. Boston: 1896-'97. Vol. 28, Nos. 1-5. pp. 115; 
pi. Boston: 1897. Pph's. The Society. 

Chicago Academy of Science. 39th Ann. Rep't. 1896. Pph. pp. 26. 
Chicago : 1897. The Sec'y. 

Bui. 2, Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey. Pph. pp. 86. Chicago: 
1897. The Sec'y. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal. Vol. XIII, 1896. Pph's. 
pp. 72; pi. Chapel Hill, N. C: 1896. E. P. Venable, Sec'y. 

Essex Institute. Bulletin. Vol. 27, Nos. 7-12 ; Vol. 28, Nos. 1-6; Vol. 
29, Nos. 1-6. Pph's. Salem: 1895-'97. The Institute. 

Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. Bulletin. Vol. Ill, Art. 
V-XV. pp. 79-553. Vol. IV, Art. I-VI. pp. 308; pi. Pph's. 
S. A. Eorbes. 

Iowa State University. Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural His- 
tory. Vol. IV, No. 2. I. The Coleoptera of the Lower Rio Grande 
Valley. II. The Eerns of Nicaragua. By B. Shimek. Pph. pp. 
95-224; 20 pi. Iowa City : Dec, 1897. The University. 

Indiana Academy of Science. Proceedings. 1894 and 1895. 2 vols. 8°. 
pp. 182 and 298. Indianapolis: 1895-'96. The Sec'y. 

Kansas Academy of Science. A brief history of the organization, etc. 
Pph. pp. 11. n. p.: 1897. B. B. Smyth, Librarian. 

Oberlin College. Laboratory Bulletins. 

No. 4- Questions for Botany V. Designed to assist pupils in 
mastering the principles of phanerogamic classification adopted by 
Bentham and Hooker and used by Gray in his Manual. By Prof. 
K. I). Kelsey. pp. 11. Oberlin: 1897. No. 5. pp. 35. Oberlin: 
1897. No. 6. A Preliminary List of the Birds of Okanogan 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 333 

County, Washington, pp. 168-182. Oberlin: 1897. No. 7. The 
genus Uncinula. Drawings and descriptions of all the American 
Species. By Prof . F. D. Kelsey. pp.15. Portland, Ore.: 1897. 
Pph's. A. S. Root, Lib'n., Oberlin College Library. 

St. Louis Academy of Science. Transactions. Vol. VII, Nos. 10-16. 
(No. 10 — A Study of the Kansas Ustilagineae, especially with 
regard to their germination. By J. B. S. Norton.) Pph's. pp. 
229-391. St. Louis : 1896-'97. The Academy. 

Leopoldina. Amtliches Organ der Kaiserlichen Leopoldino-Carolin- 
ischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher. 32. Heft. 1896. 
4°. pp. 192. Halle: 1896. Prof. Dr. K. v. Fritsch. 

Natural History Review. Oct. 1863. (Contains reviews of Daubeny's 
"Climate: an inquiry into the causes of its differences, and into 
its influence on vegetable life "; and of Parlatore's "Consideration 
sur la Methode naturelle en Botanique.?' ) Pph. pp. 5. S. F. 

Wilson Quarterly, The. A Journal of Ornithology. Vol. 4, Nos. 1 and 
2. Pph's. pp.92. Oberlin, 0.: 1892. A. S. Root, Lib'n., Oberlin 
College Library. 

"Wilson Ornithological Chapter of the Agassiz Association. Bui's. 5 and 
9-14. Pph's. Oberlin, 0.: 1895-'97. A. S. Root, Lib'n. Oberlin 
College Library. 

Cooke, W. W. The Birds of Colorado. (2nd copy of Bui. 37, Colorado 
Ag. Exp. Station.) Pph. pp. 143. Fort Collins : 1897. The 
Director. 

Kirkland, A. H. The Habits, Food and Economic Value of the Common 
Toad. (2nd copy of Bui. . 46, Hatch Exp. Station, Mass. Ag. Col- 
lege.) Pph. pp.30; 2 pi., 25 cuts. Amherst: 1897. The Author. 

Webster, H. E. Annelida Chsetopoda of New Jersey. {From 39th Ann. 
Rep't. N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist.) Pph. pp. 128-159; 7 pi. Albany: 
1886. L. A. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Smithsonian Institution. Ann. Rep'ts. for 1854-'56, '58, '6()-'62, 71, 

'72, '74, '76 and '77. Washington: 1855-'78. L. A. (1871 from 

the Institution.) 
Ann. Rep't. to July, 1894. (Part 1.) Washington : 1896. (Part 

II.) Rep't. of the U. S. National Museum. Washington: 1896. 

S. P. Langley. 
Ann. Rep't. to July, 1895. (Parti.) Washington : 1896. S. P. 

Langley. 
Field Columbian Museum. Ann. Rep't, of Director, L896-97. Chicago: 

1897. F. J. V. Ski if, Director. 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

MISCELLANEOUS, continued. 

Dabney, Charles W., Jr. A National Department of Science necessary 
for the Co-ordination of the Scientific Work of the United States 
Government. {Reprinted from Science, of Jan. 15, 1897.) Pph. 
pp. 13. 

Symons, G. J. Rain : How, when, where, why it is measured. Being a 
popular account of rainfall investigations. 12°. pp. 88; cuts, chart. 
Lond.: 1867. S. F. 

Bradley, Milton. Elementary Color. Revised ed. 8 C ., pp. 128 ; 1 col. 
chart, 64 cuts. Springfield, Mass.: (1895). S. F. 

Maycock, Mark M. A Class-Book of Color, etc. 12°. pp. 63; col. 
charts, cuts. Springfield, Mass.: (1895). S. E. 

Boston Public Library. Ann. Rep't. of Trustees. 1896. 

List of Periodicals, Newspapers, Transactions, and other Serial Publica- 
tions currently received in "the principal libraries of Boston and 
vicinity. Published by the Trustees of the Public Library, 
Boston. Pph. pp.143. Boston: 1897. The Trustees. [5 copies.] 

Publications of Societies. July, 1, 1890 - June 30, 1895. Pph. f ol. pp. 
103-130. N. Y.: 1896. R. R. Bowker. 

International Directory of Second-hand Booksellers and Bibliophile's 
Manual, including lists of the Public Libraries of the World, Pub- 
lishers, Book Collectors, Learned Societies and Institutions, etc. 
Edited by James Clegg. 12°. -pp. 288. Rochdale, Lond., N. Y., 
Paris, Leipzig : 1894. J. D. W. French. 

Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines, Supplement to. 
Edited by Robert Hunt. 8 C . pp. 1096. N. Y.: 1863. L. A. 

United States Commissioner of Education. Rep't. for 1894-5, Vol. 2. 
8°. pp. 1153-2314. Washington: 1896. Rep't. for 1895-96, 
Vols. 1 and 2. 8°. pp. 2173. Washington: 1897. Hon. 
William T. Harris, Commissioner. 

Boston Asylum and Farm School for Indigent Boys, Thompson's Island. 
Report, 1897. C. H. Bradley, Supt. 

United States Consular Reports. Nos. 195-207. Dec, 1896 -Dec, 
1897, inch 

General Index to Monthly Consular Rep'ts., Nos. 152-203, — 
Vols. 52-54. 

Special Reports, Vol. XIII, pt. II. 

Pph's. Washington : 1896, '97. The Secretary of State. 

(United States Department of State). The Bureau of Foreign Com 
merce. [A notice.] Washington: 1897. 

Review of the World's Commerce. Introductory to Commercial 
Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries during the 
years 1895-'90. Washington: 1897. 

Sierra Club Bulletin. Vol. I, No. 8 and Vol. II, Nos. 1 and 2. San 
Fran.: 1 896-' 97. The Club. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS, 1897. 3l3;5 

Photograph of Tree — Celtis occidentalis. Daniel T. Curtis. 
Photographs of Hydrangea Otaksa grown by M. H. Walsh, Gardener to 

Hon. Joseph S. Fay, Woods. Holl, Mass. Photographed August 18, 

1896. M. H. Walsh. 



PERIODICALS PURCHASED. 

American. — Garden and Forest. 

Meehan's Monthly. 

Fern Bulletin. 

Country Gentleman. 

American Naturalist. 

American Journal of Science. 
English. — Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Gardeners' Magazine. 

Journal of Horticulture. 

The Garden. 

Gardening Illustrated. 

Gardening World. 

Orchid Review. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

Journal of Botany. 

Nature. 
French. — Revue Horticole. 

Lyon Horticole. 

Revue des Eaux et Forets. 

Journal des Hoses. 
Belgian. — Revue de 1' Horticulture Beige et Etrangere. 

La Semaine Horticole. 
German. — Botanische Zeitung. 



PERIODICALS RECEIVED IN EXCHANGE. 

American. — American Gardening. 
Gardening. 
Amateur Gardening. 
How to Grow Flowers. 
Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine. 
The Mayflower. 
Success with Flowers. 
National Nurseryman. 
Northwest Horticulturist. 
Eastern New York Horticulturist. 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PERIODICALS RECEIVED IN EXCHANGE, continued. 

Southern Florist and Gardener. 
Canadian Horticulturist. 
American Elorist. 
Florists' Exchange. 
Florist's Review. 
New England Florist. 
Sharon Cactus Guide. 
Green's Fruit Grower. 
Strawberry Culturist. 
Grape Belt. 

Montana Fruit Grower. 
Park and Cemetery, 
Botanical Gazette. 
Plant World. 
Asa Gray Bulletin. 
Erythea. 
Pittonia. 

Massachusetts Ploughman. 
New England Farmer. 
American Cultivator, 
New England Homestead. 
Maine Farmer. 
Rural New-Yorker. 
Farm Journal. 
California Cultivator. 
Prairie Farmer. 
Maryland Farmer. 
National Stockman and Farmer. 
Irrigation Age. 
The Industrialist. 
Canadian Entomologist, 
Ottawa Naturalist. 
West American Scientist. 
Boston Evening Transcript. 
Boston Morning Journal. 
Boston Daily Globe. 
Boston Daily Advertiser. 
Boston Traveler. 
Boston Times. 
Foreign. _ Garden and Field (Adelaide, So. Australia.) 
Queensland Agricultural Journal. 
New South Wales Agricultural Gazette. 
Indian Gardening. 



LIST OF BOOKS WANTED 



BY THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



^^ c * Persons having a?iy of the boohs in the following list to dispose of 
■will oblige by addressing the " Librarian of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, 300 Massachusetts Ave., Boston." 



Album de Pomologie, Vol. 2. 

Amateur World of Horticulture. Title-page and Index to Vol. II. 

American Agricultural Annual. Nos. 1 and 2, 1867 and 1868. 

American Agricultural Association Review and Journal, Vol. 3, No. 
2, Feb. 1883 ; No. 4, Apr. 1883 ; and New Series, No. 4, Apr. 1884. 

American Cemetery Superintendents, Association of. Proceedings of 
8th Annual Convention, 1894. 

American Farmer. Fifth series. Vol. 3, Nos. 7-12, January to June, 
1862, and the succeeding volumes to 1873, inclusive, also the numbers for 
October and December, 1877, and April to December, inclusive, 1878. 

American Forestry Association. (a.) Proceedings of the special 
meeting at Washington, D. C, May, 1884, and 3rd Annual Meeting at 
Saratoga, N. Y., September, 1884. (b.) Proceedings of 6th Annual Meet- 
ing held in Springfield, 111., — final report, not "preliminary news- 
paper report." (c.) Proceedings of the 8th Annual Meeting held at 
Philadelphia, October, 1889. 

American Garden, January, 1878. 

American Institute of the City of New York. Ann. Rep'ts. — 1st, 
1841, 2nd, 1842, and 4th, 1844 (or 1845). 

American Journal of Science. (Silliman's Journal.) Vols. 11-16, 
1st series. 

Asociacion Rural del Uruguay — Revista. Vols. 1-11, and Vol. 12 
(except No. 15). 

Association pour ia Protection des Plantes, Bulletin de l\ Nos. 1-8. 
1883-1890. Geneve. 

Bluff et Fingerhuth. Compendium Florae Germanicae. Vols. 1 
and 2. 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Bon Jardinier, Le. 183 1 to 1835 inclusive, 1837 to 1840, 1842 to 1850, 
1852 to 1855, 1858, 1859, 1861, 1873. 

Boston Flower Market and New England Florist. Vol. 1, No. 2. 

Boston Park Reports. City Documents, Nos. in, 1880, and 93, 1881. 

British Guiana Botanic Garden. Annual Reports. [Have only 1886.] 

Brooklyn N. Y., Park Report. 27th, for 1887. 

Brown, Robert, of Campster. Horae Sylvanae. All but the first four 
signatures (pp. 1-64). 

Buc'hoz. Traite historique des plantes. [Our copy has very few 
plates. Should be 139.] 

Bulliard, P. Herbier de la France, (a.) L'histoire des plantes vene- 
neuses, etc., (the edition with 72 colored plates), (b.) L'histoire des 
plantes alimentaires. (c.) L'histoire des plantes propre au meilleur four- 
rage, (d.) L'histoire des plantes utiles dans les arts, etc. [Also] Diction- 
naire elementaire de botanique, (which is an introduction to the whole 
work). 

California Agricultural Society. Reports for 1864, '65, '66, '67, '74, 
'77, '81, '86. Also Reports previous to that for 1863 (being reports of 
the Society previous to its re-organization). 

California Horticulturist. Vols. 7 and 8, 1877 and 1878 (except No. 3 
of Vol. 7). 

California Olive Industry. 1st Report, (1891 ?). 

California State Board of Forestry. First Biennial Report. i885-'86. 

Christie, Thomas. New Commercial Plants. No. 12. 

Colorado State Board of Horticulture. Ann. Rep't. for 1900. 

Columbia College, Contributions from the Herbarium of. 

No. 4. A List of the Plants collected by Miss Mary B. Croft, at 

San Diego, Texas. (Except "Additions.") 
No. 12.. The Genus Eleocharis, etc. 

No. 23. The American Species of the Genus Anemone, etc. 
No. 34. The North American Species of Lespedeza. 

Connecticut State Agricultural Society. Transactions, i857-'59. 

Debeaux, O. Contributions a la flore de la Chine. Fasciculus 4. 

Du Breuil, A. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th parts, (if published), of the 
"Cours d'Arboriculture," 6th ed. 

Farm and Garden. July and subsequent numbers. New York : 1853. 

Fielding, H. B., assisted by George Gardner. Sertum plantarum. 
All that was published of Vol. II. 

Florists' Exchange. Vol. I. Vol. II, Nos. 2 and 7. 

Florists' Journal, 1840-1847. 

Forest Leaves. Nos. 6-9, (1888) of Vol. 1, and No. 1, (also called 
No. 1 1,) January, 1889, of Vol. II. 

Fruit Garden Display'd, The, setting forth the several varieties of 
fruit ripe in every month of the year, etc. [We have the months of June, 
July, and August, and want the remaining months.] 



BOOKS WANTED. 339 

Gardener, The. A magazine of Horticulture and Floriculture. 
Edited by David Thomson. Index to the volume for 1878. 

Genesee Farmer. Vols. 4-7, 1834-37, 1st series, and Vols. 1-16, 
(i840)-i855, 2d series. 

Georgia Horticultural Society. Proceedings of the 4th and 7th 
Annual Meetings. 

Grape Belt, The. Vol. 1. Nos. 5, 18, 20, and 24, 1893. 

Harvard University Library. Bibliographical Contributions. No. 9 
{Goodale — Floras of Different Countries). 

Highland Agricultural Society, Prize Essays of the, 1st Series, t8oo- 
1826. 6 vols. 

Horticultural Directory and Yearbook. i86o-'67, 1869-71, i873~'84 
and 1 886-1890. 

Horticultural Times and Covent Garden Gazette. Vol. 1, No. 1 and 
title-page and index; Vol. 2, title-page and index; Vol. 12, No. 311 and 
title-page and index; Vol. 14, title-page and index; Vol. 15, title-page 
and index ; Vol. 16, title-page and index ; Vol. 17, title-page and index, 
and all later than Vol. 17, No. 404. 

Illinois Entomological Reports ; First, by B. D. Walsh, for 1867. 

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions at the first eight ses- 
sions, previous to 1870, except the 3d, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 9th for 1864, 1866, 
1867, 1868, and 1870. 

Industrialist. Vols. 1-14, and Nos. 1-17 of Vol. 15. 

Iowa Forestry Annual, — all but No. 5, 1879. 

Iowa State Agricultural Society. All rep'ts. previous to 1864, and 
those for 1867, 1869, 1870, 187 1 and 1894. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society. Report for 1868. 

Irrigation Age. Vols. 1-4 inclusive; Vol. 5, Nos. 2-5 and 8, June- 
September and December, 1893; Vol. 9, No. 5, May, 1896; Vol. 11, Nos. 
4-9, April-September, 1897. 

Japanese Horticultural Society. Journal. Nos. 1, 2, 5-8, 43-51, 57, 
6S, 76, 79, 85, 88, 90, 91 and 97. 

Jaume Saint-Hilaire, J. H. Plantes de la France. Vols. 5-10. 

Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 3d and 8th Biennial Reports, 
for 1881-82 and 1891-92. 

Ladies 1 Floral Cabinet. Vols. 1-10, 1872-1881, and Nos. 1-8, Jan.- 
Aug., 1882. 

Leopoldina. Vols. I-XVII. 

L'H^ritier, C. L. Stirpes Nova-. Fasc. 5 and 6, pp. 103-184, plates 
49-84. 

Lincoln Park (Chicago). Reports for 1881-2 to 1885-6. Also all 
previous to 1879-80. 

Louisiana State Agricultural Society. Proceedings of 1st to 4th, and 
nth Annual Sessions (1887-90) and 1897. 

Luxembourg, Soci^te botanique dti Grand-Duche* de, Recueil des 
MeVnoires et des Travaux publies par la. Nos. I, and IX-X. 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Macfadyen, J. Flora of Jamaica. Vol. II. (Only Rosacea? to Ara- 
liaceae were published). 

Maryland Farmer. Vol. XII, No. 3, March, 1875. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College. 3d Annual Report. 

Massachusetts Fruit Growers 1 Association. 1st and 2d Annual 
Reports. 

Maund, B., and J. S. Henslow. The Botanist. Vol. 5. 

Mayflower, The. Vol. 1; Vol. 2, Nos. 7-10; Vol. 3, No. 9; Vol. 4, 
No. 12 ; Vol. 5, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 10. 

Michaux's North American Sylva. Vols. 1 and 3. Paris: 1819. Also 
Vol. 2 of the 2-vol. edition. Paris : 1819. 

Michigan Board of Agriculture. 1st Report (n.s.), for 1862; 22d 
Report for 1883 ; Report for 1893 (2 copies). 

Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Bulletin. Vol. 1, Parts i r 
2, and 4. 

Missouri Horticultural Society. Reports previous to the 23d, for 
1880, except that of the 5th Meeting, in 1864. 

Missouri State Board of Agriculture. Ann. Rep'ts. — 7th, 9th, i2th r 
i6th-22d, 24th, 26th, 29th, 30th and 31st. 

Montana Fruit Grower. Vol. 1. Nos. 2, 7, 9 and 10, 1895-96. 

Murray, Andrew, on the Synonymy of Various Conifers, all but Part i~ 

. Notes upon California Trees, all but Part 1. 

Murray, Lady Charlotte. The British Garden. Vol. 2, 2d ed. Bath, 
1799. 

Nebraska Horticultural Society. Transactions. All previous to- 
1871 ; also i873-'76, '82, '83, '87 and '88. 

Nebraska State Board of Agriculture. Reports for 1868 (1st), '70, '71, 

'72, '74. '75, '94> '99- 

New England Farmer. 4to. Vol. 7, No. 27, pp. 295 and 296; Vol. 8, 
No. 49, pp. 391 and 392. 

New Hampshire Board of Agriculture. Ann. Rep'ts. — 19th and 20th 
for i889-'90 and i890-'9i. 

New Hampshire Forest Commission. 1st rep't. of the present Com- 
mission, for 1893. 

New Jersey Forestry, Reports on. (From Reports of N. J. Geologi- 
cal Survey). All previous to 1894. 

New Jersey Horticultural Society. Annual Reports. 5th and 14th 
sessions, 1880 and 1888. 

New York Farmer. Vol. 3, New Series, 1835, pp. 33-64. 

New York Farmers. Proceedings, 1882-84 ( Ist vol.), and 1893-94. 

New York State Agricultural Society. Journal. Vol. 13, Nos. 10, 
ii, and 12. Vol. 14, Nos. 3, 5, 7, and 9-12. Vol. 15, Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, and 
12. Vol. 16, No. 2 ; and the whole of Vols. 17, 18, and 19. 

. Report for 1887. 

New York State Land Survey. Report on Progress . . . trans- 
mitted to the Legislature, (February or March), 1891. 



BOOKS WANTED. 341 

Niagara, State Reservation at. 5th Annual Report, for the' year 1888. 

North Carolina Agricultural Society. All Annual Reports between 
that for 1885 and the 13th for 1893. 

North Carolina Horticultural Society. 2d-i2th Annual Reports. 

Northern Gardener, The. Vols. 1-3; Vol. 5, title-page and index; 
Vol. 6, title-page and index; and its successor, British Gardening, Vol. 8, 
4 plates (in Nos. 219, 220, 227 and 229), and all later than Vol. 10, No- 266. 

Northwest Fruit Growers' Association. 2nd to 7th Reports. 

Northwest Horticulturist. Vols. 1-4. 

Ohio State Board of Agriculture. Annual Reports : 1st and 3d, 
1846 and 1848; 6th-8th, 1851-1853; 10th, 1855; 25th~34th, 1870-1879. 

Ontario Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Industries. 1st to 
4th Annual Reports, 1 882-1885. 

Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. Reports previous to 1869 and 
2d Report, 1871. 

Ontario Permanent Central Farmers' Institute. Report of 1st Annual 
Meeting. 

Oregon State Board of Horticulture, 3d Biennial Report, 1895. 

Orleans et du Loiret, Societe d' Horticulture d'. Bulletin. 1st and 
2d Series. 

Ortega, C. G. Novarum aut rariorum plantarum horti Matritensis, 
etc. Decades 5-10 inclusive. 

Ortolano, L'. October and November numbers for 1864. Trieste. 

Our Country Home. Vol. 5, No. 4; Vol. 8, No. 4 ; Vol. 9, Nos. 6 and 
9 ; Vol. 10, Nos. 8, 10, 11, and 12. 

Pallas, P. S. Flora Rossica. Vol. 2, Part 1. 

Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. 3d Ann. Rep't. for 1897. 
Bulletins 1-7, 9-26. 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society. Reports previous to 1867. 

Phytologist, The. General Index to the 2d Series. 

Piper, R. U., M.D. The Trees of America. No. 3. 4to. Boston : 
1858. 

Plenck, J. J. Icones plantarum medicinalium, etc. Vol. 6, except 
fascicles 1-3; Vol. 7; Vol. 8. 

Plow, The. Vol. 1, No. 1. New York : 1852. 

Pomologie Francaise, La. Series 1 to 3, inclusive. 

Purdy's Fruit Recorder. Vol. 1, 1869; Vols. 1-3 (2d ser. ?), 1891-93; 
and also 1874 wants Nos. 5 and 6; 1878, No. 6; 1894, Nos. 2 and 8-12 ; 
1895, Nos. 2-12. 

Queensland Department of Agriculture. Bulletins. 1st Series 2, 4, 
7, 10 and 14. 2d Series 12, and all later than 13. 

Rafinesque, C. S. Atlantic Journal, Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Phila- 
delphia, 1832, 1833. 

. Autikon Botanikon, Parts 2, 4, and 5, being Centuries 

6-10, 16-20 and 21-25. Philadelphia: 1815-1840 (?) 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

. New Flora of North America. Parts I, 2, and 3. Phila- 
delphia, 1836. 

Revue horticole. First Series, Vols. 1-3, Paris : 1829-1840; Second 
Series, Vols. 1-5, 1841-1846. 

Rhode Island Board of Agriculture. 1st and 4th Annual Reports. 
Ruiz et Pavon. Flora Peruviana et Chilensis, Vol. 4. 
Rural California. All after March, 1895. 

Rural New-Yorker. Vols. 1-9, 13-18, 24-48 ; also No. 23, Dec. 9, 1871, 
of Vol. 23. 

Sarthe, Bulletin de la Societe d' Horticulture de la. All previous to 
1870, being Vols. 1-7 ; title-page and contents to Vol. 9 (1874-1877); title- 
page to Vol. 10, (1878-1884); title-page to Vol. 12, (1891-1895). 

Scientific Roll, The. London : 1880-1883, all beyond No. 11. 
Seine-Inferieure, Bulletin de la Societe centrale d'Horticulture du 
D^partement de la. {Formerly Societe d'Horticulture de Rouen). Tome 
5, cahier 4 (1855 or '56); Tome 7, cahier 1 (i860) ; Tome 14, cahier 2 of 
1872, pp. 285-332 ; title-pages to Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 
14 ; tables of Contents to Vols. 6 and 7. [Also] Tome 1 de la Pomologie, 
cahiers 2, 3 (being respectively cahiers 3 and 6 of Vol. 2 of Bui. Soc. cent. 
d'Hort.) and 6; Tome 2, cahiers 3 and 4, and title-page and table of 
contents. 

Semi-Tropic California. Vols. 1 and 2, 1878 and 1879, and January, 
1 881, and March, 1882. 

Sociedad Rural Argentina. Anales de la. Vols. 1-15. 
Southern Florist and Gardener. Nos. 6 and 12 of Vol. 1 and Nos. 5 
and 6 of Vol. 2. 

Sowerby's English Botany, Supplement to the 1st edition; Vol. 5, 
including plates 2961-2995. 

Sweet, Robert. Geraniaceae. Vol. 5. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Office of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture. Reports of Commissioner of Patents. 1841. 
Monthly Reports : 1863. — September (41 pp.) and October (20 pp.) 

Title-pages and indexes for 1863-4, 1865, 1866, 1867 and 1868. 
Special Reports, unnumbered : Report on the Participation of the 
Department of Agriculture in the International Exhibition of 
1876, at Philadelphia. By William Saunders, pp. 223-434. 1884, — 
Rules and Regulations of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture for the suppression and extirpation of all contagious, 
infectious, and communicable diseases among the domestic 
animals of the United States, prepared by the Commissioner of 
Agriculture [N.J. Colman]. 7 pp. 1887. — Notice of Department 
of Agriculture ; of its various functions. Folio sheet. — Koebele, 
A. Studies of parasitic and predaceous insects in New Zealand, 
Australia, and adjacent islands. June, 1893. 39 pp. 
Section of Foreign Markets. — Bulletin 9. 



BOOKS WANTED. 343 

Bureau of Animal Industry. — Circulars 9 and 27. 

Division of Biological Survey. — Circulars 18-26 and 30. 

Division of Chemistry. — Circulars 6 and 7. 

Division of Entomology. — Circulars of 1st series, except Nos. 2 

and 9. Circular No. 1, (2nd series). 
Office of Experiment Stations. — Circulars 1-11, 13-17, 19, 21, 22, 
and 26. 

Division of Forestry. — Annual Reports of the Chief for 1894, 
1895 and 1896. 
Bulletin 23. 
Circulars 1, 4, 7. 

Letter from the agent of the Forestry Division, requesting infor- 
mation as to the extent of the lumber and wood trade. July, 
1883. Folio sheet. 
Circular issued for information of railroad managers. 1887. 4 

pp., large 8vo. 
Statement of B. E. Fernow, Chief of Forestry Division, to the 
Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Feb. 16, 
1895. 4 pp. 
Division of Microscopy. — Special report : Naphthaline as an 
insecticide, etc., its effect on seeds, plants, and animals. 1883. 
6 pp. 
Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy. — Circulars 1-16. 

North American Fauna, Nos. 6, 7, and 9. 
Office of Road Inquiry. — Circulars 1-12 inclusive. 
Silk Section. — Bulletin No. 1. How to raise silk worms. 16 

pp., x figs. February, 1890. 
Division of Statistics. — The arid lands. 7 pp. September, 

1889. 
Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology. — Circu- 
lars 1, 2, 3, 13, and 14. 
Weather Bureau. — Report of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, 
1895-96. 410. pp. 266. 
Bulletin 15, Protection from Lightning, by A. McAdie. June, 

1885. 26 pp. xiii figs.; Bulletin 27. 
Monthly Weather Review. Vols. I-XIX and Vol. XX, Nos. 2, 5, 
and 6. 
United States Department of State. Consular Report on The Licor- 
ice Plant, 1885. 

United States War Department. Signal Service Notes. No. XXI, 
and all later than No. XXIII. 

Victoria Department of Agriculture. Guides to Growers. Nos. 1-7, 
and 21. 

Virginia Commissioner of Agriculture, 1st Annual Report, 1877, 
and ioth-20th, 1887-1898. 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

West Chicago Park Commissioners' Reports, rst to 5th, 8th to 17th, 
19th to 22nd, and 24th. 

Western New York Horticultural Society. Reports 1 to 18, 36 and 37. 

West Virginia State Board of Agriculture. 1st Biennial Report, for 
1891-92. 

Wilson Ornithological Chapter of the Agassiz Association. Journal: 
Vol. 1, Jan., 1893 and Vol. 2, June, 1893. Bulletin: Nos. 1-4, Feb 1894- 
Jan. 1895. 

Wisconsin Agricultural Society. Transactions: — Vol. 1, 1851 ; Vol. 
4, 1854-7 (?); Vol. 6, i860; Vols. 16-20, 1877-8 to 1881-2 ; Vols. 24-26, 
1885-6 to 1887-8. 

Wisconsin Horticultural Society. Reports previous to 1864; 1869, 
1870; Vol. 27, 1897. 

Worcester North Agricultural Society. Transactions. 1st to 4th 
(1853-56, and for 1863, '66, '67, '69, '70, '72-78, '80-82, and '90. 



DUPLICATE BOOKS FOR SALE. 



The Massachusetts Horticultural Society has for 
sale many duplicate books, among which are : 

Alphand, A. Les Promenades de Paris. Vol. I. text, and Vol. 
II, plates, large paper (25x17 J inches) copy. Paris: 

1867-1873. 

Country Gentleman. Vols. 1-32, large 4to. Albany, X. Y. : 

1853-1868. 

American Agriculturist. Vols. 1-10, 8vo. New York: 1842- 
1851 ; and Vols. 16-53, large 4to. 1857-1894. 

Horticulturist. Vols. 9-17, imp. 8vo., edition with colored 
plates. Rochester and New York : 1851-1862. 

Aublet, M. Fusee. Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Francoise. 
4 vols., 4to. Paris : 1775. 

Edwards's Botanical Register, New Series. Edited by John 
Lindley. Vols. 1-10, large 8vo. 750 colored plates* 
London: 1838-1847. 

Persons desiring any of the above will please address "Libra- 
rian Massachusetts Horticultural Society, No. 300 Massachusetts 
Ave., Boston. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

GENERAL HORTICULTURE, 287, 288 

Horticultural Journals, 289 

Horticultural Societies, 289-291 

Flowers and Ornamental Plants, ..... 292, 293 

Eloricultural Societies, 293 

Fruits, . . • . . . 293, 294 

Fruit Growers' Societies, . . ... . 294 

Vegetables, 294, 295 

Landscape Gardening, Etc., 295 

Parks and Cemeteries, ........ 295, 296 

Trees, 296, 297 

Forestry, 297 

Forestry Associations, Etc., 298 

GENERAL AGRICULTURE, 298, 299 

Tropical Agriculture, ....... 299, 300 

Soils, Fertilizers, Etc., 300 

Agricultural Journals, 301 

Agricultural Societies, Boards, Etc., .... 301-314 

Agricultural Experiment Stations, Colleges, Etc., . . 314-317 

INSECTS, 317 

PLANT DISEASES, 318 

GENERAL BOTANY, 318, 319 

Elementary Botany, ........ 319 

Economic Botany, 319 

Territorial Botany, ' 320-325 

Physiological Botany, ........ 325 

Cryptogamic Botany, ........ 326-329 

Botanical Monographs, ....... 329 

Botanical Journals, 329 

Botanical Societies, 330 

Botanic Gardens, 330, 331 

TRAVELS, '. 331, 332 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES, ETC., .... 332, 333 

MISCELLANEOUS, 333-335 

PERIODICALS, 335,336 

LIST OF BOOKS WANTED BY THE SOCIETY, . . . 337,344 

DUPLICATE BOOKS FOR SALE, ... . . 345 



EXPERIMENT S TATION REP ORTS WANTED. 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is endeavoring to collect complete 
sets of the Bulletins and other publications of all the Agricultural Exper- 
iment Stations in the United States and Canada. Those named below are 
wanting, and any person having a spare copy will confer a favor by 
addressing the Librarian of the Society. Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massa- 
chusetts Ave., Boston. 

Alabama (Ag. and Mech. College Station). — Bulletins 4-6 (1884), 7-10 
and 1-4 (1885), and 5-9 (1886). 7th Annual Eeport, for 1894, and 9th, 
for 1896. ■ 

Alabama (Canebrake Station). — All Bulletins later than 18, and all 
Annual Reports later than the 3d, for 1890. 

Alabama (Tuskegee Station). — Bulletin 2. 

Arizona. — 4th Annual Report, for 1893. 

Arkansas. — Bulletin 1. All Annual Reports later than the 4th, for 1891, 

except the 8th, for 1895. 
California.— Bulletin 32, 1878, and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 50, New Series. 
Colorado.— Bulletin 3. 

Connecticut (New Haven Station). — Bulletins 1 to 67, inclusive. 

Annual Reports for 1877 and 1879 to 1883, inclusive. 
Florida.— Annual Report for 1892. 

Indiana (Purdue Univ. School of Ag.).— Bulletin 1. College Reports 

1-14, inclusive. 
Iowa. — Bulletins 54, 55 and 56. (The original bulletins). 
Kentucky.— Bulletin 10. 

Michigan. — Special Bulletin 1.' 6th Annual Report for 1892-93 (con- 
tained in Report of Michigan Board of Agriculture, 1893). 

Missouri. — Bulletins 9, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 25 and 26 of Old Series. All 
Annual Reports since the 1st, for 1888, except those for 1896 to 
1898, inclusive. 

New Jersey.— Bulletins 1, 4, 5, 15, 27 and 28. 

New Mexico.— Eighth College Catalogue, 1897-98. 

New York (Cornell). — 1st Annual Report, 1881-82, and all between that 
and 1888, except the 2nd, for 1882-83. (Reports of Agricultural 
Department of Cornell University.) 

North Carolina.— Bulletins 1 to 56. inclusive, and 69, 2d ed. 1st to 
7th Biennial Reports. Meteorological Division, Bulletin 2 (686). 
Special Bulletins 1 (77a) and 4 (82a). Weekly Weather Crop Bulle- 
tins 1-21, 1888 ; 1-24, 1889; 1-25, 1890; 2 and 4, 1891. 

North Dakota.— 4th Annual Report for 1893. 

Ohio.— All Bulletins of First Series, except 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

Oklahoma.— All Annual Reports previous to that for 1896-97, except 

that for 1893-94. 
Pennsylvania.— Annual Reports for 1869, 1872, 1879-80, 1881, 1882, 

1883 and 1884. [All issued by the State College.] Bulletin of 

Information No. 1. 

South Carolina.— All Bulletins of the Old Series (previous to 1883) on 
the work of the Experimental Farm of the South Carolina College. 
3d Annual Report, for 1890, and 6th, for 1893. 

Texas.— College Bulletins 1-5, 1883-1887. 

Virginia.— 10th Annual Report for 1898-99. 

Washington. — Bulletins 28 and 29. 6th, 7th and 8th Annual Reports, 
for 1896-96, 1896-97, and 1897-98. 

West Virginia.— Special Bulletin — Potash and Paying Crops, 1890. 
Wyoming.— Bulletins 2 to 4. 9 and 10. 

Ontario Department of Agriculture. Toronto.— Bureau of Indus- 
$.— Agricultural Returns to the Ontario Bureau of Industries, 
Nov, 1882 (6th), Aug. 1883 (7th), and Nov. 1887 (20th).